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  • 301.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 302.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 303.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Absence behaviour as traffic crash predictor in bus drivers2009In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.

    Method

    Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.

    Results

    One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.

    Discussion

    The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.

    Impact on industry

    The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.

  • 304.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Bus driver accident record: the return of accident proneness.2009In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 305.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Human Factors, Cranfield University.
    Culpable versus non-culpable traffic accidents; what is wrong with this picture?2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is often implicitly or explicitly assumed in traffic accident research that drivers with accidents designated as non-culpable are a random sample from the population. However, this assumption is dependent upon differences in the criterion used for culpability. If drivers are erroneously categorized by assuming randomness, results could be grossly misleading. Method: The assumption of randomness leads to two predictions: first, no correlation should exist between culpable and non-culpable crashes; and second, the accident groups should differ on the variables known to be associated with accidents, such as amount of driving experience. These predictions were tested in two samples of bus drivers. Results: It was found that in a sample with a harsh criterion (70% culpable accidents) for crash responsibility, the drivers with non-culpable accidents had the features expected, namely, they were more experienced for example, while in a sample with a lenient criterion (50 % culpable), this was not so. Discussion: It was concluded that similar studies to the present one would need to be undertaken to establish exactly what percentage of drivers in a given population should be assigned culpable accidents, and construct a criterion that yields this ratio. Otherwise, the theoretical assumptions of randomness and non-responsibility will probably be violated to some degree. Impact on Industry: Many estimates of risk of crash involvement may have been wrong. Given the potential for erroneous criteria, a number of studies may make invalid assumptions from their data.

  • 306.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reporting guide for studies on individual differences in traffic safety2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 381-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Studies on individual differences in traffic safety report differently on their methodologies, and use different statistics, and these are therefore difficult to compare and meta-analyze. Method: Based upon a previous, extensive review and meta-analysis of the traffic safety literature, several recommendations are made about what features of the methodology of studies on individual differences (including evaluations) in safety need to be reported to facilitate interpretation and meta-analysis. Similarly, some basic types of statistical values are recommended. Impact on Industry: The accumulation of knowledge about individual differences in traffic safety would be facilitated if scientific authors and journals adhered to these guidelines.

  • 308.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aggregation of driver celeration behavior data: Effects on stability and accident prediction2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 487-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions about effects of aggregating driver celeration data were tested in a set of data where bus drivers' behavior had been measured repeatedly over three years in a city environment. For drivers with many measurements, this data was correlated with the drivers' accident record at various levels of aggregation over measurements. A single measurement (one sample) was seldom a significant predictor, but for each drive added to a mean, the variation explained in accident record was increased by about 1%. Also, correlations between measurements increased when these were aggregated, and the association with number of passengers (a proxy for traffic density) decreased somewhat, all as predicted. These results show that although driver celeration behavior is only semi-stable across time and environments, aggregating measurements increases both stability and predictive power versus accidents considerably. The celeration variable is therefore promising as a tool for identifying dangerous drivers, if these can be measured repeatedly, or, even better, continuously.

  • 309.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-speed accidents with buses in public transport in the city of Uppsala during the years 1986–2000 are coded in 17 variables concerning mainly physical properties of the accident. The taxonomy uses classifications from existing schemes, but some are altered and some new are added to capture common features of reports of bus accidents in this population. It is found that side contacts and singles are the most common accidents, and that more than a quarter of all accident involvements occurs at bus stops. Inter-rater reliability calculations for the categories show that all except one have reliabilities above 80%. The level of internal validity, calculated as agreement of frequencies between time periods, is acceptable, despite many possible sources of change and bias. It is argued that the validity of this database far exceeds that of the, for research purposes normally used, non-company self-reports, state- and police-archives, due to more extensive reporting and corroborating evidence. The practical usefulness of these results and accident taxonomies in general is discussed.

  • 310.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density cirrcumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Method: Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). Results: After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. Conclusions: The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  • 311.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour2015In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  • 312.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    If you can’t take the heat: Influences of temperature on bus accident rates2008In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influences of heat and rain upon accident risk of city buses in a Swedish town were studied for a 10-year time period, but no reliable effects found, despite the fact that the temperature might be as high as 30 degrees C outside the vehicles. As the use of single accidents with buses bypasses many of the methodological problems inherent in the study of weather effects on accident rates, for example changes in general traffic density, the present study was a rather strict test of the hypothesis of increased accident risk due to these factors. It was therefore concluded that rain and high temperatures do not increase the risk of accident for low-speed buses in Sweden. However, there could still be an effect of hot weather on bus accidents at higher temperatures than those normally found in Sweden.

  • 313.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lady Macbeth går igen1999In: Beteendeterapeuten, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lady Macbeth tvår sina händer1998In: Beteendeterapeuten, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 315.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term prediction of traffic accident record from bus driver celeration behavior2007In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers measured a number of times was used to predict their culpable accidents over increasing time periods. It was found that predictive power was considerable (>.30 correlation) over 5 years of time with aggregated celeration (mean of repeated measurements) as independent variables, and there were also indications that power reached even further, although too low Ns made these results unreliable. Similarly, there were indications of even stronger correlations with increased aggregation of celeration values. The results were discussed in terms of the methodology needed to bring out such results, and the stability of accident-causing behavior over time.

  • 316.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Meta-analysis of the difference in accident risk between long and short truck configurations2008In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 315-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether there is a difference in accident risk for differently sized truck configurations, a meta-analysis was undertaken of all available research. It was found that most studies had been made in the US, and that several methodological problems have plagued this area of investigation, mainly the lack of good exposure data. As larger trucks tend to drive on bigger, and therefore safer, roads, this needs to be taken into account. Some researchers have also suspected that there are systematic differences between drivers of different trucks, but the present analysis showed that this is probably a weak effect. Furthermore, it has been shown that the effects of accidents increase with increasing weight, at least up to a certain point, which makes the comparisons of accident risk sensitive to what type of accident has been investigated. Mean values of the risk ratios between long and short truck configurations were calculated from more than 20 studies, in the categories All, Injuries and Fatal. Also, separate values were computed for studies that had held the influence of road type constant in some way, and those that had not. Given that larger trucks replace a higher number of smaller ones on the roads, the differences in all categories of accidents would seem to indicate that, as a population, heavier trucks have fewer accidents, although the difference is small for Fatal. Unexpectedly, this positive traffic safety effect was more pronounced for the studies that had held road type constant. Furthermore, it was evident from the literature that although the overall effects were positive regarding truck size, larger vehicles have specific problems, which probably put them more at risk in certain environments, like towns.

  • 317.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on self-reports of driver behavior2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Offending drivers are often re-educated, but these courses have seldom been shown to have any safety effects. Method: An on-line improvement course for offending drivers below the age of 25 was evaluated with several driver inventories. Results: The drivers reported higher levels of aggression, stress, sensation seeking, drunk driving, and driving violations, six months after the course than before. However, these levels were lower than those of controls, indicating that the initially low levels for the education group were due to socially desirable responding, as measured by a lie scale, an effect that waned after the course. Discussion: The results can be interpreted as a positive effect of the education, although this conclusion is tentative and not in agreement with all effects in the data. Impact on industry: The results are in disagreement with previous evaluation studies using the same or similar instruments, and show the need to include controls for social desirability in self-report studies.

  • 318.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The accident-exposure association: self-reported versus recorded collisions2011In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: It has been claimed that exposure to risk of road traffic accidents (usually conceptualized as mileage) is curvilinearly associated with crashes (i.e., the increase in number of crashes decreases with increased mileage). However, this effect has been criticized as mainly an artifact of self-reported data. Method: To test the proposition that self-reported accidents create part of the curvilinearity in data by under-reporting by high-accident drivers, self-reported and recorded collisions were plotted against hours of driving for bus drivers. Results: It was found that the recorded data differed from self-reported information at the high end of exposure, and had a more linear association with the exposure measure as compared to the self-reported data, thus supporting the hypothesis. Discussion: Part of the previously reported curvilinearity between accidents and exposure is apparently due to biased methods. Also, the interpretation of curvilinearity as an effect of exposure upon accidents was criticized as unfounded, as the causality may just as well go the other way. Impact on industry: The question of how exposure associates with crash involvement is far from resolved, and everyone who uses an exposure metric (mileage, time, induced) should be careful to investigate the exact properties of their variable before using it.

  • 319.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The theoretical features of some current approaches to risk perception2001In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 237-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three approaches to risk perception (RP), the psychometric, the Basic Risk Perception Model, and the social amplification of risk, are evaluated using four common criteria for scientific theories. All approaches are found to meet the criterion of describing a large set of data, and for the psychometric approach and the Basic Risk Perception Model, the criterion of parsimony is fulfilled. The criteria of falsifiability and generating testable hypotheses are not met by any of these approaches. It is concluded that there is not as much theory available in RP research as could be expected at face value, if theory is defined as statements about causal mechanisms generating testable hypotheses. These three approaches instead qualifies as models (here defined as mathematical descriptions of data).

  • 320. Afanaseva, Anastasiya
    et al.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Är faktagranskning lösningen på falska nyheter?2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 7, p. 18-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Falska nyheter har blivit ett omdiskuterat fenomen i samband med politiska val de senaste åren. En motreaktion har varit faktagranskningar som ska förhindra att felaktiga uppgifter får fäste. Vi redogör för ett experiment om hur attityden till invandringens kostnader påverkades av en felaktig uppgift samtidigt som korrekt information gavs. De som fick ta del av uppgiften om mycket överdrivna kostnader var betydligt mer benägna att anse att för mycket resurser läggs på invandring jämfört med en kontrollgrupp som enbart fick ta del av korrekt infor-mation. Resultatet tyder på att faktagranskningar har begränsad möjlighet att lösa problemet med falska nyheter

  • 321.
    Afeworki, Helen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lindahl, Emy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Migration och lycka: En empirisk studie om samhandet mellan migration och lycka2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöktes sambandet mellan lyckonivån och migrationsbakgrund på individnivå. De migrationsgrupper som inkluderas är icke-migranter, första och andra generationen européer och första och andra generationen icke-européer. Datan kommer ifrån 8 omgångar från European Social Survey mellan 2002 till 2016 och har tolkats med hjälp av en OLS-estimering där fixa effekter samt diverse kontrollvariabler inkluderades. Vi undersökte effekten av migrantbakgrund på lyckonivån samt livstillfredställelsen. Vi tittade även på huruvida religion, utbildning och inkomst har olika effekter på lyckonivån och livstillfredställelsen för de olika grupperna. Icke-migranter är lyckligare än både första och andra generationens migranter medan andra generationen är lyckligare än första generationen vilket indikerar att tid i landet möjligtvis har en effekt på lycka. Européer är även lyckligare än icke-européer. Vi finner små skillnader vid beräkningen av effekten av inkomst, utbildning och religion på migrantgruppers lycka och tillfredsställelse. Resultatets interna och externa validitet hade ökat om man hade kunnat skilja ekonomiska migranter och flyktingar.

  • 322.
    Afzal, Samra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Big data analysis of Customers’ information: A case study of Swedish Energy Company’s strategic communication2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Big data analysis and inbound marketing are interlinked and can play a significant role in the identification of target audience and in the production of communication content as per the needs of target audience for strategic communication campaigns. By introducing and bringing the marketing concepts of big data analysis and inbound marketing into the field of strategic communication this quantitative study attempts to fill the gap in the limited body of knowledge of strategic communication research and practice. This study has used marketing campaigns as case studies to introduce a new strategic communication model by introducing the big data analysis and inbound marketing strategy into the three staged model of strategic communication presented by Gulbrandsen, I. T., & Just, S. N. in 2016. Big data driven campaigns are used to explain the procedure of target audience selection, key concepts of big data analysis, future opportunities, practical applications of big data for strategic communication practitioners and researchers by identifying the need for more academic research and practical use of big data analysis and inbound marketing in the strategic communication area. The study shows that big data analysis has potential to contribute in the field of strategic and target oriented communication. Inbound marketing and big data analysis has been used and considered as marketing strategy but this study is an attempt to shift the attention towards its role in strategic communication so there is a need to study big data analysis and inbound marketing with an open mind without confining it with some particular fields.

  • 323.
    Agadagba, Efeoghene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    The Social Network of Changing Your Mind: 2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We  are increasingly turn to social media for our news consumption two related media phenomenon that influence media consumption are the “Echo chamber” and “Filter Bubble”. Echo chamber this the phenomenon that we tend to have conversation only with those that has the same likeminded as we do while Filter bubble is created by Social media and information retrieval technology that tends to priorities showing us things it already know we like.

    The aim of this thesis is to suggest design solution for social media that may counter the effect of “Echo chamber” and “Filter Bubble”. The precise method used on this thesis is play centric design method and both intermediate and final evaluations were done through qualitative evaluation.

    At the end a design solution of Viewlette game were presented. It can be concluded that the suggested design solution may have the tendency to counter the effect of Filter bubble and Echo chamber on social networking site by enabling people that has conflicting points of view to still listen to each other and understand an argument from different perspective.

  • 324.
    Age, Age categories, and Generations: A Discussion of Conceptualisations
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hammarström, Gunhild2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 325.
    Age, Lars-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Goal-oriented balancing: happy-happy negotiations beyond win-win situations2017In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to suggest a dynamic model incorporating the important dimensions that exist in negotiation processes. Design/methodology/approach - To produce a general and conceptual theory of negotiation, the grounded theory methodology is deployed. Findings - The core process in this model is dubbed "goal-oriented balancing" and describes how he negotiator is continuously balancing opposing, and seemingly contrasting, forces in a situation specific and dynamic manner to reach agreements. Based on these findings, this study also suggests a concept to describe negotiations that is focused on collaboration and that is not an oxymoron as is the concept of "win-win". Practical implications - This conceptual model can be used by managers and practitioners to navigate in a negotiation process. Originality/value - This is the first grounded theory study in negotiation research and attempt to describe negotiation processes as dynamic events in which different dimensions are managed simultaneously.

  • 326.
    Ageberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science, Media and Communication.
    Att göra det digitala till det normala: En studie av svenska skivbolags samarbete med iTunes MusicStore och Spotify på den digitala musikförsäljningsarenan2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to define and analyse how Swedish record companies work with digital musical content distributors. A more narrow aim is to show how the record companies and with the digital musical content distributors iTunes Music Store and Spotify create incentives for consumer’s to use legal digital music channels through the Internet. To further circle the core of the problem following questions have been asked: How does the record companies provide iTunes Music Store and Spotify with digital content and what is done by the record companies to retain control over the material? How do the record companies view digital musical sales and what incentives are given to consumers to buy music digitally? Finally, What position of power do iTunes Music Store and Spotify have on the digital content arena?

    Material/Method: The data collected for this thesis is retrieved through personal interviews with representatives from three of the four major record companies Universal Music, Warner Music and EMI and their Swedish branches.

    Main results: The consumer’s access to digital content through iTunes Music Store and Spotify is of the utmost importance and is a prerequisite. Even if the record companies choose to not demand DRM protection on their products it does not stop Apple from keeping their Fairplay protection. In this way Apple is the company controlling the files, even if the Record Companies have made their decision based on research, which has shown that sales go down if the music files are DRM protected. The record companies have chosen not to get involved with the sales of digital content. This results in power being shifted to E-tailers such as iTunes Music Store and Spotify. The incentives the consumers are given to buy music digitally are found in the surplus value, which is supported by iTunes Music Store and Spotify. These surplus values are such services as recommendations of music or artists. Different packaging solutions, such as subscriptions through an Internet provider, do not raise the value of the music. The value is added to the Internet provider’s products and not the music, but they do guarantee a steady income for the record companies.

  • 327.
    Ageberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science.
    Into tomorrow1: Constructing scenarios for the record industry in the 21-century2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: Into tomorrow – Constructing scenarios for the record industry in the 21-century.Number of Pages: 54 (55 including enclosures)Author: Erik G AgebergTutor: Else NygrenCourse: Media and Communication Studies DPeriod: Spring semester 2009University: Division of Media and Communication studies, Department ofinformation science, Uppsala University.Purpose/Aim: The aim of this paper is to, through scenario planning methodology,present recommendations in order for record companies to be competitive in the nearfuture. In order to achieve this goal three question where asked. (1) What are the mostcentral problems of the record industry? (2) How can these problems affect the futurein the industry? (3) In what way can record companies’ work to avoid theseproblems? The paper focuses on the Swedish market partly because of the giventimeframe but also because of Sweden’s position in that of file sharing as well astechnological advances. It is also assumed in this paper that the future of music saleswill be concentrated to the Internet.Material/Method: The chosen method for this paper was scenario planning. Anextensive literature study was complemented with interviews of key players involvedin content consumption over the Internet.Main results: A fundamental issue for the future of the music industry is that oflegislation. The outcome of the record industry’s future is almost exclusivelydependent on the way, which the legislation takes. A stricter legislation, whichincludes violations of citizens’ personal integrity, may backfire and result in politicalpirate parties’ becoming members of parliaments. This may in turn result in that theintellectual property laws of the nineteenth century are removed. Suing privatepersons and trackers can result in record companies alienating an entire generation ofmusic consumers. Record companies attempts to retain music as a product may proveto be futile within time, but they can absolutely prolong the period in which it is aproduct. It is nevertheless, not entirely negative for music to become a service. Bybeing a service music can more easily be attached to another service, like an Internetsubscription, or an experience.

  • 328.
    Ageberg, Erik Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Into tomorrow: Constructing scenarios for the record industry in the 21-century2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Aim: The aim of this paper is to, through scenario planning methodology, present recommendations in order for record companies to be competitive in the near future. In order to achieve this goal three question where asked. (1) What are the most central problems of the record industry? (2) How can these problems affect the future in the industry? (3) In what way can record companies’ work to avoid these problems? The paper focuses on the Swedish market partly because of the given timeframe but also because of Sweden’s position in that of file sharing as well as technological advances. It is also assumed in this paper that the future of music sales will be concentrated to the Internet. Material/Method: The chosen method for this paper was scenario planning. An extensive literature study was complemented with interviews of key players involved in content consumption over the Internet. Main results: A fundamental issue for the future of the music industry is that of legislation. The outcome of the record industry’s future is almost exclusively dependent on the way, which the legislation takes. A stricter legislation, which includes violations of citizens’ personal integrity, may backfire and result in political pirate parties’ becoming members of parliaments. This may in turn result in that the intellectual property laws of the nineteenth century are removed. Suing private persons and trackers can result in record companies alienating an entire generation of music consumers. Record companies attempts to retain music as a product may prove to be futile within time, but they can absolutely prolong the period in which it is a product. It is nevertheless, not entirely negative for music to become a service. By being a service music can more easily be attached to another service, like an Internet subscription, or an experience.

  • 329.
    Agebro, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Landeström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fondstorlekens inverkan på prestation: En undersökning av aktiefonder på den svenska marknaden under perioder av upp- och nedgångar.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks fondstorlekens inverkan på prestation i form av avkastning. Dagens ekonomier utmärks av hög volatilitet och innehåller många perioder av upp- och nedgångar, vilket påverkar valet av investering. Sverige är bäst på fondsparande i världen på så sätt att störst andel av befolkningen sparar i fonder, där aktiefonder är populärast. Vi frågar oss i denna uppsats om storleken av en aktiefond även kan vara något man bör ta hänsyn till i sitt val av fonder. Genom att undersöka 26 svenska aktiefonder i perioder av upp- och nedgångar på den svenska marknaden under åren 2000-2011 och jämföra deras prestation inbördes och mot index, så utreder vi om storlek har betydelse. Vi utför även korrelationsanalyser mellan avkastning och fyra utvalda variabler; fondförmögenhet, antal innehav, andel topp 10 innehav och standardavvikelse, för att se om det kan finnas ett samband. Vi visar slutligen utifrån vår undersökning att storlek av en aktiefond bör tas en viss hänsyn till i valet av fond, den är dock inte avgörande. Många faktorer spelar in i valet, inte minst bland aktiefonder, men om allt annat är lika så säger våra resultat att fondens antal innehav och koncentrationen av dessa bör ges extra hänsyn.

  • 330.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comment on F. Giavazzi and M. Pagano: Non-Keynesian effects of fiscal policy changes1996In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 3, no 1Article, book review (Other scientific)
  • 331.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comment on G. Weber: Has consumer behaviour changed? Booms and busts in aggregate consumption1996In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 3, no 2Article, book review (Other scientific)
  • 332.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comment on J. Vartiainen: Understanding state-led late industrialisation1997In: Government and growthArticle, book review (Other scientific)
  • 333.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the benefits from rigid labour markets: norms, market failures, and social insurance1999In: The Economic Journal, ISSN ISSN 0013-0133, Vol. 109, no 453, p. F143-F146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Välfärdsstat, tillväxt och samhällsekonomisk effektivitet1999In: Tillväxt och ekonomisk politik, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 1999Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 335.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    What can the welfare state accomplish? An introduction1998In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Agell, J
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Why Sweden's welfare state needed reform1996In: ECONOMIC JOURNAL, ISSN 0013-0133, Vol. 106, no 439, p. 1760-1771Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Agell, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Berg, L
    Does financial deregulation cause a consumption boom?1996In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, ISSN 0347-0520, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 579-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a growing number of critics, the process of financial liberalisation in the 1980s is to blame for the volatile macroeconomic development in a number of countries, including the U.K. and the Nordic economies. We examine how financial deregulat

  • 338.
    Agell, J., Berg, L., Edin, P.-A.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Swedish boom to bust cycle: tax reform, consumption, and asset structure1995In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 271-314Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Agell, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Calmfors, L
    Jonsson, G
    Fiscal policy when monetary policy is tied to the mast1996In: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, ISSN 0014-2921, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1413-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the time inconsistency problem of both exchange rate and fiscal policy in a small open economy. The equilibrium under discretion is characterised by inflation and a deficit. Commitment of the exchange-rate instrument only, e.g. through

  • 340.
    Agell, J., Englund, P., Södersten, J.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Incentives and redistribution in the welfare state -- the Swedish tax reform1998Book (Other scientific)
  • 341.
    Agell, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Englund, P.
    Södersten, J.
    Svensk skattepolitik i teori och praktik1995Book (Other scientific)
  • 342.
    Agell, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Englund, P
    Södersten, J
    Tax reform of the century - The Swedish experiment1996In: NATIONAL TAX JOURNAL, ISSN 0028-0283, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 643-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What can changes in tax structure accomplish? The Swedish tax reform of 1991 is the most far-reaching reform in any industrialized country in the postwar period. It represents a thorough application of a strategy of rate cuts cum base broadening, and it h

  • 343.
    Agell, J., Englund, P., Södersten, J.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Swedish tax reform: An introduction1995In: Swedish Economic Policy Review, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Agell, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lommerud, KE
    Minimum wages and the incentives for skill formation1997In: JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS, ISSN 0047-2727, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that minimum wages may have beneficial effects on human capital allocation in a situation when the marginal product of skilled labor is shared between firm and worker according to bargaining strength. Firms prefer more productive workers to less p

  • 345.
    AGELL, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    LUNDBORG, P
    FAIR WAGES IN THE OPEN-ECONOMY1995In: ECONOMICA, ISSN 0013-0427, Vol. 62, no 247, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show how an extended theory of fair wages can be incorporated in the two-by-two Heckscher-Ohlin model. An important feature of the model is the existence of involuntary unemployment. Several results stand out. First, there is no longer a simple relatio

  • 346.
    AGELL, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    LUNDBORG, P
    THEORIES OF PAY AND UNEMPLOYMENT - SURVEY EVIDENCE FROM SWEDISH MANUFACTURING FIRMS1995In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, ISSN 0347-0520, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 295-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview survey was designed to explore how personnel managers and senior wage negotiators respond to popular models of the labor market. As in Blinder and Choi (1990), our results indicate that relative wages and notions of fairness are important, an

  • 347.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    En annorlunda guide till arbetsmarknadens institutioner2001In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 2001, no 3, p. 175-186Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 348.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the benefits from rigid labour markets : norms, market failures,and social insurance1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The common view that far-reaching labour market deregulation is the only remedy for high European unemployment is too simplistic. First, the evidence suggests that deeply rooted social customs are an important cause of wage rigidity, going beyond the legal constraints emphasized in the political debate. Second, in a second-best setting, a compressed wage structure may generate an efficiency gain. Finally, based on simple plots of the relation between labour market institutions and openness in OECD countries, I conclude that the globalization of economic activity may lead to increased demand for various labour market rigidities.

  • 349.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the benefits from rigid labour markets : norms, market failures,and social insurance1998Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The common view that far-reaching labour market deregulation is the only remedy for high European unemployment is too simplistic. First, the evidence suggests that deeply rooted social customs are an important cause of wage rigidity, going beyond the lega

  • 350.
    Agell, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the determinants of labour market institutions : rent-sharing vs. social insurance2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the structure of labour market institutions? This paper argues that common explanations based on rent sharing are incomplete; unions, job protection, and egalitarian pay structures may have as much to do with social insurance of otherwise uninsurable risks as with rent sharing and vested interests. In support of this more benign complementary hypothesis the paper presents a range of historical, theoretical, and cross-country regression evidence. The social insurance perspective changes substantially the assessment of often-proposed reforms of European labour market institutions. The benefits from eliminating labour market rigidities have to be set against the costs of reduced coverage of human capital related risk. The paper also argues that it is unclear whether the forces of globalisation, and the new economy, will really force countries to make their labour markets more flexible. While these phenomena may increase the efficiency costs of existing institutions, they may also make people more willing to pay a high premium to preserve institutions that provide insurance.

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