uu.seUppsala universitets publikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
51525354555657 2651 - 2700 of 2809
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 2651.
    Wennerholm, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winman, A.
    Shanks, D. R.
    Reasoning or associations?: Cognitive representations in the inverse base-rate taskInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract
  • 2652.
    Wennerholm, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The high-level reasoning processes in the inverse base-rate effect1999Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2653.
    Wennerholm, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Role of High-Level Reasoning and Rule-Based Representations in the Inverse Base-Rate Effect2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse base-rate effect is the observation that on certain occasions people classify new objects as belonging to rare base-rate categories rather than common ones (e.g., D. L. Medin & S. M. Edelson, 1988). This finding is inconsistent with normative prescriptions of rationality, and provides an anomaly for current theories of human knowledge representation, such as the exemplar-based models of categorization, which predict a consistent use of base-rates (e.g., D. L. Medin & M. M. Schaffer, 1978). This thesis presents a novel explanation of the inverse base-rate effect. The proposal is that participants sometimes eliminate category options that are inconsistent with well-supported inference rules. These assumptions contrast with those by attentional theory (J. K. Kruschke, in press), according to which the inverse base-rate effect is the outcome of rapid attention shifts operating on cue-category associations. Study I, II, and III verified seven qualitative predictions derived from the eliminative inference idea. None of these phenomena can be explained by attentional theory. The most important of these findings were that elimination of well-known, common categories mediate the inverse base-rate effect rather than the strongest cue-category associations (Study I), that only participants with a rule-based mode of generalization exhibit the inverse base-rate effect (Study II), and that rapid attentional shifts per se do not accelerate learning, but rather decelerate it (Study III). In addition, Study I provided a quantitative implementation of the eliminative inference idea, ELMO, that demonstrated that this high-level reasoning process can produce the basic pattern of base-rate effects in the inverse base-rate design. Taken together, as an account of the inverse base-rate effect the empirical evidence of this thesis suggest that rule-based elimination is a powerful component of the inverse base-rate effect. But previous studies have indicated that attentional shifts affect the inverse base-rate effect, too. Therefore, a complete account of the inverse base-rate effect needs to integrate inductive and eliminative inferences operating on rule-based representations with attentional shifts. The Discussion of this thesis propose a number of suggestions for such integrative work.

    Delarbeid
    1. High-level reasoning and base-rate use: Do we need cue-competition to explain the inverse base-rate effect?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High-level reasoning and base-rate use: Do we need cue-competition to explain the inverse base-rate effect?
    2001 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 849-871Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous accounts of the inverse base-rate effect (D. L. Medin & S. M. Edelson, 1988) have revolved around the concept of cue-competition. In this article, the authors propose that high-level reasoning in the form of an eliminative inference mechanism may contribute to the effect. A quantitative implementation of this idea demonstrates that it has the power by itself to produce the pattern of base-rate effects in the Medin and Edelson (1988) design. Four predictions are derived that contradict the predictions by attention to distinctive input (ADIT; J. K. Kruschke, 1996), up to date the most successful account of the inverse base-rate effect. Results from 3 experiments disconfirm the predictions by ADIT and demonstrate the importance of high-level reasoning in designs of the Medin and Edelson kind. Implications for the interpretation of the inverse base-rate effect and the attention-shifting mechanisms presumed by ADIT are discussed.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89524 (URN)10.1037/0278-7393.27.3.849 (DOI)11394684 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2001-11-16 Laget: 2001-11-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Reasoning or associations?: Cognitive representations in the inverse base-rate task
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reasoning or associations?: Cognitive representations in the inverse base-rate task
    Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Abstract
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89525 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2001-11-16 Laget: 2001-11-16 Sist oppdatert: 2016-09-17bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Can attentional theory explain the inverse base-rate effect?: Comments on Kruschke (2001)
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Can attentional theory explain the inverse base-rate effect?: Comments on Kruschke (2001)
    2003 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1390-1395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In J. K. Kruschke's (2001; see record 2001-18940-005) study, it is argued that attentional theory is the sole satisfactory explanation of the inverse base rate effect and that eliminative inference (P. Juslin, P. Wennerholm, & A. Winman, 2001; see record 2001-07828-016) plays no role in the phenomenon. In this comment, the authors demonstrate that, in contrast to the central tenets of attentional theory, (a) rapid attention shifts as implemented in ADIT decelerate learning in the inverse base-rate task and (b) the claim that the inverse base-rate effect is directly caused by an attentional asymmetry is refuted by data. It is proposed that a complete account of the inverse base-rate effect needs to integrate attention effects with inference rules that are flexibly used for both induction and elimination.

    Emneord
    Association Learning, Attention, Decision Making, Discrimination Learning, Humans, Neural Networks (Computer), Pattern Recognition; Visual, Psychological Theory, Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data, Reaction Time
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-89526 (URN)10.1037/0278-7393.29.6.1390 (DOI)14622069 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2001-11-16 Laget: 2001-11-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2654. Wesevich, Victoria
    et al.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Emotional Nature of a Social Interaction Affects Infants' Predictions of Others' Collaborative Goals and Behavior2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2655.
    Westerberg, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A 2-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes, BMI, perfectionism, asceticism and family climate in adolescent girls and their parents2008Inngår i: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 64-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this longitudinal study of 383 Swedish adolescent girls (11 and 13 years old at year 1) and their parents was to examine changes in eating attitudes over a two-year period, and to investigate the predictive value of eating attitudes, perfectionism, asceticism, family climate and body mass index (BMI) for the development of disturbed eating attitudes. The following self-report questionnaires were used: Children's Eating Attitudes test, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Inventory for Children, Eating Disorder Inventory 2, I Think I Am and The Family Climate. The frequency of disturbed eating attitudes increased with increased age in the girls. Children's eating attitudes, higher BMI than peers, the girls rating of a less healthy relation to family and their fathers' eating attitudes at year 1 contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes for the girls 2 years later. The results suggest that early signs of disturbed eating attitudes and higher BMI than peers may be important predictors for the development of more serious eating disturbances among adolescent girls.

  • 2656.
    Westerberg-Jacobson, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Risk and Protective Factors for Disturbed Eating: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study of Eating Attitudes and Psychological Factors in Adolescent Girls and their Parents2010Inngår i: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. e208-e218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this seven-year longitudinal study of 228 girls (9 and 13 year olds) were 1) to examine the predictive value of eating attitudes, a wish to be thinner, dieting, perfectionism, self-esteem and  Body Mass Index; 2) to examine the girls’ parents’ eating attitudes and perfectionism in relation to the development of disturbed eating attitudes, seven years later; and 3) to examine whether normal body weight, healthy eating attitudes and low perfectionism together with high self-esteem might operate as protective factors for the later development of disturbed eating attitudes. The pre-adolescent girls (9-year olds) “wish to be thinner” and fathers’ EAT scores contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes seven years later. Corresponding analysis for the adolescent girls (13-year olds) showed that a “wish to be thinner” and mothers’ rating on perfectionism contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes seven years later. Protective factors were low BMI and more healthy eating attitudes - especially moderated by high self-esteem, and a low-to-medium degree of perfectionism. High self-esteem appeared to be a protective factor when the girls had a high degree of perfectionism. These results suggest that it is important to focus on healthy eating attitudes at home to prevent overweight in early childhood, enhance self-esteem and to take a critical stand toward the thinness ideal in our society.

  • 2657.
    Westerberg-Jacobson, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    A longitudinal study of motives for wishing to be thinner and weight-control practices in 7-to 18-year-old Swedish girls2012Inngår i: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 294-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this seven-year longitudinal study, of 411 Swedish pre-adolescent girls, (aged 7–11 years, Year 1) was to examine a wish to be thinner, dieting attempts, described motives for wishing to be thinner, and weight-control practices. A further aim was to examine to what extent BMI accounted for motives for wishing to be thinner and weight control practices. A wish to be thinner and dieting attempts increased significantly with increasing age between the ages of 9 and18. The most frequently reported motive for wishing to be thinner was to “feel better about yourself”. Categories that emerged from the qualitative analysis of self-described motives for the wish to be thinner were for example to “correspond to the societal ideal” and to “wear particular clothes”. A majority of the girls adopted weight control practices that would be considered as healthy, but extreme weight control practices increased with age. Girls with BMIs over the 75th percentile reported a greater number of motives for wishing to be thinner and used extreme weight control practices significantly more often than the other girls. However, of the girls who changed BMI from above the 75th percentile to under the 75th percentile, 34.1% reported that they had not used any weight control practices at all. Our results show that girls at a very early age are aware of the ‘thin’ ideal in our society, wish to be thinner, and try to lose weight. The results point to the importance of detecting girls who wish to be thinner as early as possible. If we can employ preventive action in time it is possible that dieting behavior will never develop. By considering the motives for wishing to be thinner, preventive efforts might be perceived as more meaningful and relevant to the girls at risk of developing eating disorders.

  • 2658.
    Westling, Bengt E
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Empiriskt stöd för kognitiv beteendeterapi [Empirical support for cognitive behaviour therapy]1998Inngår i: Paniksyndromet: Diagnos, samsjuklighet och behandling [Panic disorder: Diagnosis, comorbidity and treatment], Täby: Pfizer AB , 1998, s. 121-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter reviews relevant controlled trials of the cognitive-behavioural treatment of panic disorder. These trials suggest that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic. As will be seen, cognitive-behavioural treatmen

  • 2659.
    Westling, Bengt E
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kognitiv beteendeterapi: Ett alternativ eller komplement till farmakologisk behandling [Cognitive behaviour therapy: An alternative or a complement to pharmacological treatment]1998Inngår i: Daisy News, Vol. 1, s. 6-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a brief overview of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and considers ways to combine this treatment with pharmacological treatments of panic disorder. For example, CBT combined with drug therapy during drug taper, CBT and pharmacotherap

  • 2660.
    Westling, Bengt E
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Panikbehandling via internet [Internet therapy for panic disorder]1999Inngår i: PS!, Vol. 4, s. 6-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of doing therapy over the Internet is a relatively new frontier in mental health that is becoming more and more popular. As with any new frontier, there are many questions to be considered. Can it help? Is it ethical? Is this really "therapy"?

  • 2661.
    Westling, Bengt E
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Paniksyndromets psykologi och psykologiska behandlingsmetoder [Panic disorder: Psychological models and treatments]1998Inngår i: Paniksyndromet: Diagnos, samsjuklighet och behandling [Panic disorder: Diagnosis, comorbidity and treatment], Täby: Pfizer AB , 1998, s. 94-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Several kinds of evidence indicate that there are important psychological causes of panic disorder as well as the biological causes. The psychological (cognitive-behavioural) models suggest that panic attacks can be explained as the consequence of a posit

  • 2662.
    Westling, Bengt E
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ost, L-G
    Brief cognitive behaviour therapy of panic disorder1999Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 28, s. 49-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate if it is possible to treat patients having panic disorder with or without mild agoraphobia in a brief, four-session format without losing clinical efficacy. Ten patients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criter

  • 2663.
    Westling, Bengt E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Cognitive bias in panic disorder patients and changes after cognitive-behavioral treatments.1995Inngår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 33, s. 585-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive biases in panic diorder patients via a questionnaire originally developed by Clark and co-workers (Clark, Salkovskis, Gelder, Koehler, Martin, Anastasiades, Hackman, Middleton & Jeavons, (1998). In

  • 2664. Wiberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linden, Per
    Svanberg, Bo
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions2015Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 108, s. 115-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems.

  • 2665.
    Wicksell, Rikard
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Ahlqvist, Josefin
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bring, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Gunnar L
    Karolinska institutet.
    Can exposure and acceptance strategies improve functioning and life satisfaction in people with chronic pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)? A randomized controlled trial2008Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 169-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although 14% to 42% of people with whiplash injuries end up with chronic debilitating pain, there is still a paucity of empirically supported treatments for this group of patients. In chronic pain management, there is increasing consensus regarding the importance of a behavioural medicine approach to symptoms and disability. Cognitive behaviour therapy has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic pain. An approach that promotes acceptance of, or willingness to experience, pain and other associated negative private events (e.g. fear, anxiety, and fatigue) instead of reducing or controlling symptoms has received increasing attention. Although the empirical support for treatments emphasizing exposure and acceptance (such as acceptance and commitment therapy) is growing, there is clearly a need for more outcome studies, especially randomized controlled trials. In this study, participants (N = 21) with chronic pain and whiplash‐associated disorders were recruited from a patient organization and randomized to either a treatment or a wait‐list control condition. Both groups continued to receive treatment as usual. In the experimental condition, a learning theory framework was applied to the analysis and treatment. The intervention consisted of a 10‐session protocol emphasizing values‐based exposure and acceptance strategies to improve functioning and life satisfaction by increasing the participants' abilities to behave in accordance with values in the presence of interfering pain and distress (psychological flexibility). After treatment, significant differences in favor of the treatment group were seen in pain disability, life satisfaction, fear of movements, depression, and psychological inflexibility. No change for any of the groups was seen in pain intensity. Improvements in the treatment group were maintained at 7‐month follow‐up. The authors discuss implications of these findings and offer suggestions for further research in this area.

  • 2666.
    Wicksell, Rikard
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Evaluation of a behavior analysis and treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy, type Unverricht - Lundborg: A case study2003Inngår i: Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Vol. 1, nr 32, s. 38-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2667.
    Wicksell, Rikard K
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kihlgren, Margareta
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Specific cognitive deficits are common in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy2004Inngår i: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 46, s. 154-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2668.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Evaluating the effectiveness of exposure and acceptance strategies to improve functioning and quality of life in longstanding pediatric pain: a randomized controlled trial2009Inngår i: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 141, nr 3, s. 248-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several studies have illustrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) on adult pain patients, there are few randomized controlled trials on children and adolescents. There is particularly a need for studies on pediatric patients who are severely disabled by longstanding pain syndromes. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, as an extension of traditional CBT, focuses on improving functioning and quality of life by increasing the patient's ability to act effectively in concordance with personal values also in the presence of pain and distress. Following a pilot study, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of an ACT-oriented intervention based on exposure and acceptance strategies and to compare this with a multidisciplinary treatment approach including amitriptyline (n=32). The ACT condition underwent a relatively brief treatment protocol of approximately 10 weekly sessions. Assessments were made before and immediately after treatment, as well as at 3.5 and 6.5 months follow-up. Prolonged treatment in the MDT group complicated comparisons between groups at follow-up assessments. Results showed substantial and sustained improvements for the ACT group. When follow-up assessments were included, ACT performed significantly better than MDT on perceived functional ability in relation to pain, pain intensity and to pain-related discomfort (intent-to-treat analyses). At post-treatment, significant differences in favor of the ACT condition were also seen in fear of re/injury or kinesiophobia, pain interference and in quality of life. Thus, results from the present study support previous findings and suggest the effectiveness of this ACT-oriented intervention for pediatric longstanding pain syndromes.

  • 2669.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Exposure and acceptance in the rehabilitation of adolescents with idiopathic chronic pain - a pilot study2007Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 267-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For chronic pain of unclear origin (idiopathic), pharmacological therapy is often insufficient. Psychological treatment strategies have been developed and evaluated for adults with chronic pain. However, few such studies are seen with youths, and to date there is limited empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of psychological treatment for generalized musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a development of cognitive behaviour therapy emphasizing exposure and acceptance. In this pilot study, 14 adolescents referred to the pain treatment service due to chronic debilitating pain were treated using an ACT-based approach. It was hypothesized that avoidance of pain and related stimuli was central to the disability seen among these patients, and that exposure and acceptance strategies could increase functioning and decrease pain. In contrast to emphasizing reductions in pain and distress, the treatment objective was to improve functioning by increasing the patient's ability to act in line with personal values in the presence of negative thoughts, emotions or bodily sensations. Following treatment, and retained at 3- and 6-month follow-up, improvements in functional ability, school attendance, catastrophizing and pain (i.e., intensity and interference) were seen. The outcome of this pilot study indicates that exposure and acceptance can been useful in the rehabilitation of adolescents with chronic debilitating pain. Randomized controlled studies are needed to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.

  • 2670.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ)-further validation including a confirmatory factor analysis and a comparison with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia2009Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 760-768Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance of pain and distress has lately appeared as an important factor in determining peoples' ability to restore functioning in the presence of chronic pain. Although treatments based on cognitive behaviour therapy are beginning to incorporate acceptance strategies, there is still a lack of reliable and valid instruments to assess relevant processes in such interventions. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) was originally constructed as part of the development of an acceptance oriented treatment approach for pain patients. A revised 20-item version of the instrument with two subscales has shown adequate reliability and validity. In the present study, a Swedish translation of CPAQ was evaluated with 611 participants reporting chronic pain and symptoms of whiplash associated disorders. This study sought to further assess the psychometric properties of the instrument and to investigate its relation to another important measure of pain adjustment, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Due to low intercorrelations with other items, item 16 was excluded. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the previously suggested two-factor solution. Furthermore, the internal consistencies were good for the subscales (activities engagement and pain willingness) as well as the total scale. Hierarchical regression analyses illustrated strong relations with criteria variables (e.g. disability and life satisfaction). In general, the activities engagement subscale contributed more than pain willingness to the prediction of criteria variables. Furthermore, results illustrated that CPAQ explained more variance than the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in pain intensity, disability, life satisfaction, and depression.

  • 2671.
    Wicksell, Rikard
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Renöfält, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Gunnar L.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bond, Frank W.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Avoidance and cognitive fusion – Central components in pain related disability?: Development and preliminary validation of the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS)2008Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 491-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance of pain and other associated negative private experiences has received increasing attention in recent years. This approach is in stark contrast to the traditional approach of reducing or controlling symptoms of pain. The empirical support for treatments emphasizing exposure and acceptance, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, is growing. However, to date, few instruments exist to assess the core processes in these types of treatments. This study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale. Principal components analysis (PCA) suggests a 2-factor solution with a total of 16 items measuring avoidance of pain and cognitive fusion with pain. Results also indicate adequate reliability and validity for the scale. Implications of these findings for clinical assessment, as well as for research on pain related disability, are discussed along with suggestions for further research in this area.

  • 2672. Wik, G
    et al.
    Elbert, T
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hoke, M
    Ross, B
    Magnetic brain imaging of extinction processes in human classical conditioning1997Inngår i: NEUROREPORT, ISSN 0959-4965, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 1789-1792Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BY recording neuromagnetic events during aversive classical conditioning, we examined the extinction of a previously described conditioned response. Averaging over non-reinforced exposures to the conditioned stimulus revealed magnetic activity in the sec

  • 2673. Wik, G
    et al.
    Elbert, T
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hoke, M
    Ross, B
    Magnetic imaging in human classical conditioning1996Inngår i: NEUROREPORT, ISSN 0959-4965, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 737-740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) was recorded during aversive classical conditioning in an attempt to elucidate the temporal coding of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) activation previously found with positron emission tomography. Four healthy volunteers pa

  • 2674. Wik, G
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bragee, B
    Finer, B
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Functional anatomy of hypnotic analgesia: a PET study of patients with fibromyalgia1999Inngår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PAIN-LONDON, ISSN 1090-3801, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 7-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypnosis is a powerful tool in pain therapy. Attempting to elucidate cerebral mechanisms behind hypnotic analgesia, we measured regional cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography in patients with fibromyalgia, during hypnotically-induced anal

  • 2675. Wik, G
    et al.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Anticipatory fear coping: A PET study1998Inngår i: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, HOGREFE & HUBER PUBLISHERS , 1998, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 408-408Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2676. Wik, G
    et al.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Cerebral correlates of anticipated fear: A PET study of specific phobia1996Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN 0020-7454, Vol. 87, nr 3-4, s. 267-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral correlates of anticipatory anxiety was studied in 14 women with specific snake or spider phobia, and in 6 nonphobic controls. Videofilms with neutral scenes were shown during positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood

  • 2677. Wik, G
    et al.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Evidence of altered cerebral blood-flow relationships in acute phobia1997Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN 0020-7454, Vol. 91, nr 3-4, s. 253-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional cerebral guiding and integrating systems may be revealed by analyzing the covariation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure absolute rCBF in 14 volunteers with specific phobia and 6 nonp

  • 2678. Wik, G
    et al.
    Lekander, M
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Human brain-immune relationships: A PET study1998Inngår i: BRAIN BEHAVIOR AND IMMUNITY, ISSN 0889-1591, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 242-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study brain-immune relations, we correlated positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with immune measures in 10 female volunteers. The natural killer (NK) activity correlated negatively with activity bilatera

  • 2679. Wik, Gustav
    et al.
    Fischer, Hakan
    Finer, Basil
    Bragee, Bjorn
    Kristianson, Marianne
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Retrospenial cortical deactivation during painful stimulation of fibromyalgic patients.2006Inngår i: Int J Neurosci, ISSN 0020-7454, Vol. 116, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study fibromyalgic pain this article contrasts positron emission tomographic measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during externally induced acute pain and rest in eight fibromyalgia syndrome patients. An expected pattern of frontal and parietal cortical activation during acute pain as compared to rest was observed. However, reduced rCBF was additionally found in the retrosplenial cortex during acute pain as compared to rest. This may reflect that externally induced pain inhibits fibromyalgic pain and syndrome-related evaluative processes located in the retrosplenial cortex, and that fibromyalgic pain results from exaggerated attention to sub-noxious pain signaling, that is, secondary hyperalgesia.

  • 2680. Wik, Gustav
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Bragee, B
    Kristianson, Marianne
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Retrosplenial cortical activation in the fibromyalgia syndrome.2003Inngår i: Neuroreport, ISSN 0959-4965, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 619-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the CNS in chronic muscular pain typical of fibromyalgia we compared PET measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight fibromyalgic patients and controls at rest. Higher rCBF for patients than controls was found bilaterally in the retrosplenial cortex. Lower rCBF for patients than controls were seen in the left frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices. The higher retroplenial rCBF in patients than controls may reflect increased attention towards sub-noxious somatosensory signaling, and agrees with the notion that fibromyalgic pain reflects secondary hyperalgesia. The brain regions with lower rCBF in fibromyalgic patients than controls participate in the normal cognitive processing of pain, which may be dysfunctional in fibromyalgia.

  • 2681. Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Annelie
    Roos, Goran
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Shorter telomere length is linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities2014Inngår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 212-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging. Methods: we investigated whether leukocyte TL was related to brain atrophy and WMHs in a sample of 102 non-demented individuals aged 64-75 years. Results: shorter TL was related to greater degree of subcortical atrophy (beta = -0.217, P = 0.034), but not to cortical atrophy. Furthermore, TL was 371 bp shorter (P = 0.041) in participants exhibiting subcortical WMHs, and 552 bp shorter (P = 0.009) in older participants exhibiting periventricular WMHs. Conclusion: this study provides the first evidence of leukocyte TL being associated with cerebral subcortical atrophy and WMHs, lending further support to the concept of TL as a marker of biological aging, and in particular that of the aging brain.

  • 2682. Wilkinson, N.
    et al.
    Metta, G.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Inter-facial relations: Binocular geometry when eyes meet2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2683. Wilkinson, N.
    et al.
    Metta, G.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modeling the face-to-face effect: Sensory population dynamics and active vision can contribute to perception of social context2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2684. Wilkinson, N.
    et al.
    Paikan, A.
    Rea, F.
    Metta, G.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Staring us in the face?: An embodied theory of innate face preference2014Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 809-825Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human expertise in face perception grows over development, but even within minutes of birth, infants exhibit an extraordinary sensitivity to face-like stimuli. The dominant theory accounts for innate face detection by proposing that the neonate brain contains an innate face detection device, dubbed Conspec'. Newborn face preference has been promoted as some of the strongest evidence for innate knowledge, and forms a canonical stage for the modern form of the nature-nurture debate in psychology. Interpretation of newborn face preference results has concentrated on monocular stimulus properties, with little mention or focused investigation of potential binocular involvement. However, the question of whether and how newborns integrate the binocular visual streams bears directly on the generation of observable visual preferences. In this theoretical paper, we employ a synthetic approach utilizing robotic and computational models to draw together the threads of binocular integration and face preference in newborns, and demonstrate cases where the former may explain the latter. We suggest that a system-level view considering the binocular embodiment of newborn vision may offer a mutually satisfying resolution to some long-running arguments in the polarizing debate surrounding the existence and causal structure of newborns' innate knowledge' of faces.

  • 2685. Wilkinson, Nick
    et al.
    Paikan, Ali
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rea, Francesco
    Metta, Giorgio
    How good?: Better. How simple? Simpler. And testable to boot2014Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 831-832Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2686.
    Willebrand, M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. psykiatri UAS.
    Andersson, G
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kildal, M
    Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. plastic surgery.
    Ekselius, L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. psykiatri UAS.
    Exploration of coping patterns in burned adults: cluster analysis of the coping with burns questionnaire (CBQ).2002Inngår i: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 549-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2687.
    Willebrand, M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Andersson, G
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. plastikkirurgi.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. plastikkirurgi.
    Ekselius, L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. psykiatri UAS.
    Injury-related fear-avoidance, neuroticism and burn-specific health.2006Inngår i: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 408-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2688.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Long-term assessment of personality after burn trauma in adults2002Inngår i: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 190, nr 1, s. 53-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2689.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Low, Aili
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Dyster-Aas, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Pruritus, personality traits and coping in long-term follow-up of burn-injured patients2004Inngår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 84, nr 5, s. 375-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pruritus is a major problem after burn injury; however, prevalence and predictors of prolonged pruritus are not known. The aims were to assess frequency of pruritus and the role of personality traits and coping in prolonged pruritus. The participants were burn patients injured 1-18 years earlier (n=248). Pruritus was assessed with an item from the Abbreviated Burn Specific Health Scale, personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, and coping with the Coping with Burns Questionnaire. In all, 60% of the participants had pruritus at follow-up, however as the time after injury increased, the number of patients with persistent itch decreased. In logistic regression, 39% of the likelihood of having persistent pruritus was explained by greater extent of burn, less time after injury, and psychological features (being less assertive, and using more instrumental but less emotional support). In summary, chronic burn-related pruritus is rather common and psychological factors such as anxiety-related traits and coping are significantly associated with its presence.

  • 2690.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Norlund, Fredrika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Plastikkirurgi.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive distortions in recovered burn patients: the emotional Stroop task and autobiographical memory test2002Inngår i: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 465-471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore cognitive distortions in recovered burn patients. Previous studies in trauma patients have shown trauma-specific attentional bias, long response latencies, and deficits in memory specificity. Eighteen former patients, burn injured 5-19 years ago and 18 matched controls performed the emotional Stroop task, including burn and general trauma-related words, and the autobiographical memory test (AMT). In addition, verbal fluency, life events, and current mood were assessed. Regarding the Stroop task, the recovered patients had longer response latencies to burn words than to neutral and trauma words, a difference not seen in the control subjects. Regarding the AMT, the memory specificity did not differ between the groups. Overall, the former patients had longer latencies than the controls and poorer verbal fluency. The present study showed that recovered burn patients display a moderate Stroop effect, i.e. an attentional bias, in spite of the fact that the injury occurred several years before the testing. This may imply that the recovered burn patients consider the burn an important issue in life. The post-burn patients also presented signs of a slight cognitive slowness as compared to the controls. This finding deserves further attention in the rehabilitation of burn patients.

  • 2691. Williams, Kathryn J.H.
    et al.
    Lee, Kate E.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sargent, Leisa D.
    Williams, Nicholas S.G.
    Johnson, Katherine A.
    Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 59, s. 36-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence indicates that time spent in natural environments promotes creativity, but few researchers have considered how this occurs. We evaluate two candidate mechanisms, attention restoration and mind wandering. We compare the accounts in terms of attentional focus, brain network activation, cognitive effects, and the temporal progression of these processes across the stages of creativity. Based on this analysis, we propose that (1) gentle shifts between externally oriented soft fascination and internally oriented mind wandering can occur during nature experience; (2) this provides the basis for mutually reinforcing pathways that enhance attention control following nature experience; and (3) mind wandering might support additional benefits for creativity, including flexibility and new associations of ideas. We propose research to test the proposed pathways, including the conditions under which environments influence creativity, the ebb and flow of attention orientation during environmental experience, and the links between attentional focus, brain network activation and creativity.

  • 2692.
    Wilson, P H
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henry, J L
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Hallam, R S
    Lindberg, P
    A critical analysis of directive counselling as a component of tinnitus retraining therapy1998Inngår i: British Journal of Audiology, Vol. 32, s. 273-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) has been presented as a new approach to tinnitus management. In this paper a number of theoretical and practical problems with TRT are identified. These problems relate to the distinction between directive counselling a

  • 2693.
    Winman, A
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, P
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    “I’m m/n Confident that I’m Correct.: ”: Confidence in Foresight and Hindsight as a Sampling Probability.2006Inngår i: Information Sampling and Adaptive Cognition, New York, Cambridge University Press , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2694.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive processes operating in hindsight1999Inngår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 135-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the cognitive processes involved in the "knew-it-all-along'' effect, especially in regard to use of inferential processes. The results of three experiments showed that the magnitude of the phenomenon did not inc

  • 2695.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?2004Inngår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 82, nr 4, s. 697-701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) RI; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) P,2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed.

  • 2696.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Knowing if you would have known: A model of the hindsight bias1997Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A common finding in previous research on judgment under uncertainty is that when participants are presented with the correct answer to a general knowledge item or feedback about the actual outcome of an event they respond as if they "knew-it-all-along", as if the presented answer or outcome was easy to predict. The present thesis consists of ten experiments and offers a new theoretical model of this phenomenon, commonly referred to as hindsight bias. The findings of Study I indicated that the way items (here general knowledge questions) normally are sampled can contribute to increased bias. When items were sampled randomly from a naturally delineated reference class, and a within-subjects procedure was employed, bias was entirely eliminated. In Study II a new quantitative model for hindsight bias, the accuracy-assessment model was developed. The model, based on the notion that participants use the strategy of assessing whether or not they would have been correct, predicts a consistent relation between overconfidence and hindsight bias, referred to as the confidence-hindsight mirror effect. Additional predictions are improvement in the calibration score in hindsight conditions and circumstances under which the bias will reverse, observations which other models fail to account for. These predictions were confirmed in four experiments, and a high quantitative fit of the model was observed. Study III showed that situations involving higher cognitive processes are not necessarily associated with more bias. The results were compatible with the accuracy-assessment model. An aggregated analysis of the data from the three studies showed a reasonable quantitative fit. In the final section, theoretical implications are discussed. It is concluded that hindsight bias may occur as a result of erroneous judgmental processes rather than by automatic assimilative memory processes.

  • 2697.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The importance of item selection in ''knew-it-all-along'' studies of general knowledge1997Inngår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 63-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of item sampling on hindsight bias in experiments using general knowledge material. The results show that the use of random versus traditional experimenter-selected item samples can have different effect

  • 2698.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Inferring causality assessments from predictive responses: Cue interaction without cue competition2006Inngår i: Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester), ISSN 1747-0218, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 28-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2699.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Subjective probability intervals: How to reduce overconfidence by interval evaluation.2004Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cogntion, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 1167-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2700.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Calibration of sensory and cognitive judgments: Two different accounts1993Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 34, s. 135-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
51525354555657 2651 - 2700 of 2809
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf