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  • 2751.
    Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lenhard, Fabian
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term Outcome of a Cluster-Randomized Universal Preventive Intervention targeting Anxiety and Depression in School Children2019Inngår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 203-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study concerns a 3-year follow-up of a universal prevention trial targeting anxiety and depressive symptoms in school children. In addition to evaluating the long-term effect of the prevention program, we also examined attrition and its effect on the outcome. High rates of attrition have commonly been observed in studies in the field. However, the role of attrition is not sufficiently understood regarding internal and external validity biases. The current study comprised 695 children (aged 8–11 at baseline) from 17 schools in Sweden. Schools were cluster-randomized to either the intervention or control condition. Children completed measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms and parents completed measures of their child’s anxiety and general mental health. We found no evidence of long-term effects of the prevention program, except for a small effect regarding parent reports of child anxiety. However, that effect was not found to be of clinical significance. Regarding attrition, children with missing data at the 3-year follow-up displayed higher levels of psychiatric symptoms at baseline and increasing symptoms across time. Furthermore, children in the control condition with missing follow-up data were found to be significantly deteriorated across time compared to the corresponding children in the intervention condition regarding depressive symptoms and total difficulties. In other words, attrition served as a moderator of the effect, which suggests that the overall result was biased toward a null-result. Our study highlights that large and nonrandom attrition severely limits the validity of the results. Further, given the common problem of retaining participants in long-term evaluations of school-based prevention trials, previous studies may suffer from the same limitations as the current study.

  • 2752.
    Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lenhard, Fabian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Universal Prevention for Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Meta-analysis of Randomized and Cluster-Randomized Trials2015Inngår i: Journal of Primary Prevention, ISSN 0278-095X, E-ISSN 1573-6547, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 387-403Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although under-diagnosed, anxiety and depression are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, leading to severe impairment, increased risk of future psychiatric problems, and a high economic burden to society. Universal prevention may be a potent way to address these widespread problems. There are several benefits to universal relative to targeted interventions because there is limited knowledge as to how to screen for anxiety and depression in the general population. Earlier meta-analyses of the prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms among children suffer from methodological inadequacies such as combining universal, selective, and indicated interventions in the same analyses, and comparing cluster-randomized trials with randomized trials without any correction for clustering effects. The present meta-analysis attempted to determine the effectiveness of universal interventions to prevent anxiety and depressive symptoms after correcting for clustering effects. A systematic search of randomized studies in PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar resulted in 30 eligible studies meeting inclusion criteria, namely peer-reviewed, randomized or cluster-randomized trials of universal interventions for anxiety and depressive symptoms in school-aged children. Sixty-three percent of the studies reported outcome data regarding anxiety and 87 % reported outcome data regarding depression. Seventy percent of the studies used randomization at the cluster level. There were small but significant effects regarding anxiety (.13) and depressive (.11) symptoms as measured at immediate posttest. At follow-up, which ranged from 3 to 48 months, effects were significantly larger than zero regarding depressive (.07) but not anxiety (.11) symptoms. There was no significant moderation effect of the following pre-selected variables: the primary aim of the intervention (anxiety or depression), deliverer of the intervention, gender distribution, children's age, and length of the intervention. Despite small effects, we argue for the possible clinical and practical significance of these programs. Future evaluations should carefully investigate the moderators and mediators of program effects to identify active program components.

  • 2753.
    Åhlén, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Vigerland, Sarah
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Development of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale - Short Version (SCAS-S)2018Inngår i: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 288-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature provides several examples of anxiety symptoms questionnaires for children. However, these questionnaires generally contain many items, and might not be ideal for screening in large populations, or repeated testing in clinical settings. The Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is an extensively used and evaluated 44-item questionnaire developed to assess anxiety symptoms in children, and provides a sound base for the development of an abbreviated anxiety symptoms questionnaire. Although methodological standards have been presented in how to develop abbreviated questionnaires, previous studies have often suffered from several limitations regarding validating procedures. Guided by these methodological standards, the current study aimed at developing an abbreviated version of the SCAS, while retaining the content, convergent, and divergent validity of the original scale. A school-based sample (n = 750) was used to reduce the number of items, and an independent school-based sample (n = 371) together with a clinical sample (n = 93), were used to validate the abbreviated scale. The abbreviated version of the SCAS contained 19 items, it showed a clear factor structure as evaluated in the independent sample, and it performed as good as the original questionnaire regarding classification accuracy, convergent, and divergent validity. In our view, the abbreviated version is a very good alternative to the original scale especially for younger children, in initial screening, or in order to reduce response burden.

  • 2754.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    A META-ANALYSIS OF STUDIES OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY: IMPORTANCE OF THE AMYGDALA AND THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX2010Inngår i: Psychophysiology 47, S7-S7, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2755.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Age and Sex Differences in NK1 Receptor Availability Assessed with 11C GR2051712010Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 67, 206S-206S, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2756.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Amygdala response to SSRIs in social anxiety disorder2012Inngår i: Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 15, 230-230, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2757.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Amygdalar activity during emotional perception and experience in subjects with social phobia2005Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 57, 170S-170S, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2758.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Delay and trace conditioning following unilateral temporal lobectomy2006Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 59, 90S-90S, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2759.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Differences in activation between current and former cocaine users using a monetary incentive delay task2008Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 63, 169S-169S, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2760.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enhanced amygdalar activation during perception of negative affect in patients with social phobia carrying the short allele of the human serotonin transporter gene2006Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 59, 244S-244S, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2761.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    High-frequency heart rate variability during stress correlates with anterior cingulate regional cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia2008Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology 69, 194-194, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2762.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neural Correlates of Anxiety States in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder2011Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 69, 70S-70S, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2763.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neurofunctional placebo response in social anxiety disorder during public speech2005Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 57, 170S-171S, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2764.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rapid Plasticity in the Olfactory System Modulates Detection Threshold in an Odorant-Specific Manner2009Inngår i: Chemical Senses 34, A110-A110, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2765.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and amygdala habituation during a stressful public speaking task: A PET study of social phobia2008Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 63, 171S-172S, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2766.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Startle potentiation is modulated by the medial temporal lobes in aversive anticipation but not in aversive sensitization2007Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 61, 28S-28S, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2767.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Amygdala, Arousal and Memory: From Lesions to Neuroimaging2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. But what are the mechanisms behind this memory enhancing effect? It seems that they depend on the arousal level at the moment we experience the event to be remembered.

    The first study of the present thesis mapped the brain areas that changed their activity in a highly arousing situation in subjects with snake or spider phobia. Looking at pictures of their feared object engaged the amygdala, situated in the medial temporal lobe. This area has previously been demonstrated to be necessary for fear reactions. Here, the novel question was what other brain areas the amygdala engages when the brain is in a state of high arousal. Results suggest that the amygdala recruits other limbic and cortical areas known to be involved in motor behavior and object recognition. In contrast, when subjects watched fear-relevant but non-phobic pictures, amygdala activity was negatively correlated to the anterior cingulate cortex suggesting cortical inhibition.

    The final two studies aimed at explaining the physiological brain mechanisms behind arousal enhancement of memory. In the first one, epileptic patients with medial temporal lobe resections including the amygdala were compared to healthy controls on a recognition memory task where the pictures to be remembered varied in arousal intensities. Results suggested that the anterior medial temporal lobe including the amygdala is necessary for arousal enhancement of memory because the enhancement effect was abolished in resectioned patients.

    The last study related inter-individual differences in bodily arousal to amygdala-parahippocampal interaction. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of emotion on memory depend on arousal regulating mechanisms of the amygdala that in turn affects parahippocampal activity.

    Collectively, results suggest that the amygdala is regulating changes in arousal states of the brain and body during distressful situations. Further, arousal in turn determines memory strength through gating amygdala influences on the parahippocampal cortex. Thus, the amygdala is a node both in a fear and a memory network and arousal influences the amygdala to prepare for action and to enhance memory. This seems evolutionary sound.

     

    Delarbeid
    1. Disentangling the web of fear: amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in spider and snake phobia
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Disentangling the web of fear: amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in spider and snake phobia
    Vise andre…
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 172, nr 2, s. 103-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study effects of fear on brain activity, functional connectivity and brain-behavior relationships during symptom provocation in subjects with specific phobia. Positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O water was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 16 women phobic of either snakes or spiders but not both. Subjects watched pictures of snakes and spiders serving either as phobic or fear-relevant, but non-phobic, control stimuli depending on phobia type. Presentation of phobic as compared with non-phobic cues was associated with increased activation of the right amygdala and cerebellum as well as the left visual cortex and circumscribed frontal areas. Activity decreased in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortices as well as in the primary somatosensory cortex and auditory cortices. Furthermore, amygdala activation correlated positively with the subjective experience of distress. Connectivity analyses of activity in the phobic state revealed increased functional couplings between voxels in the right amygdala and the periamygdaloid area, fusiform gyrus and motor cortex. During non-phobic stimulation, prefrontal activity correlated negatively with amygdala rCBF, suggesting a phobia-related functional decoupling. These results suggest that visually elicited phobic reactions activate object recognition areas and deactivate prefrontal areas involved in cognitive control over emotion-triggering areas like the amygdala, resulting in motor readiness to support fight or flight.

    Emneord
    Specific phobia, anxiety, fear-circuit, PET, subjective experience
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98987 (URN)10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.11.004 (DOI)000265779800003 ()19321315 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-05 Laget: 2009-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Arousal enhanced memory retention is eliminated following temporal lobe resection
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Arousal enhanced memory retention is eliminated following temporal lobe resection
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 176-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with unilateral MTL-resections (17 left, 14 right) together with 16 controls participated in a forced choice memory task with pictorial stimuli varying in arousal. Response latencies increased with stimulus arousal in controls but not in patients. This was paralleled by attenuated recognition memory for moderately and highly arousing pictures in MTL-resectioned patients as compared to healthy controls. However, patients and controls did not differ in memory performance for non-arousing pictures. These results suggest that the MTL is necessary for arousal induced memory enhancement.

    Emneord
    Amygdala, Emotion, IAPS pictures, Medial temporal lobe, Response latency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98986 (URN)10.1016/j.bandc.2010.04.009 (DOI)000280020300004 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-05 Laget: 2009-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Arousal gates amygdala interaction with the parahippocampal cortex during encoding of phobic pictures
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Arousal gates amygdala interaction with the parahippocampal cortex during encoding of phobic pictures
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98991 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-03-05 Laget: 2009-03-05 Sist oppdatert: 2011-01-11bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2768.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bjurström, A
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, A
    Linnman, Clas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, A
    Appel, L
    Bani, M
    Merlo Pich, E
    Zancan, S
    Långström, B
    Gustavsson, M
    Connectivity analyses of regional cerebral blood flow during public speaking in individuals with social anxiety disorder2005Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 2769.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rewarded approach of threatening spiders engages areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2770.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.
    Zielinski, David
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Spatial proximity amplifies valence in emotional memory and defensive approach-avoidance2015Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 70, s. 476-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet, little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters defensive responses in humans. We hypothesized that the valence of social cues scales with egocentric distance, such that proximal social stimuli have more positive or negative valence than distal stimuli. This would predict enhanced defensive responses to proximal threat and reduced defensive responses to proximal reward. We tested this hypothesis across four experiments using 3-D virtual reality simulations. Results from Experiment 1 confirmed that proximal social stimuli facilitate defensive responses, as indexed by fear-potentiated startle, relative to distal stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that interpersonal defensive boundaries flexibly increase with aversive learning. Experiment 3 examined whether spatial proximity enhances memory for aversive experiences. Fear memories for social threats encroaching on the body were more persistent than those acquired at greater interpersonal distances, as indexed by startle. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined how egocentric distance influenced startle responses to social threats during defensive approach and avoidance. Whereas fear-potentiated startle increased with proximity when participants actively avoided receiving shocks, startle decreased with proximity when participants tolerated shocks to receive monetary rewards, implicating opposing gradients of distance on threat versus reward. Thus, proximity in egocentric space amplifies the valence of social stimuli that, in turn, facilitates emotional memory and approach-avoidance responses. These findings have implications for understanding the consequences of increased urbanization on affective interpersonal behavior.

  • 2771.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Persson, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Medial temporal lobe resection attenuates superior temporal sulcus response to faces2014Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 61, s. 291-298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Face perception depends on activation of a core face processing network including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is also involved in decoding facial expression and damage to the anterior MTL, including the amygdala, generally interferes with emotion recognition. The impairment in emotion recognition following anterior MTL injury can be a direct result from injured MTL circuitry, as well as an indirect result from decreased MTL modulation of areas in the core face network. To test whether the MTL modulates activity in the core face network, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activation in the core face processing network in patients with right or left anterior temporal lobe resections (ATR) due to intractable epilepsy. We found reductions of face-related activation in the right STS after both right and left ATR together with impaired recognition of facial expressions. Reduced activity in the fusiform and the occipital face areas was also observed in patients after right ATR suggesting widespread effects on activity in the core face network in this group. The reduction in face-related STS activity after both right and left ATR suggests that MTL modulation of the STS may facilitate recognition of facial expression.

  • 2772.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tibblin, Bodil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of medial temporal lobe resections on verbal threat and fear conditioning2010Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 83, nr 1, s. 41-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A left hemisphere advantage in the processing of verbal threat has previously been reported, whereas both hemispheres seem equally important in fear conditioning. Here, we compared the effects of unilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) resections on verbal threat as well as delay and trace fear conditioning. During verbal threat, right and left MTL-resections attenuated fear potentiated startle in comparison with controls. In contrast to previous studies, MTL-resections did not attenuate delay conditioning of skin conductance responses. Left and right resectioned patients did not differ in psychophysiological responses to verbal threat or delay fear conditioning. Trace conditioning was not observed in any group. Results suggest a bilateral MTL hemispheric involvement in the processing of verbal threat, whereas one intact hemisphere seems sufficient for delay conditioning.

  • 2773.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Human serotonin transporter availability predicts fear conditioning2015Inngår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 515-519Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2774.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Långström, B.
    Appel, L.
    Wolff, O. T.
    Kirschbaum, C.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hypothalamic blood flow correlates positively with stress-induced cortisol levels in subjects with social anxiety disorder2006Inngår i: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 68, nr 6, s. 859-862Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The adrenal excretion of cortisol in animals is dependent on the production of corticotropin-releasing factor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The a priori hypothesis of this study was that hypothalamic regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) would correlate positively with salivary cortisol levels in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) during anxiety provocation. Another objective was to evaluate whether salivary cortisol levels correlated with rCBF in other brain areas. Method: Regional CBF was measured with oxygen-15-labeled water and positron emission tomography during a public speaking task before and after placebo treatment in 12 subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined SAD. Cortisol concentrations in saliva were measured 15 minutes after the task. The a priori hypothesis of a salivary cortisol-dependent activation of the hypothalamus was studied with region-of-interest analysis. In addition, the covariation between rCBF and salivary cortisol was studied in the whole brain using the general linear model. Results: The region-of-interest analysis revealed a positive correlation between salivary cortisol and hypothalamic rCBF. In the whole brain analysis, a positive covariation between rCBF and salivary cortisol levels was found in a midbrain cluster encompassing the hypothalamus with its statistical maximum in the mamillary bodies. Negative covariations were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the motor and premotor cortices. Conclusion: Like in animals, stress-induced cortisol excretion in humans may be inhibited by activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced by activity in the hypothalamus.

  • 2775.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Obstetrik & gynekologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Within-session effect of repeated stress exposure on extinction circuitry function in social anxiety disorder2017Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 261, s. 85-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography. To control for non-anxiolytic effects of repeated exposure, rCBF was also measured during repeated presentations of neutral and angry facial expressions. Results showed that anxiety ratings and heart rate decreased from the first to the second speech, indicating an anxiolytic effect of repeated exposure. Exposure attenuated rCBF in the amygdala whereas no change in rCBF was observed in the vmPFC or hippocampus. The rCBF-reductions in the amygdala were greater following repetition of the speech task than repetition of face exposure indicating that they were specific to anxiety attenuation and not due to a reduced novelty. Our findings suggest that amygdala-related attenuation processes are key to understanding the working mechanisms of exposure therapy.

  • 2776.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kragel, Philip A.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Zielinski, David J.
    Duke Univ, Pratt Sch Engn, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Brady, Rachael
    Duke Univ, Pratt Sch Engn, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC 27708 USA..
    Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans2015Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 122, s. 262-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS + in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS -. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations.

  • 2777.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Arousal enhanced memory retention is eliminated following temporal lobe resection2010Inngår i: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 176-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with unilateral MTL-resections (17 left, 14 right) together with 16 controls participated in a forced choice memory task with pictorial stimuli varying in arousal. Response latencies increased with stimulus arousal in controls but not in patients. This was paralleled by attenuated recognition memory for moderately and highly arousing pictures in MTL-resectioned patients as compared to healthy controls. However, patients and controls did not differ in memory performance for non-arousing pictures. These results suggest that the MTL is necessary for arousal induced memory enhancement.

  • 2778.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liberzon, Israel
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Arousal modulation of memory and amygdala-parahippocampal connectivity: A PET-psychophysiology study in specific phobia2011Inngår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 1463-1469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phobic fear is accompanied by intense bodily responses modulated by the amygdala. An amygdala moderated psychophysiological measure related to arousal is electrodermal activity. We evaluated the contributions of electrodermal activity to amygdala-parahippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during phobic memory encoding in subjects with spider or snake phobia. Recognition memory was increased for phobia-related slides and covaried with rCBF in the amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus. The covariation between parahippocampal rCBF and recognition was related to electrodermal activity suggesting that parahippocampal memory processes were associated with sympathetic activity. Electrodermal activity further mediated the amygdala effect on parahippocampal activity. Memory encoding during phobic fear therefore seems contingent on amygdala's influence on arousal and parahippocampal activity.

  • 2779.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Pissiota, Anna
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cortico-Striatal Substance P Release Correlates with Phobia Related Trait Anxiety2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2780.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Wolf, O.T.
    Kirschbaum, C.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Furmark, Tomas
    Central neural correlates of salivary cortisol during stress in subjects with social phobia2004Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, 55, Suppl. 8, 2004, s. 211S-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2781.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Wolf, O.T.
    Kirschbaum, C.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Furmark, Tomas
    Central neural correlates of salivary cortisol in social phobics performing a speech2003Inngår i: Psychophysiology, 40, Suppl. 1, 2003, s. S21-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2782.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för onkologi, radiologi och klinisk immunologi.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Arousal gates amygdala interaction with the parahippocampal cortex during encoding of phobic picturesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2783.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bodily arousal gates amygdala-hippocampal interaction in phobic memory encoding2009Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 65, nr 8, s. 126S-126SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2784.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Miller, Stacie S
    Gordon, Amy R
    Lundström, Johan N
    Aversive learning increases sensory detection sensitivity.2013Inngår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 92, nr 2, s. 135-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased sensitivity to specific cues in the environment is common in anxiety disorders. This increase in sensory processing can emerge through attention processes that enhance discrimination of a cue from other cues as well as through augmented senses that reduce the absolute intensity of sensory stimulation needed for detection. Whereas it has been established that aversive conditioning can enhance odor quality discrimination, it is not known whether it also changes the absolute threshold at which an odor can be detected. In two separate experiments, we paired one odor of an indistinguishable odor pair with an aversive outcome using a classical conditioning paradigm. Ability to discriminate and to detect the paired odor was assessed before and after conditioning. The results demonstrate that aversive conditioning increases absolute sensory sensitivity to a predictive odor cue in an odor-specific manner, rendering the conditioned odor detectable at a significantly lower (20%) absolute concentration. As animal research has found long-lasting change in behavior and neural signaling resulting from conditioning, absolute threshold was also tested eight weeks later. Detection threshold had returned to baseline level at the eight week follow-up session suggesting that the change in detection threshold was mediated by a transient reorganization. Taken together, we can for the first time demonstrate that increasing the biological salience of a stimulus augments the individual's absolute sensitivity in a stimulus-specific manner outside conscious awareness. These findings provide a unique framework for understanding sensory mechanisms in anxiety disorders as well as further our understanding of mechanisms underlying classical conditioning.

  • 2785.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Functional connectivity of the amygdala in specific phobia2008Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 63, nr 7, s. 169S-169SArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2786.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Ulleråker, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för nuklearmedicin och PET.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Disentangling the web of fear: amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in spider and snake phobia2009Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 172, nr 2, s. 103-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study effects of fear on brain activity, functional connectivity and brain-behavior relationships during symptom provocation in subjects with specific phobia. Positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O water was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 16 women phobic of either snakes or spiders but not both. Subjects watched pictures of snakes and spiders serving either as phobic or fear-relevant, but non-phobic, control stimuli depending on phobia type. Presentation of phobic as compared with non-phobic cues was associated with increased activation of the right amygdala and cerebellum as well as the left visual cortex and circumscribed frontal areas. Activity decreased in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortices as well as in the primary somatosensory cortex and auditory cortices. Furthermore, amygdala activation correlated positively with the subjective experience of distress. Connectivity analyses of activity in the phobic state revealed increased functional couplings between voxels in the right amygdala and the periamygdaloid area, fusiform gyrus and motor cortex. During non-phobic stimulation, prefrontal activity correlated negatively with amygdala rCBF, suggesting a phobia-related functional decoupling. These results suggest that visually elicited phobic reactions activate object recognition areas and deactivate prefrontal areas involved in cognitive control over emotion-triggering areas like the amygdala, resulting in motor readiness to support fight or flight.

  • 2787.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundstrom, Johan N.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Monell Chem Senses Ctr, 3500 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ Penn, Dept Psychol, 3815 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Biological preparedness and resistance to extinction of skin conductance responses conditioned to fear relevant animal pictures: A systematic review2018Inngår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 95, s. 430-437Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparedness theory is one of the most influential ideas in explaining the origin of specific phobias. The theory proposes that fear conditioning is selective to animals that have posed a threat to survival throughout human evolution, and that acquired fear memories to such threats are resistant to extinction. We reviewed fear conditioning studies testing whether autonomic responses conditioned to pictures of snakes and spiders show greater resistance to extinction than neutral cues. We identified 32 fear conditioning experiments published in 23 studies including 1887 participants. Increased resistance to extinction of conditioned responses to snake and spider pictures was found in 10 (31%) of the experiments, whereas 22 (69%) experiments did not support the hypothesis. Thus, the body of evidence suggests that preparedness theory does not explain the origin of specific phobias.

  • 2788.
    Åhs, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modality of measurement and power, a comparison between rCBF, psychophysiology and self assessment measures2006Inngår i: Biol. Psychiatry 59, 40S-40S, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2789.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lekander, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    d'Onofrio, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fischer, H.
    Stockholm Univ, Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petrovic, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.T.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gray matter volume correlates of sleepiness: a voxel-based morphometry study in younger and older adults2018Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2790.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adults with Autism and Mental Retardation. A Life-Span Perspective2001Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of the literature with a life-span perspective on autism gave rise to the formulation of a general research problem: Can demographic factors, individual factors, and social factors (i.e., education, residential facilities, treatment and other services) explain some of the variance in autistic behaviour and social adaptation in adult life? Historic influences, such as the Acts on services for people with mental retardation, reflected in social factors were emphasised.

    In a retrospective design two groups of adults with autism (DSM-III-R criteria) and mental retardation were studied, the RFA group, sampled through Riksföreningen Autism (n = 48, mean age 35 years) and the County group, a treated population group (n =39, mean age 37 years).

    The results showed that the RFA group functioned on a higher intellectual level and had better adult social adaptation (measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) than the County group. There were no differences in autistic behaviour (measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale) either in childhood or in adulthood. Concerning social factors, the Acts for mentally retarded had had major practical consequences. From the common situation with confinement in large institutions, better opportunities for education, more normal residence (group homes), and for occupation (day-centres) had emerged. Regarding treatment, the most persistent trend was the high use of psychoactive medication. After merging the two groups, analyses showed that the major predictive factors of adult autistic behaviour and social adaptation were intellectual level, speech ability and, with regard to social adaptation, epilepsy. The main conclusion is that intellectual level and speech ability are relatively more important than other factors for functioning of adults with autism and mental retardation. The results are discussed with reference to the adequacy of the measures used to capture effects of the social factors and the importance of also investigating samples with higher intellectual levels.

  • 2791.
    Åsander, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy vid bariatrisk kirurgi - Långtidsuppföljning efter 2 år2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har fetma ökat, 14% beräknas lida av fetma i dagens svenska samhälle. Många har gjort ett flertal viktminskningsförsök utan bestående resultat. Bariatrisk kirurgi är det som enligt forskning ger bäst viktminskningsresultat. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) har tidigare visat sig vara effektiv i jämförelse med treatment as usual. Den här studien utforskar graden av terapeutstöd av ACT-baserad internetbehandling efter bariatrisk kirurgi vid en två-årsuppföljning. I förmätningen ingick 31 deltagare men svarsfrekvensen i denna uppföljning var endast 19 stycken deltagare. Deltagarna randomiserades in i två betingelser. En grupp fick både internetbehandling och terapeutstöd medan den andra enbart fick internetbehandling. Uppföljningen har gjorts genom att undersöka beroendemåtten kroppsuppfattning, att leva i värderad riktning, ätstörningsrelaterade beteenden, psykologisk flexibilitet samt livskvalitet. Inga signifikanta interaktionseffekter uppmättes på något av beroendemåtten. Signifikanta huvudeffekter av tid uppmättes enbart på delskalan ”Restraint” (restriktivt ätande) på ”Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire” (EDE-Q). Deltagarna har även skattat upplevelsen av Behandlingen som helhet. Studiens resultat visar att det i huvudsak inte finns några signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. I förhållande till studiens från början ringa storlek är bortfallet stort, något som försvårar tolkningen av resultaten.

  • 2792.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Denison, Eva
    Lindberg, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Long-term follow-up of tailored behavioural treatment and exercise based physical therapy in persistent musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial in primary care2009Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 13, nr 10, s. 1080-1088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined long-term effects of a tailored behavioural   treatment protocol (TBT), as compared with an exercise based physical   therapy protocol (EBT). One-hundred and twenty-two patients who, due to   persistent musculoskeletal pain, consulted physical therapists in   primary care were originally randomized to either of the two   conditions. Follow-up assessments two-year post-treatment were   completed by 65 participants. According to per-protocol analyses,   short-term effects were maintained in both groups for the primary   outcome, pain-related disability. The TBT-group reported lower   disability levels compared with the EBT-group. Intention-to-treat   analyses (ITT) conveyed similar results. Secondary outcomes of pain   intensity, pain control, and functional self-efficacy were maintained   over the 2-year post-treatment, but previous group differences were   levelled out according to the most conservative method of ITT. Fear of   movement/(re)injury increased in the EBT-group, and EBT participants   reported higher fear of movement/(re)injury two years post-treatment   compared to TBT.   The study supports tailoring of treatments in concordance with   patients' needs and preferences of activity goals and functional   behavioural analyses including predictors of pain-related disability,   for successful immediate outcomes and their maintenance in the long   run. Exercise-based treatments resulted in somewhat smaller immediate   treatment effects but had similar maintenance of effects over the   2-year follow-up period.

  • 2793.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing2002Inngår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, s. 691-698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2794.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates2005Inngår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, s. 231-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2795.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Bäckman, Lars
    Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity2006Inngår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, s. 68-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2796.
    Öberg-Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition2009Inngår i: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 375-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2797.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fitting Objects Into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s ability to manipulate objects is the end-point of several important developments. To imagine objects in different positions greatly improves children’s action capabilities. They can relate objects to each other successfully, and plan actions involving more than one object. We know that one-year-olds can insert an object into an aperture. Earlier research has focused on the start and goal of such actions, but ignored the way in between. This thesis shows that children are unable to fit an object into an aperture unless they can imagine the different projections of the object and rotate it in advance. The problem of how to proceed with an object-aperture matching was studied in 14- to 40-month-old children with a box, different holes and a set of fitting wooden blocks. Study I focused on how to orient a single object to make it fit. Studies II and III added a second object or aperture, introducing choice. In Study I there was a huge difference between 18 and 22 months in solving the fitting problem. Successful insertion was related to appropriate pre-adjustments. The older children pre-adjusted the object orientation before arriving at the aperture(s). The younger used a feedback strategy and that did not work for this task. To choose was more difficult than expected; one must not only choose one alternative, but also inhibit the other. Fifteen-month-olds were unable to choose between sizes and shapes, 20-month-olds could choose between sizes, 30-month-olds could choose between sizes and shapes, but not even 40-month-olds could choose between objects with different triangular cross-sections. Finally, the relationships between an object and an aperture, supporting surface or form were investigated. When comparing tasks requiring relationships between an object’s positive and an aperture’s negative form, between a 3D and a 2D, and between two 3D-forms, we found that the main difficulties is relating positive and negative form.

    Delarbeid
    1. Fitting Objects into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fitting Objects into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 404-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined 14- to 26-month-old infants' understanding of the spatial relationships between objects and apertures in an object manipulation task. The task was to insert objects with various cross-sections (circular, square, rectangular, ellipsoid, and triangular) into fitting apertures. A successful solution required the infant to mentally rotate the object to be fit into the aperture and use that information to plan the action. The object was presented standing up in half of the trials; in the other half, it was lying down. The results showed that infants solved the problem consistently from age 22 months and that a successful solution was associated with appropriate preadjustments before the hand arrived with the block to the aperture. No sex differences were found.

    Emneord
    Action planning, Age, Means-end relationships, Mental rotation, Object manipulation, Spatial relationships, Toddlers
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96467 (URN)10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.404 (DOI)000244612500010 ()17352547 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-22 Laget: 2007-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Young Children’s Ability to Solve Spatial  Problems Involving a Choice
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Young Children’s Ability to Solve Spatial  Problems Involving a Choice
    2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 685-704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When do young children become able to make an adequate choice between two alternatives based on spatial information? Children of 20, 30, and 40 months of age were either presented with two objects with different cross-sections and one aperture, or one object and two different apertures. In each trial there was one object-aperture match and the task was to find that match and insert the object. All the children understood the task and tried to solve the problems but the 20-month-olds performed randomly and not even the 40-month-olds chose all the correct correspondences consistently. The results also showed that it is easier to choose between apertures than objects. This contrasts with the ability to solve the insertion problem once the choice was made. When choosing the correct object or aperture, the 40-month-olds inserted the triangle successfully in 85% of the cases. The boys and girls were equally good at solving the task, but the boys did it faster. The results show that making a choice adds significantly to the difficulty of solving spatial problems. It requires systematic examination of the objects and apertures involved, a working memory that can handle at least three items at a time, and an ability to inhibit an incorrect choice. Such executive functions are typically found in older preschool children but the present task shows that with an appropriate setup their development can be traced from a much earlier age.

    Emneord
    Action planning, Choice behaviour, Manipulation, Means-end relationships, Mental rotation, Toddlers
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96468 (URN)10.1080/17405620701766834 (DOI)000272382500003 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-22 Laget: 2007-11-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Young Children’s Representations of Spatial and Functional Relationships between Objects
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Young Children’s Representations of Spatial and Functional Relationships between Objects
    Vise andre…
    Inngår i: Child DevelopmentArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96469 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-11-22 Laget: 2007-11-22bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2798.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fitting Objects into Holes: On the Development of Spatial Cognition Skills2007Inngår i: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 404-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined 14- to 26-month-old infants' understanding of the spatial relationships between objects and apertures in an object manipulation task. The task was to insert objects with various cross-sections (circular, square, rectangular, ellipsoid, and triangular) into fitting apertures. A successful solution required the infant to mentally rotate the object to be fit into the aperture and use that information to plan the action. The object was presented standing up in half of the trials; in the other half, it was lying down. The results showed that infants solved the problem consistently from age 22 months and that a successful solution was associated with appropriate preadjustments before the hand arrived with the block to the aperture. No sex differences were found.

  • 2799.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Young Children’s Ability to Solve Spatial  Problems Involving a Choice2009Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 685-704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When do young children become able to make an adequate choice between two alternatives based on spatial information? Children of 20, 30, and 40 months of age were either presented with two objects with different cross-sections and one aperture, or one object and two different apertures. In each trial there was one object-aperture match and the task was to find that match and insert the object. All the children understood the task and tried to solve the problems but the 20-month-olds performed randomly and not even the 40-month-olds chose all the correct correspondences consistently. The results also showed that it is easier to choose between apertures than objects. This contrasts with the ability to solve the insertion problem once the choice was made. When choosing the correct object or aperture, the 40-month-olds inserted the triangle successfully in 85% of the cases. The boys and girls were equally good at solving the task, but the boys did it faster. The results show that making a choice adds significantly to the difficulty of solving spatial problems. It requires systematic examination of the objects and apertures involved, a working memory that can handle at least three items at a time, and an ability to inhibit an incorrect choice. Such executive functions are typically found in older preschool children but the present task shows that with an appropriate setup their development can be traced from a much earlier age.

  • 2800.
    Östberg, Monica
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parental stress, psychosocial problems and responsiveness in help-seeking parents with small (2-45 months old) children1998Inngår i: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 69-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experienced parental stress in 75 mothers and 65 fathers seeking help for their young child (M = 14.5 months; SD = 9.4 months) in a Specialist Child Health Centre was examined and related to child problem load, psychosocial problems and parental problems

5354555657 2751 - 2800 of 2805
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