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  • 3001.
    Zhao, Min
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Phylogenetic position of the Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria2016Ingår i: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 157, nr 3, s. 913-918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria is usually placed in a monotypic family or subfamily within the superfamily Certhioidea, with assumed close relationships to Certhia (treecreepers), Sitta (nuthatches) and Salpornis (spotted creepers). Previous studies have suggested that Tichodroma is most closely related to Sitta, alternatively to Salpornis. We analysed the relationships of Tichodroma using two mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. The tree based on concatenated sequences strongly supported a sister relationship between Tichodroma and Sitta, as well as between Salpornis and Certhia. However, species tree analysis (MP-EST) was unable to resolve these relationships, and although the concatenation tree remains the best hypothesis, more data are needed to corroborate this.

  • 3002.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Siv G.E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rapid diversification of functional homologs in replacement genomic islands of freshwater ActinobacteriaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3003.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Evolution of subclass Candidatus Actinomarinidae inferred from single-cell amplified genomes of saltwater ActinobacteriaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3004.
    Zhao, Weizhou
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution.
    Garcia, Sarahi L
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Grossart, Hans-Peter
    Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries.
    Wannicke, Nicola
    Leib­niz In­sti­tu­te for Plas­ma Sci­ence and Tech­no­lo­gy.
    McMahon, Katherine D
    Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Molekylär evolution. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A phylometagenomic study based on single-cell amplified genomes from Actinobacteria in the brackish waters of the Baltic SeaManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3005. Zheng, Zongli
    et al.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Ye, Weimin
    Nyrén, Olof
    Normark, Staffan
    Engstrand, Lars
    Metagenomic study of Helicobacter pylori microdissected from archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy sections2010Ingår i: Genome Biology, ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 11, s. P42-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3006. Zhong, Weihao
    et al.
    McClure, Colin D.
    Evans, Cara R.
    Mlynski, David T.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ritchie, Michael G.
    Priest, Nicholas K.
    Immune anticipation of mating in Drosophila: Turandot M promotes immunity against sexually transmitted fungal infections2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, nr 1773, s. 20132018-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that mating increases the risk of infection, we do not know how females mitigate the fitness costs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has recently been shown that female fruitflies, Drosophila melanogaster, specifically upregulate two members of the Turandot family of immune and stress response genes, Turandot M and Turandot C (TotM and TotC), when they hear male courtship song. Here, we use the Gal4/UAS RNAi gene knockdown system to test whether the expression of these genes provides fitness benefits for females infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii under sexual transmission. As a control, we also examined the immunity conferred by Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif), a central component of the Toll signalling pathway thought to provide immunity against fungal infections. We show that TotM, but not TotC or Dif, provides survival benefits to females following STIs, but not after direct topical infections. We also show that though the expression of TotM provides fecundity benefits for healthy females, it comes at a cost to their survival, which helps to explain why TotM is not constitutively expressed. Together, these results show that the anticipatory expression of TotM promotes specific immunity against fungal STIs and suggest that immune anticipation is more common than currently appreciated.

  • 3007.
    Zielinski, P.
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Dudek, K.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Babik, W.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Divergence history of the Carpathian and smooth newts modelled in space and time2016Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 3912-3928Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about demographic history is essential for the understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation. Patterns of genetic variation within and between closely related species provide insights into the history of their interactions. Here, we investigated historical demography and genetic exchange between the Carpathian (Lissaritan montandoni, Lm) and smooth (L. vulgaris, Lv) newts. We combine an extensive geographical sampling and multilocus nuclear sequence data with the approximate Bayesian computation framework to test alternative scenarios of divergence and reconstruct the temporal and spatial pattern of gene flow between species. A model of recent (last glacial period) interspecific gene flow was favoured over alternative models. Thus, despite the relatively old divergence (4-6 mya) and presumably long periods of isolation, the species have retained the ability to exchange genes. Nevertheless, the low migration rates (ca. 10 per gene copy per generation) are consistent with strong reproductive isolation between the species. Models allowing demographic changes were favoured, suggesting that the effective population sizes of both species at least doubled as divergence reaching the current ca. 0.2 million in Lm and 1 million in Lv. We found asymmetry in rates of interspecific gene flow between Lm and one evolutionary lineage of Lv. We suggest that intraspecific polymorphism for hybrid incompatibilities segregating within Lv could explain this pattern and propose further tests to distinguish between alternative explanations. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating intraspecific genetic structure into the models investigating the history of divergence.

  • 3008. Zielinski, P.
    et al.
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Wielstra, B.
    Szkotak, R.
    Covaciu-Marcov, S. D.
    Cogalniceanu, D.
    Babik, W.
    No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni)2013Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 1884-1903Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of interspecific introgression may vary geographically, and the distribution of introgressed variants can yield insight into the historical dynamics of genetic interactions between hybridizing species. Urodele amphibians, often characterized by limited mobility, deep intraspecific genetic structuring and vulnerability to climatic changes, constitute suitable models for such historical inferences. Here, we combine an extensive survey of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (15 microsatellites) genomes in the Carpathian newt, Lissotriton montandoni (Lm) with species distribution modelling (SDM). Populations of the smooth newt, L.vulgaris (Lv) from the areas surrounding the Lm range were also sampled to test whether gene flow between these hybridizing species extends beyond the area of strict syntopy. The extent of introgression differs dramatically between the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome. While multiple, spatially and temporally distinct introgression events from Lv resulted in complete mtDNA replacement in Lm, there was little evidence of recent interspecific nuclear gene flow in the assayed markers. Microsatellite differentiation within Lm defines three units, probably derived from separate glacial refugia, located in the northern, eastern and southern part of the Carpathians. In situ survival and range fragmentation of Lm are supported by SDM, corroborating the role of the Carpathians as a major refugial area. Our results, in combination with previous reports of extensive introgression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, emphasize the complexity of historical gene exchange between Lm and Lv.

  • 3009.
    Zink, Eren
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Elvander, Marianne
    Lindberg, Ann
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH), Internationell barnhälsa och nutrition.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Chandler, Rebecca
    Hur ska vi klara de nya epidemierna?2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3010.
    Zmudczynska-Skarbek, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Barcikowski, Mateusz
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.
    Poznan Univ Life Sci, Dept Forest Pathol, Wojska Polskiego 71, Poznan, Poland..
    Richard, Pierre
    Univ La Rochelle, CNRS, Littoral Environm & Soc, UMR 7266, 2 Rue Olympe Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle, France..
    Skubala, Piotr
    Univ Silesia, Dept Ecol, Bankowa 9, PL-40007 Katowice, Poland..
    Stempniewicz, Lech
    Univ Gdansk, Fac Biol, Dept Vertebrate Ecol & Zool, Wita Stwosza 59, PL-80308 Gdansk, Poland..
    Transfer of ornithogenic influence through different trophic levels of the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem of Bjornoya (Bear Island), Svalbard2017Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 115, s. 475-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite widespread recognition of the crucial role seabirds play in the fertilization of nutrient-poor polar terrestrial ecosystems, no studies have attempted a concurrent analysis of the entire or large proportion of an ornithogenically-supported food web. The aim of the current study was to assess the significance of allochthonous nutrient enrichment of key elements of the Bjornoya (Svalbard) terrestrial ecosystem by investigating how different seabird species influenced the characteristics of soil, vegetation, and soil invertebrates (direct ornithogenic effects), and also how those characteristics were interrelated (indirect ornithogenic effects). We sampled in the vicinity of a little auk (Alle alle) colony, and in areas occupied by great skua (Stercorarius skua) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) nests. Our data demonstrate clear, multi-trophic-level, ornithogenic impacts across the terrestrial ecosystem, with most of the measured parameters of soil, vegetation and invertebrates being altered by proximity to bird nesting areas, though to varying degrees. The ornithogenic effects tended to weaken with increasing complexity of interactions between the ecosystem components, with progression through successive trophic levels. The clearest responses were observed for soil (higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio delta N-15, nitrogen and water content) and vegetation characteristics (higher delta N-15, N content and total cover, lower diversity and species number, and modified community composition). The responses seen in the invertebrate communities were less clear (community composition change), and were only apparent when major invertebrate groups were considered together and for the assumed decomposers: springtails and oribatid mites, while not in the case of predators (mesostigmatid mites and one spider species). There were also suggestions in the data that different seabird species may have different impacts on the surrounding environment, probably due to their different diet and nesting area topography. However, generally, the species of bird was a weaker factor than the presence of a seabird colony or nest itself.

  • 3011.
    Zu, Pengjuan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Effects of Nectar Production and Pollinator Assemblies on Mating Patterns in Orchids2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinator visitation patterns should affect pollination success and mating patterns in flowering species. In the orchid family, about one third of the species do not provide any reward for their pollinators. Pollination by deceit is typically associated with low fruit set but may increase the chance of cross-pollination since the pollinator should soon leave the individual plant when there is no reward in the flowers. This may be beneficial if self-fertilisation results in inbreeding depression. I studied the mating patterns of one rewarding and one deceptive orchid in two closely related genera by tracking the fate of stained pollinia. I also conducted controlled crosses to estimate inbreeding depression. The results show that the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica has lower pollination success, but higher cross-pollination rate (ca. 90%) than the nectariferous orchid Gymnadenia conopsea (ca. 18% cross-pollination). The results further suggest that in G. conopsea, nocturnal visitors mediate higher geitonogamous pollination rate (ca. 100%) than diurnal visitors (ca. 60%). In both study species, fruits produced from cross-pollination were heavier than fruits produced from selfing. Inbreeding depression for fruit mass did not differ significantly between the two species (δ = 0.21 in D. lapponica and δ = 0.29 in G. conopsea). These data support the hypothesis that pollination by deceit can enhance cross-pollination. A literature study including several rewarding and non-rewarding orchid species indicated lower geitonogamy in the deceptive orchids, but the difference was not statistically significant. 

  • 3012. Zuccolo, Andrea
    et al.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    De Paoli, Emanuele
    Morgante, Michele
    The Ty1-copia LTR retroelement family PARTC is highly conserved in conifers over 200 MY of evolution2015Ingår i: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 568, nr 1, s. 89-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long Terminal Repeat retroelements (LTR-RTs) are a major component of many plant genomes. Although well studied and described in angiosperms, their features and dynamics are poorly understood in gymnosperms. Representative complete copies of a Ty1-copia element isolate in Picea abies and named PARTC were identified in six other conifer species (Picea glauca, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus taeda, Abies sibirica, Taxus baccata and Juniperus communis) covering more than 200 million years of evolution. Here we characterized the structure of this element, assessed its abundance across conifers, studied the modes and timing of its amplification, and evaluated the degree of conservation of its extant copies at nucleotide level over distant species. We demonstrated that the element is ancient, abundant, widespread and its paralogous copies are present in the genera Picea, Pinus and Abies as an LTR-RT family. The amplification leading to the extant copies of PARTC occurred over long evolutionary times spanning 10 s of MY and mostly took place after the speciation of the conifers analyzed. The level of conservation of PARTC is striking and may be explained by low substitution rates and limited removal mechanisms for LTR-RTs. These PARTC features and dynamics are representative of a more general scenario for LTR-RTs in gymnosperms quite different from that characterizing the vast majority of LTR-RT elements in angiosperms. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3013.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Age-specific trade-offs in life-history evolution2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-offs prevent selection from driving all fitness-enhancing traits towards values that would maximize fitness. Life-history trade-offs, such as the one between survival and reproduction are well-studied, yet trade-offs can also involve behavioural or cognitive traits. Because males and females have different routes to successful reproduction, the optimal resolution of life-history trade-offs can differ between the sexes. However, shared genome can constrain the evolution of sex-specific adaptations. In this thesis, I explore the links between sex-specific life histories, cognition and behaviour. I start by linking sex differences in life histories to sex differences in learning performance in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei (Paper I). I report that age-related learning differs between the sexes and that it corresponds to sexual dimorphism in life history. Then, I use experimental evolution to select for learning performance to study the patterns of genetic correlations between learning and life-history traits in both sexes (Paper II). The results demonstrate the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history indicating sex-specific fitness costs and benefits of learning. In Paper III I use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to ask about the extent to which cognitive and demographic aging are independent. The results reveal that selection for late-life reproduction alone bears no effect on late-life learning and that joint selection on late-life learning and reproduction does not yield lifespan benefits. The selection might have affected, however, female age-specific reproductive effort. Motivated by the questions on aging I proceed to ask why a potent lifespan extending drug – rapamycin affects sexes differently (Paper IV). I take a closer look at the trade-off between growth, lifespan and reproduction and propose that the sex experiencing a stronger relationship between size and fitness pays a higher cost of lifespan extension. Finally, I focus on another sex-specific trait – dispersal (Paper V). I conduct experimental evolution to uncover a negative genetic correlation between dispersal and reproduction and show sex-specific genetic variation for dispersal. In summary, my thesis unravels the complex pattern of interdependence between life-history, behavioural and cognitive traits, where sex emerges as an important factor that can maintain genetic variation for trade-offs.

    Delarbeten
    1. Sex differences in cognitive ageing: Testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sex differences in cognitive ageing: Testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 48, nr 12, s. 1469-1472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphismin age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory.

    Nyckelord
    Ageing, Caenorhabditis, Learning, Life-history, Sex differences, Trade-off
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213468 (URN)10.1016/j.exger.2013.09.008 (DOI)000327489800012 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-30 Skapad: 2013-12-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 2, s. 342-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of learning can be constrained by trade-offs. As male and female life histories often diverge, the relationship between learning and fitness may differ between the sexes. However, because sexes share much of their genome, intersexual genetic correlations can prevent males and females from reaching their sex-specific optima resulting in intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC). To investigate if IaSC constraints sex-specific evolution of learning, we selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased or decreased olfactory learning performance and measured learning, life span (in mated and virgin worms), reproduction, and locomotory activity in both sexes. Males from downward-selected female lines had higher locomotory activity and longer virgin life span but sired fewer progeny than males from upward-selected female lines. In contrast, we found no effect of selection on female reproduction and downward-selected females showed higher locomotory activity but lived shorter as virgins than upward-selected females. Strikingly, selection on learning performance led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin life span. We thus show sex-specific trade-offs between learning, reproduction, and life span. Our results support the hypothesis that selection on learning performance can shape the evolution of sexually dimorphic life histories via sex-specific genetic correlations.

    Nyckelord
    Caenorhabditis, cognition, intralocus sexual conflict, olfactory learning, sex-specific life histories
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282325 (URN)10.1111/evo.12862 (DOI)000370662500007 ()26787139 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-05 Skapad: 2016-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-30Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Experimental evolution of slowed cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experimental evolution of slowed cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 662-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive output and cognitive performance decline in parallel during aging, but it is unknown whether this reflects a shared genetic architecture or merely the declining force of natural selection acting independently on both traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test for the presence of genetic variation for slowed cognitive aging, and assess its independence from that responsible for other traits' decline with age. Replicate experimental populations experienced either joint selection on learning and reproduction at old age (Old + Learning), selection on late-life reproduction alone (Old), or a standard two-week culture regime (Young). Within 20 generations, the Old + Learning populations evolved a slower decline in learning with age than both the Old and Young populations, revealing genetic variation for cognitive aging. We found little evidence for a genetic correlation between cognitive and demographic aging: although the Old + Learning populations tended to show higher late-life fecundity than Old populations, they did not live longer. Likewise, selection for late reproduction alone did not result in improved late-life learning. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila harbor genetic variation for cognitive aging that is largely independent from genetic variation for demographic aging and suggest that these two aspects of aging may not necessarily follow the same trajectories.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    WILEY, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Cognitive aging, Drosophila, experimental evolution, genetic architecture, learning, trade-off
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Genetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320841 (URN)10.1111/evo.13156 (DOI)000396039000011 ()28000915 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Kungliga VetenskapsakademienVetenskapsrådetEU, Europeiska forskningsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-26 Skapad: 2017-04-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 882-890Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase.

    Nyckelord
    Antiaging, Evolution, Longevity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304528 (URN)10.1093/gerona/glv174 (DOI)000381209900006 ()26472877 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, C0636601, 621-2013-4828EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, St-G 2010 AGINGSEXDIFF 260885
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-12 Skapad: 2016-10-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Fitness-associated dispersal: selection for increased dispersal results in lower fitness
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fitness-associated dispersal: selection for increased dispersal results in lower fitness
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nyckelord
    fitness-associated dispersal, dispersal syndromes, artificial selection, life-history theory, Caenorhabdtitis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329033 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-06 Skapad: 2017-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-07
  • 3014.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex differences in cognitive ageing: Testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode2013Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 48, nr 12, s. 1469-1472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphismin age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory.

  • 3015.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ramsden, Mark
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 2, s. 342-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of learning can be constrained by trade-offs. As male and female life histories often diverge, the relationship between learning and fitness may differ between the sexes. However, because sexes share much of their genome, intersexual genetic correlations can prevent males and females from reaching their sex-specific optima resulting in intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC). To investigate if IaSC constraints sex-specific evolution of learning, we selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased or decreased olfactory learning performance and measured learning, life span (in mated and virgin worms), reproduction, and locomotory activity in both sexes. Males from downward-selected female lines had higher locomotory activity and longer virgin life span but sired fewer progeny than males from upward-selected female lines. In contrast, we found no effect of selection on female reproduction and downward-selected females showed higher locomotory activity but lived shorter as virgins than upward-selected females. Strikingly, selection on learning performance led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin life span. We thus show sex-specific trade-offs between learning, reproduction, and life span. Our results support the hypothesis that selection on learning performance can shape the evolution of sexually dimorphic life histories via sex-specific genetic correlations.

  • 3016.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kawecki, Tadeusz J.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hollis, Brian
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Sch Life Sci, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Experimental evolution of slowed cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster2017Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 662-670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive output and cognitive performance decline in parallel during aging, but it is unknown whether this reflects a shared genetic architecture or merely the declining force of natural selection acting independently on both traits. We used experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to test for the presence of genetic variation for slowed cognitive aging, and assess its independence from that responsible for other traits' decline with age. Replicate experimental populations experienced either joint selection on learning and reproduction at old age (Old + Learning), selection on late-life reproduction alone (Old), or a standard two-week culture regime (Young). Within 20 generations, the Old + Learning populations evolved a slower decline in learning with age than both the Old and Young populations, revealing genetic variation for cognitive aging. We found little evidence for a genetic correlation between cognitive and demographic aging: although the Old + Learning populations tended to show higher late-life fecundity than Old populations, they did not live longer. Likewise, selection for late reproduction alone did not result in improved late-life learning. Our results demonstrate that Drosophila harbor genetic variation for cognitive aging that is largely independent from genetic variation for demographic aging and suggest that these two aspects of aging may not necessarily follow the same trajectories.

  • 3017.
    Zwoinska, Martyna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Larva, Tuuli
    Sekajova, Zuzana
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Carlsson, Hanne
    Meurling, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fitness-associated dispersal: selection for increased dispersal results in lower fitnessManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3018.
    Zwoinska, Martyna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual Conflict: Male Control of Female Longevity2014Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. R196-R198Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3019.
    Åberg, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Evaluating a fast headspace method for measuring DIC and subsequent calculation of pCO2 in freshwater systems2014Ingår i: Inland Waters, ISSN 2044-2041, EISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 157-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of different sampling and analysis methods are found in the literature for determining carbon dioxide (CO2) in freshwaters, methods that rarely have been evaluated or compared. Here we present an evaluation of an acidified headspace method (AHS) in which the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is measured from an acidified sample and the partial pressure (pCO2) is calculated from DIC using pH and water temperature. We include information on practical sampling, accuracy, and precision of the DIC/pCO2 determination and a storage test of samples. The pCO2 determined from the AHS method is compared to that obtained from the more widely used direct headspace method (DHS) in which CO2 is equilibrated between the water and gas phases at ambient pH. The method was tested under both controlled laboratory conditions as well as wintertime field sampling. The accuracy of the DIC detection was on average 99% based on prepared standard solutions. The pCO2 determination in lab, using the DHS method as a reference, showed no significant difference, although the discrepancy between the methods was larger in samples with <1000 µatm. The precision of the pCO2 determination was on average ±4.3%, which was slightly better than the DHS method (±6.7%). In the field, the AHS method determined on average 10% higher pCO2 than the DHS method, which was explained by the extreme winter conditions (below −20 °C) at sampling that affected the sampling procedure of the DHS method. Although samples were acidified to pH 2, respiration processes were still occurring (at a low rate), and we recommend that analyses are conducted within 3 days from sampling. The AHS method was found to be a robust method to determine DIC and pCO2 in acidic to pH-neutral freshwater systems. The simple and quick sampling procedure makes the method suitable for time-limited sampling campaigns and sampling in cold climate.

  • 3020.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Pollinators, herbivores, and the evolution of floral traits2019Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 364, nr 6436, s. 122-123Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3021.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Hellström, Frida
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Toräng, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mutualists and antagonists drive among-population variation in selection and evolution of floral display in a perennial herb2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, nr 45, s. 18202-18207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial variation in the direction of selection drives the evolution of adaptive differentiation. However, few experimental studies have examined the relative importance of different environmental factors for variation in selection and evolutionary trajectories in natural populations. Here, we combine 8 y of observational data and field experiments to assess the relative importance of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions for spatial variation in selection and short-term evolution of a genetically based floral display dimorphism in the short-lived perennial herb Primula farinosa. Natural populations of this species include two floral morphs: long-scaped plants that present their flowers well above the ground and short-scaped plants with flowers positioned close to the ground. The direction and magnitude of selection on scape morph varied among populations, and so did the frequency of the short morph (median 19%, range 0–100%; n = 69 populations). A field experiment replicated at four sites demonstrated that variation in the strength of interactions with grazers and pollinators were responsible for among-population differences in relative fitness of the two morphs. Selection exerted by grazers favored the short-scaped morph, whereas pollinator-mediated selection favored the long-scaped morph. Moreover, variation in selection among natural populations was associated with differences in morph frequency change, and the experimental removal of grazers at nine sites significantly reduced the frequency of the short-scaped morph over 8 y. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in intensity of grazing and pollination produces a selection mosaic, and that changes in biotic interactions can trigger rapid genetic changes in natural plant populations.

  • 3022.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Oakley, C. G.
    McKay, J. K.
    Lovell, J. T.
    Schemske, D. W.
    Genetic mapping of adaptation reveals fitness trade-offs in Arabidopsis thaliana2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, nr 52, s. 21077-21087Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms inhabiting different environments are often locally adapted, and yet despite a considerable body of theory, the genetic basis of local adaptation is poorly understood. Unanswered questions include the number and effect sizes of adaptive loci, whether locally favored loci reduce fitness elsewhere (i.e., fitness tradeoffs), and whether a lack of genetic variation limits adaptation. To address these questions, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for total fitness in 398 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between locally adapted populations of the highly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy and grown for 3 consecutive years at the parental sites (>40,000 plants monitored). We show that local adaptation is controlled by relatively few genomic regions of small to modest effect. A third of the 15 fitness QTL we detected showed evidence of tradeoffs, which contrasts with the minimal evidence for fitness tradeoffs found in previous studies. This difference may reflect the power of our multiyear study to distinguish conditionally neutral QTL from those that reflect fitness tradeoffs. In Sweden, but not in Italy, the local genotype underlying fitness QTL was often maladaptive, suggesting that adaptation there is constrained by a lack of adaptive genetic variation, attributable perhaps to genetic bottlenecks during postglacial colonization of Scandinavia or to recent changes in selection regime caused by climate change. Our results suggest that adaptation to markedly different environments can be achieved through changes in relatively few genomic regions, that fitness tradeoffs are common, and that lack of genetic variation can limit adaptation.

  • 3023.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Oakley, Christopher G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Plant Biol, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA. WWF Norway, Postboks 6784, N-0130 Oslo, Norway..
    Lundemo, Sverre
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Schemske, Douglas W.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Plant Biol, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.;Michigan State Univ, WK Kellogg Biol Stn, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping2017Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 550-564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality.

  • 3024.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Schemske, Douglas W.
    Deceit pollination in Begonia2000Ingår i: Monteverde: ecology and conservation of a tropical cloud forest, Oxford University Press, 2000, s. 279-281Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 3025.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Schemske, Douglas W.
    Reciprocal transplants demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range2012Ingår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 194, nr 4, s. 1112-1122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify adaptive differentiation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for five years between two European populations, one near the northern edge of the native range (Sweden) and one near the southern edge (Italy). We planted seeds (years 13) and seedlings (years 45), and estimated fitness as the number of fruits produced per seed or seedling planted. In eight of the 10 possible site x year comparisons, the fitness of the local population was significantly higher than that of the nonlocal population (3.122.2 times higher at the southern site, and 1.73.6 times higher at the northern site); in the remaining two comparisons no significant difference was recorded. At both sites, the local genotype had higher survival than the nonlocal genotype, and at the Italian site, the local genotype also had higher fecundity. Across years, the relative survival of the Italian genotype at the northern site decreased with decreasing winter soil temperature. The results provide evidence of strong adaptive differentiation between natural populations of A similar to thaliana and indicate that differences in tolerance to freezing contributed to fitness variation at the northern site. In ongoing work, we explore the functional and genetic basis of this adaptive differentiation.

  • 3026.
    Ålund, Murielle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Gametes and speciation: from prezygotic to postzygotic isolation2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Speciation lies at the heart of evolutionary biology and researchers have been trying to understand the mechanisms leading to the evolution of reproductive isolation since over 250 years. Premating barriers (i.e. barriers preventing heterospecific individuals to mate with each other) and extrinsic postzygotic isolation (i.e. environmental factors affecting the fitness of hybrid individuals) have been studied in many taxa. However, little is known about what is happening at the gametic level, both before heterospecific fertilization (i.e. postmating prezygotic or gametic isolation) and in hybrid individuals (i.e. intrinsic postzygotic incompatibilities). In this essay, I will give an overview of the role gametes play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. I conclude that gametes and reproductive proteins evolve quickly, under strong influence of sexual and sexually antagonistic selection. Gametes are very diverse between species and sperm competition and female cryptic choice can lead to higher fertilization success of sperm from conspecific males. In the hybrid offspring, spermatogenesis can be easily disturbed by small differences in gene expression and this leads to a greater number of genes causing hybrid sterility compared to hybrid inviability among taxa. Following Haldane’s rule, the heterogametic sex is the first to be affected by hybrid incompatibilities, but different mechanisms seem to cause inviability and sterility and taxa with heterogametic males or heterogametic females might be affected differently. I end this review by focusing on one particular model system for studying speciation: the Ficedula flycatchers. Much is known about the ecological factors affecting speciation and hybridization between pied and collared flycatchers and new molecular data give insights into the genetics of speciation, but the role of gametes has not been studied in this system. Studies on gamete divergence and hybrid gamete production in the flycatchers will allow us to get a better idea of the role of gametes in speciation in a wild organism with homogametic males.

  • 3027.
    Ålund, Murielle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Rice, Amber M.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Low fertility of wild hybrid male flycatchers despite recent divergence2013Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id 20130169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Postzygotic isolation may be important for maintaining species boundaries, particularly when premating barriers are incomplete. Little is known about the course of events leading from minor environmental mismatches affecting hybrid fitness to severe genetic incompatibilities causing sterility or inviability. We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of hybrid males was caused by suboptimal sperm traits or by more severe genetic incompatibilities in a hybrid zone of pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) on the island of Oland, Sweden. About 4 per cent hybridization is observed in this population and all female hybrids are sterile. We found no sperm in the ejaculates of most sampled hybrid males, and sperm with abnormal morphology in two hybrids. Furthermore, none of the hybrids sired any offspring because of high levels of hatching failure and extra-pair paternity in their nests. These results from a natural hybrid zone suggest that the spermatogenesis of hybrid males may become disrupted despite little genetic divergence between the parental species.

  • 3028.
    Ålund, Murielle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Michigan State Univ, Dept Integrat Biol, Giltner Hall 362, E Lansing, MI 48825 USA.
    Persson Schmiterlöw, Siri
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Edinburgh, Inst Evolutionary Biol, Charlotte Auerbach Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Optimal sperm length for high siring success depends on forehead patch size in collared flycatchers2018Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1436-1443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dominance over rivals, sexual attractiveness, and highly efficient ejaculates are 3 important contributors of male fertilization success but theories about how primary and secondary sexual characters may co-evolve largely remain to be tested. We investigated how variation in a sexual signal (forehead patch size) and sperm morphology jointly affected siring success of 70 males in a natural population of collared flycatchers. We show that the optimal sperm length to attain high relative fertilization success depended on the size of a male's secondary sexual character. Males with small forehead patches sired more offspring in their nest when they produced long sperm and vice-versa. These results are not compatible with theories based on simple relationships between display traits and sperm "quality" but imply that the optimal fertilization strategy (and hence optimal sperm traits) differs between males even in a predominantly socially monogamous population with moderate extra-pair paternity rates. Thus, a better knowledge of the complex chain of behavioural interactions between the sexes and their gametes is needed for a complete understanding of how sexual selection operates in nature.

  • 3029.
    Ålund, Murielle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Persson-Schmitterlöw, Siri
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Revisiting the definition of “sperm quality”: selection on sperm length depends on a male’s attractiveness and dominance in wild collared flycatchersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dominance over rivals, sexual attractiveness and highly efficient ejaculates are all known to be essential for male fertilization success but the theories of how primary and secondary sexual characters may co-evolve largely remain to be tested. Here, we measure sperm morphology in 131 wild-caught collared flycatchers over a four-year period and investigate the links between male display traits, sperm characteristics and siring success among 425 offspring sired by 71 of these males. We show that the optimal sperm length to attain high relative fertilization success depends on the size of a male’s secondary sexual character. Males with small ornaments sire more offspring in their own nest when they produce long sperm and vice-versa. These results are not compatible with theories based on simple relationships between secondary sexual traits and sperm “quality” but imply that the optimal fertilization strategy (and hence optimal sperm traits) differ between males even in a predominantly socially monogamous population with moderate extra-pair copulation rates. Thus, a better knowledge of the complex chain of behavioural interactions between the sexes and their gametes is needed for a complete understanding of how sexual selection operates in nature.

  • 3030.
    Ålund, Murielle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Whittington, Emma
    Center for Reproductive Evolution, 248 Life Sciences Complex, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.
    Backström, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Borziak, Kirill
    Center for Reproductive Evolution, 248 Life Sciences Complex, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.
    Jones, Williams
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Mugal, Carina F.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Wang, Mi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Xu, Luohao
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Immler, Simone
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7TJ, UK.
    Dorus, Steve
    Center for Reproductive Evolution, 248 Life Sciences Complex, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Reproductive -omics of a wild avian speciation model unveils candidate genes for gamete interactionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex nature of interspecific interactions contributing to reproductive isolation means that we still know little about their molecular basis. Male reproductive traits are notorious for their fast evolution at the phenotypic and genotypic level, and divergence in components of the ejaculate can lead to incompatibilities between closely related species. Making use of recent advances of molecular tools and the extensive knowledge on the biology and ecology of young sister species, here the pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatcher (F. albicollis), allows the identification of candidate phenotypes and the underlying genotypes maintaining species boundaries. Pied flycatcher females can avoid costly production of sterile hybrids when mated to collared flycatchers by cryptically favouring conspecific sperm. Here, we describe the testes transcriptome and sperm proteome of both species, confirm the complexity of avian sperm development and functions and identify several candidate genes for interactions between sperm and the female reproductive tract, using multiple independent measures of divergence between the species. We show that divergence at the transcriptional and translational levels can potentially lead to the evolution of reproductive incompatibilities despite low levels of sequence divergence, and suggest that integrating several -omics techniques with knowledge of the biology of naturally hybridizing species will greatly improve our understanding of the molecular basis of speciation in the near future. 

  • 3031.
    Ålund née Podevin, Murielle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex, Sperm and Speciation: On sexual selection and fertility in hybridizing flycatchers2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual reproduction entails complex co-evolution between the sexes, necessary for successful fertilization, ensuring individual and population-level fitness. Interfertility is the main criterion for species definition and understanding speciation requires detailed studies of reproductive barriers. However, many studies on reproductive barriers are constrained to infer evolutionary processes from patterns. In this thesis, I focus on a hybrid zone between collared and pied flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis and hypoleuca) on the island of Öland, and a trait that is essential for fertilization: sperm. Long-term monitoring of these species, combined with recent advances in molecular tools, allow me to study how complex on-going intersexual and interspecific interactions influence reproductive isolation in this young hybrid zone. I start by exploring the links between pre- and postmating sexual selection within collared flycatchers (paper I and II). I show that secondary sexual characters and indirect mate-choice benefits are tightly linked to physiology (paper I), and that a male’s attractiveness and dominance status dictate which sperm traits are optimal, as a male’s fertilization success depends on an interaction between sperm and display traits (paper II). I then report a source of strong postzygotic isolation between recently diverged collared and pied flycatchers: impaired spermatogenesis resulting in absence of mature sperm cells in hybrid males (paper III). I show however that pied flycatcher females, who are most exposed to hybridization, can mitigate these costs through mechanisms of cryptic female choice impairing heterospecific sperm performance, allowing them to bias paternity towards pure-species offspring (paper IV). Finally, by exploring the testes transcriptomes and sperm proteomes of both species, I highlight the importance of gene and protein regulation mechanisms in facilitating phenotypic divergence between these species (paper V). Thus, my thesis reveals complex interactions between primary and secondary sexual characters in a wild bird and suggests that mechanisms of sexual selection are tightly linked to essential physiological functions. I also show that genetic incompatibilities can evolve rapidly despite low genome-wide levels of divergence but that divergence in regulatory regions and proteins potentially allows fast evolution of molecular mechanisms impairing or preventing costly heterospecific fertilization. 

    Delarbeten
    1. Sexual selection affects climate adaptation in collared flycatchers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sexual selection affects climate adaptation in collared flycatchers
    2017 (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of sexual selection in climate adaptation is debated. We tested whether sexual selection has the potential to speed up adaptation to thermal conditions in a natural population of collared flycatchers. Based on a three-year cross-fostering experiment, we found that the size of a sexually selected trait predicted offspring metabolic rate: male collared flycatchers with large forehead patches sired offspring with low metabolic rate regardless of the ambient temperature. Thus, there was a stable significant relationship between forehead patch size of genetic fathers and offspring metabolic rate. Nestlings with high metabolic rate experienced a survival advantage when growing under warm temperatures, while the opposite was true in cold environments. Our study shows that females can modulate their offspring’s physiology through mate choice, and that sexual selection can thus affect climate adaptation.

    Nyckelord
    sexual selection, climate adaptation, resting metabolic rate, Ficedula flycatcher, secondary sexual character, physiology
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322788 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-30 Skapad: 2017-07-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-07-30
    2. Revisiting the definition of “sperm quality”: selection on sperm length depends on a male’s attractiveness and dominance in wild collared flycatchers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Revisiting the definition of “sperm quality”: selection on sperm length depends on a male’s attractiveness and dominance in wild collared flycatchers
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dominance over rivals, sexual attractiveness and highly efficient ejaculates are all known to be essential for male fertilization success but the theories of how primary and secondary sexual characters may co-evolve largely remain to be tested. Here, we measure sperm morphology in 131 wild-caught collared flycatchers over a four-year period and investigate the links between male display traits, sperm characteristics and siring success among 425 offspring sired by 71 of these males. We show that the optimal sperm length to attain high relative fertilization success depends on the size of a male’s secondary sexual character. Males with small ornaments sire more offspring in their own nest when they produce long sperm and vice-versa. These results are not compatible with theories based on simple relationships between secondary sexual traits and sperm “quality” but imply that the optimal fertilization strategy (and hence optimal sperm traits) differ between males even in a predominantly socially monogamous population with moderate extra-pair copulation rates. Thus, a better knowledge of the complex chain of behavioural interactions between the sexes and their gametes is needed for a complete understanding of how sexual selection operates in nature.

    Nyckelord
    sperm morphology, secondary sexual character, mating strategy, fertilization success, Ficedula flycatcher, extra-pair copulation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326808 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-30 Skapad: 2017-07-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-07-30
    3. Low fertility of wild hybrid male flycatchers despite recent divergence
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Low fertility of wild hybrid male flycatchers despite recent divergence
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id 20130169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Postzygotic isolation may be important for maintaining species boundaries, particularly when premating barriers are incomplete. Little is known about the course of events leading from minor environmental mismatches affecting hybrid fitness to severe genetic incompatibilities causing sterility or inviability. We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of hybrid males was caused by suboptimal sperm traits or by more severe genetic incompatibilities in a hybrid zone of pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) on the island of Oland, Sweden. About 4 per cent hybridization is observed in this population and all female hybrids are sterile. We found no sperm in the ejaculates of most sampled hybrid males, and sperm with abnormal morphology in two hybrids. Furthermore, none of the hybrids sired any offspring because of high levels of hatching failure and extra-pair paternity in their nests. These results from a natural hybrid zone suggest that the spermatogenesis of hybrid males may become disrupted despite little genetic divergence between the parental species.

    Nyckelord
    hybrid, sterility-infertility, flycatcher, sperm, postzygotic incompatibility
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202341 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2013.0169 (DOI)000318762300035 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-06-24 Skapad: 2013-06-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Females discriminate against heterospecific sperm in a natural hybrid zone
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Females discriminate against heterospecific sperm in a natural hybrid zone
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 8, s. 1844-1855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When hybridization is maladaptive, species-specific mate preferences are selectively favored, but low mate availability may constrain species-assortative pairing. Females paired to heterospecifics may then benefit by copulating with multiple males and subsequently favoring sperm of conspecifics. Whether such mechanisms for biasing paternity toward conspecifics act as important reproductive barriers in socially monogamous vertebrate species remains to be determined. We use a combination of long-term breeding records from a natural hybrid zone between collared and pied flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca), and an in vitro experiment comparing conspecific and heterospecific sperm performance in female reproductive tract fluid, to evaluate the potential significance of female cryptic choice. We show that the females most at risk of hybridizing (pied flycatchers) frequently copulate with multiple males and are able to inhibit heterospecific sperm performance. The negative effect on heterospecific sperm performance was strongest in pied flycatcher females that were most likely to have been previously exposed to collared flycatcher sperm. We thus demonstrate that a reproductive barrier acts after copulation but before fertilization in a socially monogamous vertebrate. While the evolutionary history of this barrier is unknown, our results imply that there is opportunity for it to be accentuated via a reinforcement-like process.

    Nyckelord
    Cryptic female choice, hybrid zones, postcopulatory prezygotic barriers, reinforcement, speciation, sexual selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303102 (URN)10.1111/evo.12986 (DOI)000381205700013 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2012-3722Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-05 Skapad: 2016-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Reproductive -omics of a wild avian speciation model unveils candidate genes for gamete interaction
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reproductive -omics of a wild avian speciation model unveils candidate genes for gamete interaction
    Visa övriga...
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex nature of interspecific interactions contributing to reproductive isolation means that we still know little about their molecular basis. Male reproductive traits are notorious for their fast evolution at the phenotypic and genotypic level, and divergence in components of the ejaculate can lead to incompatibilities between closely related species. Making use of recent advances of molecular tools and the extensive knowledge on the biology and ecology of young sister species, here the pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatcher (F. albicollis), allows the identification of candidate phenotypes and the underlying genotypes maintaining species boundaries. Pied flycatcher females can avoid costly production of sterile hybrids when mated to collared flycatchers by cryptically favouring conspecific sperm. Here, we describe the testes transcriptome and sperm proteome of both species, confirm the complexity of avian sperm development and functions and identify several candidate genes for interactions between sperm and the female reproductive tract, using multiple independent measures of divergence between the species. We show that divergence at the transcriptional and translational levels can potentially lead to the evolution of reproductive incompatibilities despite low levels of sequence divergence, and suggest that integrating several -omics techniques with knowledge of the biology of naturally hybridizing species will greatly improve our understanding of the molecular basis of speciation in the near future. 

    Nyckelord
    Reproductive isolation, cryptic female choice, sperm, proteomics, transcriptomics, Ficedula flycatchers
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326809 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-30 Skapad: 2017-07-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-07-30
  • 3032.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Håstad, Olle
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The phylogenetic distribution of ultraviolet sensitivity in birds2013Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, s. 36-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colour vision in birds can be categorized into two classes, the ultraviolet (UVS) and violet sensitive (VS). Their phylogenetic distributions have traditionally been regarded as highly conserved. However, the complicated nature of acquiring spectral sensitivities from cone photoreceptors meant that until recently, only a few species had actually been studied. Whether birds are UVS or VS can nowadays be inferred from a wide range of species via genomic sequencing of the UV/violet SWS1 cone opsin gene. Results: We present genomic sequencing results of the SWS1 gene from 21 avian orders. Amino acid residues signifying UV sensitivity are found in the two most important spectral tuning sites 86 and 90 of Pteroclidiformes and Coraciiformes, in addition to the major clades, Palaeognathae, Charadriiformes, Trogoniformes, Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, where they where previously known to occur. We confirm that the presumed UVS-conferring amino acid combination F86, C90 and M93 is common to Palaeognathae and unique to this clade, despite available spectrometric evidence showing the ostrich retina to be VS. Conclusions: By mapping our results together with data f