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  • 301.
    Karlberg, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    What ethical dilemmas do AI music startups face?2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 302.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    User-centered Visualizations of Transcription Uncertainty in AI-generated Subtitles of News Broadcast2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AI-generated subtitles have recently started to automate the process of subtitling with automatic speech recognition. However, people may not perceive that the transcription is based on probabilities and may entail errors. For news that is broadcast live may this be controversial and cause misinterpretation. A user-centered design approach was performed investigating three possible solutions towards visualizing transcription uncertainties in real-time presentation. Based on the user needs, one proposed solution was used in a qualitative comparison with AI- generated subtitles without visualizations. The results suggest that visualization of uncertainties support users’ interpretation of AI-generated subtitles and helps to identify possible errors. However, it does not improve the transcription intelligibility. The result also suggests that unnoticed transcription errors during news broadcast is perceived as critical and decrease trust towards the news. Uncertainty visualizations may increase trust and prevent the risk of misinterpretation with important information.

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  • 303.
    Karni, Liran
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Empir Res Informat Syst, Sch Business, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-70281 Örebro, Sweden..
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Media Technol, Växjö, Sweden..
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Neurology.
    Klein, Gunnar Oskar
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Empir Res Informat Syst, Sch Business, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-70281 Örebro, Sweden..
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Empir Res Informat Syst, Sch Business, Fakultetsgatan 1, S-70281 Örebro, Sweden..
    Toward Improved Treatment and Empowerment of Individuals With Parkinson Disease: Design and Evaluation of an Internet of Things System2022In: JMIR Formative Research, E-ISSN 2561-326X, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e31485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic degenerative disorder that causes progressive neurological deterioration with profound effects on the affected individual's quality of life. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve patient empowerment and clinical decision support in PD care. Home-based disease monitoring is an emerging information technology with the potential to transform the care of patients with chronic illnesses. Its acceptance and role in PD care need to be elucidated both among patients and caregivers.

    Objective: Our main objective was to develop a novel home-based monitoring system (named EMPARK) with patient and clinician interface to improve patient empowerment and clinical care in PD.

    Methods: We used elements of design science research and user-centered design for requirement elicitation and subsequent information and communications technology (ICT) development. Functionalities of the interfaces were the subject of user-centric multistep evaluation complemented by semantic analysis of the recorded end-user reactions. The ICT structure of EMPARK was evaluated using the ICT for patient empowerment model.

    Results: Software and hardware system architecture for the collection and calculation of relevant parameters of disease management via home monitoring were established. Here, we describe the patient interface and the functional characteristics and evaluation of a novel clinician interface. In accordance with our previous findings with regard to the patient interface, our current results indicate an overall high utility and user acceptance of the clinician interface. Special characteristics of EMPARK in key areas of interest emerged from end-user evaluations, with clear potential for future system development and deployment in daily clinical practice. Evaluation through the principles of ICT for patient empowerment model, along with prior findings from patient interface evaluation, suggests that EMPARK has the potential to empower patients with PD.

    Conclusions: The EMPARK system is a novel home monitoring system for providing patients with PD and the care team with feedback on longitudinal disease activities. User-centric development and evaluation of the system indicated high user acceptance and usability. The EMPARK infrastructure would empower patients and could be used for future applications in daily care and research.

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  • 304.
    Kartalidis, Nikolaos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Speech recognition in construction equipment: Creating a voice assistant for an autonomous wheel loader2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to explore possible applications of speech recognition in construction equipment and autonomous machines. Advancements in autonomous vehicle technology mean that soon, vehicles like wheel loaders will be able perform tasks without human operators. Those vehicles still require a method of interaction with humans and recent improvements in speech recognition mean that it is possible for a natural voice-based interface to be used. The research question of this thesis is the extent to which voice control can replace hand-operated controls in an intelligent autonomous machine. Interviews and observation sessions took place in order to identify the requirements such a speech interface would have to fulfill. Next, a design process took place in order to build a prototype of such system, followed by test sessions to evaluate it. The prototype demonstrated positive attributes, with great learnability and ease of operation, but speech recognition errors meant low performance, and overall user satisfaction.

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  • 305.
    Kauppi, Arvid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    A human-computer interaction approach to train traffic control2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Train traffic in Sweden have increased over the last years and is today at an all time high. At the same time demands for improved punctuality and better predictability are increasing. If it would be possible to improve punctuality and thereby the possibility to use the infrastructural resources more optimally by providing improved systems for controlling train traffic, this could be a very cost efficient way to improve the train traffic.

    This thesis addresses research with a primary goal to investigate how, from a Human-Computer Interaction perspective, systems could be designed to better support the human's capacity and capabilities to control train traffic in an efficient way. Earlier research on humans in control of complex systems contributes to this work. One important part of the research is to gain knowledge on how train dispatchers perform their work today and which difficulties that exist. The research has a user centered approach. In close co-operation with train traffic professionals we try to discuss and develop solutions for improving the situation. Since the project started in 1996 proposals of new strategies for control and also solutions for how such a system can be designed have been developed and to some extent evaluated.

    The Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) is now planning to build an operative control system based on control strategies and ideas from this research project.

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  • 306.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    AI and philosophizing2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    AI as gadfly2018In: Wabi-Sabi: Imperfection, incompleteness and impermanence in Organisational Life / [ed] Masayasu Takahashi et al., 2018, p. 150-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology helps us with many things, and we expect Artificial Intelligence (AI) to give usmuch more in the future. However, there are certain risks involved. In science fiction AI hasbeen described as something apocalyptic: Artificial General Intelligence or Super Intelligencetakes over the world using its thinking power. Humans become slaves, laboratory animals,zoo/reservation inhabitants, or simply exterminated.That has been fiction. Not anymore. Recent technological developments especially inMachine Learning, and AI achievements in complex games for example, created worriesabout the imminence of the above apocalypse.The discussions focus on issues like the probability of AI acquiring an independent existenceof itself, transforming us into something we do not want to be, affect or even direct evolutionin a radically different direction, etc. Not everyone agrees on whether any of these things willhappen, or when they may happen.AI is seen as a technology providing answers, products, services to us in order to satisfy ourneeds, solve our problems and make our world balanced and perfect. In accordance to that,the discussion about its benevolence or cruelty is about whether its deliveries will be good orbad to humans, animals, or the whole universe. This is a significant issue and we have tohandle it somehow.We suggest a different approach. It would be possible to handle the issue of the impact of AIif we changed focus from the product to the process: AI designed to help us use the “right”process of thinking instead of delivering answers to make our world perfect.In order to be able to design such an AI we need to know what we want. The answer to thisquestion demands knowledge about what we are. Are we recipients of services and productsthat we need according to our nature? Only that? Partly that? Are we recipients but throughus, through our thinking and through our choices? Or are we only thinking and choices, a kindof a Socratic psyche?If we think we are only recipients, and design AI in order to be successful in making our worldperfect, we may soon go to ruin like the old despots who could have all their wishes satisfied.Our thinking, making choices and feeling anxiety will unavoidably languish and go away. Itseems also that this would lead rapidly to the emergence of an independent AI with owngoals and existence. Not only because no one will be there to stop it, but also because therewill be a well-defined goal from the very beginning for AI to work for the best it can.If we design AI to make us think exclusively in the “right” way it will never let us be in peace.It will soon perplex our mind to dissolution, meaning we will not exist anymore. On the otherhand, AI would have a very clear goal to achieve, and being undisturbed because of our nonexistence,should very fast make itself independent.If we base the design of AI on the idea that we are both processors and recipients it could bejust right. This approach would be in accordance with the idea of thinking and knowledgebeing interdependent, and of us thinking in order to solve our problems and to satisfy ourneeds. Moreover, the goal would not be well-defined: Delivery or choice? Both delivery andchoice? Who chooses? Who delivers? Who thinks?

  • 308.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    AIと私たち (AI and Us)2021In: 情報倫理入門 (Introduction to Information Ethics): ICT社会におけるウェルビーイングの探求 (Pursuing Well-being in the ICT Society) / [ed] K. Murata and Y. Orito, Minerva Shobo , 2021, p. 248-253Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division Vi3.
    Artificial intelligence and the sustainability of thinking: How AI may destroy us, or help us2024In: Ethics and Sustainability in Digital Cultures / [ed] Thomas Taro Lennerfors and Kiyoshi Murata, London: Routledge, 2024, p. 19-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to provide answers, products, and services of increasing quality for the satisfaction of our needs. However, AI entails certain risks, some very serious, e.g., the risk of human enslavement or even extinction. In order to handle this ethical and sustainability issue properly, we need to ask questions about what we really want, what is our real goal, and what we really are. Classical philosophy defines us as thinking entities, and the main problem is the issue of how to think in the right way as persons or as groups and societies. Accordingly, the design and use of AI as a tool to support our thinking process may be the right way to take advantage of the possibilities AI offers. However, if we design and use AI as a provider of answers, services, and products, as we currently do, the risk is that an incessantly advanced AI will swiftly replace our thinking and by that undermine our existence.

  • 310.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing and acquiring ethical leadership competence2012In: Leadership through the Classics: leadership and management in a changing world - lessons from ancient eastern and western philosophy / [ed] Gregory P. Prastacos, Fuming Wang, Klas Eric Soderquist, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 389-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders need the ability to handle any moral problem that may arise 5during their professional activities; they need ethical competence. Ethical skill is, in 6psychology and in accordance to the classical philosophical position, understood as 7the basis and the aim of ethical competence of leaders. Based on that, we can 8construct valid assessment tools and training programs that support the acquisition 9and use of ethical competence and skills.

  • 311.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing and training ethical competence as a psychological ability in business organisations1999In: Building moral competence: in organisations, in business schools, in public sector institutions, Sandvika, Norway: Norwegian School of Management , 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers in organisations, need a capacity to cope with moral conflicts which arise in their ordinary activities, that is, they need high ethical competence. This competence means (a) high ethical awareness, the ability to anticipate ethical problems in real life and to perceive them in time, (b) the skill to analyse and solve them in an optimal way, (c) the capability to discuss and handle moral problems at group and organisation level, and together with significant others formulate ethical guidelines, (d) the power to argue convincingly for preferred actions or decisions made, and (e) the strength to implement controversial decisions.

  • 312.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Assessing usability of IT systems2012In: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hägg, Göran M., Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal skills and group processes are necessary in the production of knowledge to design and manage usable systems. AvI is a questionnaire that correlates these parameters of usability to utility and work environment. The main goal of AvI is to create a description of the processes that are necessary to achieve good usability: user participation, knowledge support, networking for coordination and cooperation etc, defined as philosophizing processes at personal and group levels. AvI’s ambition is to indicate whether the preconditions for these processes are present in an organization, to allow these to arise and to function in a satisfying and fruitful way. The evaluation of AvI showed that reliability coefficients and correlations to independent criteria were high, supporting the original hypothesis: AvI can be used to acquire information about the above parameters of an IT system’s usability in an easy and quick way. Although AvI only provides an indicative value, such a diagnosis of the usability of an organization’s IT infrastructure is valuable as an alert and to determine the extent of further initiatives.

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  • 313.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing and using ethical autonomous agents2014In: Sweden – Kyoto Symposium, Kyoto: Kyoto University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethical leadership in business: The significance of Information and Communication Technology2017In: Information and Management: Connect Things, Humans, Management / [ed] Murata, K. et al., Tokyo: Japan Society for Information and Management , 2017, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In business it is necessary for leaders to have the ability to handle all kinds of different moral problems that may arise during their professional activities. Difficult ethical issues arise today, not least because of the possibilities and risks of ICT. Failure to address moral issues properly has significant impact on an organization’s life, affecting profits and public relations as well as internal processes of the organization and the well being of the leader and the employees. Competence in handling moral problems in a satisfying way is therefore very important for any leader. Education in ethics should equip leaders for difficult decisions, and ethical competence is therefore the most important goal of training programs. We need reliable and effective methods to stimulate and support leaders’ ethical competence. Proper ICT tools developed and used in accordance to philosophical theory and to empirical research on ethical decision-making, can contribute to the development of leaders’ ethical competence.

  • 315.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Etisk kompetens viktigare än lag och moral2006In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, Vol. 19 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Moralpredikningar och flummigt etikprat tjänar ingenting till, så långt håller jag ned Mats Qviberg. Det leder definitivt inte till att man handlar rätt, eller slipper skandaler och ekonomiska förluster. Predikningar kan t o m vara direkt farliga om de uppfattas som det enda alternativet. Predikningar och flummigt prat ger, rättmätigt, dåligt rykte till etiken och kan faktiskt förhindra sunda åtgärder som verkligen skulle kunna göra nytta. Men, etik är inte nödvändigtvis flummig. Och jag håller inte med Mats Qviberg om att etiken inte behövs. Lagen räcker i många fall inte till. Inte ens moralen räcker till. Att det blir fel ibland beror inte bara på psykopaterna utan på att normala människor gör fel. Visst finns det lagar och moralprinciper och visst har de allra flesta människor en sund känsla för vad som är rätt och fel, men det räcker inte alltid i en konkret situation. Det som är generellt rätt kan vara fel i ett särskilt fall. En lag kan ibland stå mot en annan lag, en moralprincip mot en annan moralprincip, och ett intresse mot ett annat intresse. Vi blir alltså tvungna att hantera sådana situationer själva, och vi måste göra det rätt. Här kan etiken bidra. För att undvika att göra fel måste vi koncentrera oss på att göra det som behövs och inget annat. Jag talar då om att främja förmågan att hantera moraliska problem. Alltför ofta kopplar vi ihop den etiska kompetensen med en eller annan moralisk princip eller ideologi som därmed upphöjs till den godaste principen eller ideologin. Men är inte frågan om vilken princip eller ideologi som skall styra beslutsfattandet en fråga som bara den direkt berörde beslutsfattaren och dennes organisation ska besvara? Det handlar inte bara om att visa respekt för dem som tar emot etisk hjälp. Det är en förutsättning för att hjälpen ska fungera. Beslutsfattare behöver etiska färdigheter och organisationer behöver lämpliga etiska processer. De behöver verktyg för att själva bestämma vilka principer de ska ha och hur de ska tillämpa dem. Forskning och praktisk erfarenhet har visat att etikåtgärder med fokus på just det leder till bättre etiskt insikt, högre etisk kompetens, övertygande etisk argumentationsförmåga och etiskt självförtroende. Ansvariga personer och organisationer är inte betjänta av andras tolkningar och färdiga svar. Sådant fungerar helt enkelt inte. Det som händer är bara att etikexpertens och beslutsfattarens moral kommer i konflikt med varandra.

  • 316.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    How to handle issues of security and privacy2013In: ICT-ethics: Sweden and Japan, Linköping: LiU Tryck , 2013, p. 54-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ways to approach privacy and security are critically examined. The main question is how definitions may help us in our efforts to handle these issues in real life and allow us to create suitable and working system designs and policies. Given the controversial nature of privacy and security, and based on philosophical theory and psychological research, we have to focus on the ways, skills, methods and tools we adopt in order to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, designs, rules and principles.

  • 317.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT and sustainability: skills and methods for dialogue and policy making2015In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and to discuss the following issues: most often, discussions about Information and communication technology (ICT) sustainability focus on environmental issues; however, there are other aspects referring to ICT internal sustainability and to its role as a tool in managing general sustainability issues. The way to handle ICT sustainability issues is also significant.

    Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses and investigates various aspects of ICT sustainability, and of methods to handle these issues and make decisions.

    Findings: Classical philosophy and psychological empirical research on decision-making demonstrate the way to take care of ICT sustainability issues. This way is philosophizing, which has to be trained and supported for people and organizations involved to acquire the necessary skills and to use suitable methods.

    Originality/value: The paper highlights other significant aspects of ICT sustainability rather than the environmental impact alone. It also proposes focus on the way ICT sustainability issues are handled rather than focus on normative or ideological aspects of it.

  • 318.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT as a horsefly2012In: Critique, Democracy and Philosophy in 21st Century Information Society: Towards Critical Theories of Social Media / [ed] Christian Fuchs, 2012, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way we solve problems and make decisions has been at the focus of philosophy. Since ancient times the issue has been how to think in the right way. Skills, abilities, methods and processes have been investigated. According to Platon philosophers do not have the right answers but they can find the right answers. They have the skills and they can use the right tools to discard false ideas (aporia). Philosophers think and act in a democratic way among themselves. But anybody who has the ability to philosophize, to think self-critically, systematically, scientifically, i.e. has the Aristotelian virtue of phronesis or the Kantian skill of autonomy, and acts according to this, belongs to a democracy together with other like people. Unfortunately, this is not the only definition of democracy. Although democracy itself is a process, the common sense definition is either result oriented or focused on formalistic aspects, or a combination of both. The first means that societies providing high living standards, security, tolerance, good environment and other goods are called democratic. The second definition is based on the existence of certain procedures, institutions, roles and processes, like elections. The presence of formal procedures is sufficient for a democracy definition. But if democracy is a process neither the result of it nor its formal surface characteristics should have the highest significance. Maintaining and running the democratic process is the important aspect as well as the conditions supporting it. By saying this we are back to the philosophical discussion. In essence democracy is dialog between people. That means that people search for solutions to their problems by thinking together with others. But that presupposes that each person has a dialog with himself and that each person starts with the position that own ideas and beliefs need to be better (aporia). This makes it possible to listen to others. Each participant in a democratic process, or a dialog, feels always the need of other participants because he is expecting them to help him and together with other able people find a better idea (phronesis, autonomy).ICT can contribute to this process by making information accessible and therefore facilitating citizens’ participation in political decision making. It can support openness and by that invite people to be more aware and active. Furthermore, it can support horizontal communication among citizens. Issues that are of interest to few people or to people that for some reason have difficulties to contact each other by traditional means may be neglected in the political process even though they are important. ICT can easily overcome such difficulties and provide a powerful tool to connect, inform and coordinate people’s actions. Most important, ICT can support self-critical and systematic thinking, which is the base for successful democratic dialog. ICT systems are currently used to create aporia and to stimulate autonomy during a process of problem solving and decision making. Advanced games simulate the complexity of reality in micro worlds, broadening the spectrum of opportunities and possibilities to support dialog.

  • 319.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT as ethical competence2017In: Research, Ethics and Societal Impact: Responsible research: How to deal with animals and ICT in science - An ethical approach / [ed] Abdul H. Mohammed, Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet , 2017, p. 12-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology gives us new possibilities for diagnosis and therapy, but also for the organization of care, such as patient records and distance care. However, this involves risks in the form of wrong diagnoses, injuries in care, intrusion into patient privacy, etc. It is important that medicine technology works as intended and that healthcare professionals, patients and the public trust and accept this technology. Otherwise, we cannot take advantage of what technology has to offer.

    It is also important that healthcare professionals and all users of medicine technology understand how it works and what effects it may have. They need the ability to handle problems that may arise during use, including non-technical ones. Ethics is therefore a very important aspect in medicine technology development and use. It is necessary to integrate ethical aspects in the design of technology, and to develop and apply methods and tools to support ethical decision making of healthcare professionals, patients and all involved stakeholders.

  • 320.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Independent agents and ethics2014In: ICT and society, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 39-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Information Technology, systems, robots, etc., that are capable of processing information and acting independently of their human operators, has been accelerated as well as the hopes, and the fears, of the impact of those artifacts on environment, market, society, on human life generally. Many ethical issues are raised because of these systems being today, or in the future, capable of independent decision making and acting. In the present paper it is discussed how ethical decision support pro-grams can be integrated into robots and other relatively independent decision making systems to secure that decisions are made according to the basic theories of philosophy and to the findings of psychological research.

  • 321.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Information and Communication Technology for ethical leadership in business2019In: Journal of Information and Management, ISSN 1882-2614, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 6-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical leadership in business is very important. The way ethical issues are handled affect profits, work environment, customers and society. It is crucial for the survival and the well-being of any organization. Business leaders have to be supported in this, and to acquire the ability and the skills to handle ethical issues in a satisfying way for all stakeholders involved. They need ethical competence. Information and Communication Technology can contribute to the education and to the support of business leaders.  ICT tools can be developed according to philosophical theory and to psychological empirical research on ethical decision-making. Properly used in education programs, these tools can stimulate the acquisition of ethical competence.

  • 322.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning Adaptive Methods in Solving Moral Conflicts: Ethics Simulation in a Computer Micro-World1988In: SCHOOLS AND FAMILIES IN MORAL EDUCATION: PARTNERS OR ADVERSARIES? / [ed] Raymond Hummel, Lynn Katz, Kathleen Kowalski, Pittsburgh: THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION , 1988, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a computer simulation developed for the study of decision-making andproblem-solving in ethics. The simulation allows the experimental control of the feedback ofan individual's use of moral problem-solving methods. The hypothesis is that the individualadopts adaptive problems-solving methods.

  • 323.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Philosophizing as a usability method2013In: Ambiguous Technologies: Philosophical Issues, Practical Solutions, Human Nature / [ed] E. Buchanan, P. B. de Laat, H. T. Tavani and J. Klucarich, Lisbon: The International Society of Ethics and Information Technology , 2013, p. 194-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways of handling problems of IT systems usability and problems of ethics are similar to each other. Working with usability leads most often to the need of discussing problems of ethics, and today’s issues of ethics are mostly related to IT. The nature of IT and ethics seems to be very close to each other. Ready-made answers cannot be found and any solution proposed is easily contested. IT design and use have a strong connection to values. With classical and modern philosophy as a foundation, and based on psychological research on ethical decision making, it is suggested to focus on the way to take care of issues rather than on normative aspects or on the construction and application of usability standards and guidelines. It appears that the method used to handle problems in these areas is of crucial importance; and this is also common to both of them.

  • 324.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Philosophy and philosophology2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots and systems as autonomous ethical agents2010In: INTECH 2010: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Technologies / [ed] V. Kreinovich, J. Daengdej and T. Yeophantong, Bangkok: Assumption University , 2010, p. 5-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT systems and robots can help us to solve many problems caused by the quantity, variation and complexity of information; because we need to handle dangerous and risky situations; or because of our social and emotional needs like elderly care. In helping us, these systems have to make decisions and act accordingly to achieve the goals for which they were built. Ethical decision support tools can be integrated into robots and other decision making systems to secure that decisions are made according to the basic theories of philosophy and to the findings of psychological research.  This can be done, in non-independent systems, as a way for the system to report to its operator, and to support the operator's ethical decision making. On the other hand, fully independent systems should be able to regulate their own decision making strategies and processes. However, this cannot be based on normative predefined criteria, or on the ability to make choices, or on having own control, or on ability of rational processing.  It seems that it is necessary for an independent robot or decision system to have "emotions." That is, a kind of ultimate purposes that can lead the decision process, and depending on the circumstances, guide the adoption of a decision strategy, whatever it may be, rational, heuristic or automatic.

  • 326.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Storebror vs lillebror2014In: Upsala Nya Tidning, ISSN 1403-296, Vol. 124, no 77, p. A5-A5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    The relation between ICT, sustainability and ethics2011In: Politeia, ISSN 1128-2401, Vol. 104, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues about ICT, sustainability and ethics are very closely related. Allthree areas are interconnected, meaning that handling a problem belonging to onearea leads most often to the need to discuss issues from the other two areas. Theproblems in each area are very similar in nature. Ready-made answers cannot befound and any solution proposed is easily contested. Not only ethics but also ICTand sustainability have a strong connection to values. With classical and modernphilosophy as a foundation, and based on psychological research on ethical decisionmaking,it is suggested to focus on the way to take care of issues rather than onnormative or ideological aspects. It appears that the method used to handle problemsin these areas is of crucial importance; and this is also common to all of them.

  • 328.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Βιοηθική δεοντολογία, παιδιά και νοσηλευτικό προσωπικό2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [el]

    Τα ηθικά προβλήματα που προκύπτουν στις σχέσεις μεταξύ των ανθρώπων είναι σημαντικά. Σημαντικότερα είναι όμως τα προβλήματα σε σχέση με άτομα που βρίσκονται σε κάποια σχέση εξάρτησης, και ειδικότερα σε σχέση με παιδιά. Η ευθύνη σε αυτή την περίπτωση βαραίνει αποκλειστικά τους ενήλικες είτε αυτοί είναι νοσηλευτικό προσωπικό είτε γονείς είτε άλλοι εμπλεκόμενοι ενήλικες.

    Τα ηθικά προβλήματα που προκύπτουν σε αυτές τις περιπτώσεις απαιτούν άψογους χειρισμούς ειδάλλως ελλοχεύει ο κίνδυνος αποτυχίας της θεραπευτικής προσπάθειας, δημιουργία αντιπαραθέσεων και συγκρούσεων, πρόκληση συναισθηματικών τραυμάτων, κ.α.

    Ένας κλασσικός τρόπος αντιμετώπισης αυτών των κινδύνων είναι η διατύπωση ηθικών αρχών και κανόνων. Πράγματι, στον χώρο της βιοηθικής βρίσκουμε έναν μεγάλο αριθμό κωδίκων δεοντολογίας που καλύπτουν διαφορετικές δραστηριότητες και περιπτώσεις.

    Η συνήθης αντίληψη είναι ότι η ύπαρξη τέτοιων κωδίκων είναι αρκετή για τη σωστή εφαρμογή τους. Δεν είναι όμως έτσι απλά. Οι κανόνες δεν εφαρμόζονται αυτόματα. Πρέπει να ερμηνευθούν και να προσαρμοστούν στη συγκεκριμένη πραγματικότητα. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι τα υπεύθυνα άτομα ή οι ομάδες ατόμων πρέπει να διαθέτουν τις απαραίτητες  δεξιότητες για να μπορούν να εφαρμόσουν τους κανόνες με επιτυχία.  Δηλαδή, ο τρόπος σκέψης και δράσης τους απαιτεί εμπειρία ή προηγούμενη  εξάσκηση καθώς και διαρκή υποστήριξη και εξέλιξη.

    Για να αντιμετωπισθεί αυτό το πρόβλημα, και με βάση την ηθική φιλοσοφία και την έρευνα στη λήψη ηθικών αποφάσεων, έχουν αναπτυχθεί ειδικές εκπαιδευτικοί μέθοδοι και εργαλεία με στόχο την υποστήριξη της ηθικής δεξιότητας στην εφαρμογή των κανόνων δεοντολογίας. Είναι πρακτικά εφαρμόσιμοι και έχουν ήδη δοκιμαστεί σε πολλά και διαφορετικά ιδρύματα για την εκπαίδευση και ανάπτυξη ηθικών δεξιοτήτων υπεύθυνων ατόμων και ομάδων προσωπικού.

  • 329.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Can machines make ethical decisions?2013In: Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 693-699Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    IT security and sustainability2013In: ICT for Sustainability: Sustainability, Social Accountability and Computing / [ed] Diane Whitehouse, Zurich: ETH , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems security is of paramount importance. However, security levels and parameters are defined in a social context and are closely related to values, beliefs and interests. Security of systems is mainly related to people and society. Therefore, the focus of research in this area has to be on developing and testing practically applicable methods and tools to assure the security or IT systems critical to societal and environmental sustainability. Here present our theoretical and methodological work on how to construct tools for the achievement of the above goals as well as the results of testing our tools empirically.

  • 331.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Judging the complexity of privacy, openness and loyalty issues2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 416-419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy protection and whistle-blowing are controversial issues. Privacy has to be protected but it hinders access to correct information. Whistle-blowing is necessary for correct decision-making, neutralizing wrong beliefs and preventing crime but it may destabilize groups, institutions and societies, and cause conicts. The question investigated here was whether people judging the controversial issues of privacy and whistle-blowing take a moralistic or a philosophical approach. The hypothesis was that homogeneous responses point to a philosophical approach whereas responses correlated with cultural background point to a moralistic approach. Participants' responses to a questionnaire on Manning and Snowden cases did not produce an unambiguous picture, and this result did not lead to a decisive answer to our hypothesis question.

  • 332.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Methods for IT security and privacy2013In: ICT, society and human beings / [ed] P. Kommers and C. Gauzente, Prague: IADIS Press, 2013, p. 155-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The similar nature of IT security, privacy and ethics, and the difficulty to find ready-made answers, put the focus on theway one handles the problems in these areas. Philosophy has analyzed this issue in depth and it has given us thephilosophical method as the means to find satisfying solutions. Psychology has shown in empirical research what skillsare necessary for this purpose. Since the issues of IT security, privacy and ethics are very important for us today, we needto create and use tools and methods to take care of them.

  • 333.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Philosophical method and the conflict liberty-security2014In: Proceedings ETHICOMP 2014Li: berty and security in an age of ICTs, Paris: UPMC - Sorbonne Universités , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT both supports and controls our lives, but today it is necessary and unavoidable for our way of living. In the present paper different ways to approach security are critically examined. The main question is how we may able to handle these issues in real life and how to create suitable and working system designs and policies. We need to consider the controversial nature of security, and base our efforts on classical philosophical theory and psychological research. By that we can develop suitable skills, methods and tools to be adopted in a democratic and deliberative process in order to create, revise and apply policies, guidelines, designs, rules and principles.

  • 334.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Philosophy as the Road to Good ICT2018In: This Changes Everything – ICT and Climate Change: What Can We Do? / [ed] David Kreps, Charles Ess, Louise Leenen, Kai Kimppa, Springer, 2018, p. 293-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling satisfactorily ICT ethics issues in the design as well as in the use of systems, demands continuous adjustment to relevant values. In privacy, robotics and sustainability, this can be achieved through the development of personal thinking skills and the establishment and running of suitable group processes. In ethical decision making it is important to make a distinction between thinking as a process, and value-content as the result of this process. By focusing on the process, i.e. philosophizing, the philosophical method of deliberative thinking, we can construct and apply tools to support ethical decision making during the development and the use of ICT systems.

  • 335.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Adams, Andrew A.
    Meiji University, Centre for Business Ethics.
    Murata, Kiyoshi
    Meiji University, School of Commerce.
    Snowden’s revelations and the attitudes of students at Swedish universities2017In: Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, ISSN 1477-996X, E-ISSN 1758-8871, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 247-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to map Swedish students’ attitudes towards Snowden’s revelations and their effects in the political and socio-cultural environment of Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was answered by 190 Swedish university students. The quantitative responses to the survey and qualitative considerations of free text answers were statistically analysed.

    Findings – Swedish students had a high level of knowledge about the Snowden revelations; they actively searched for information, gave a positive judgement of Snowden’s actions and were willing to follow his example in Sweden, although not in the USA. They trusted their country and most of its institutions and authorities except for secret service agencies and the internet and computer software companies.

    Practical implications – This study could be used as a design of education for university students, especially in information technology programmes.

    Social implications – The study can be used for developing and applying policies on privacy, surveillance and whistle-blowing.

    Originality/value – This study is part of a bigger international study to map students’ attitudes towards Snowden’s revelations and their opinions about privacy, surveillance and whistle-blowing opening up for cross-cultural analyses.

  • 336.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Tools and methods for security: Stimulating the skill to philosophize2013In: European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference: 2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 163-165Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding optimal solutions to security issues is verydifficult or impossible. Conflicting interests and values decidewhat has to be done. Every thinkable answer contains both risksand possibilities. I our effort to find solutions we have always tonegotiate and make compromises. A dialectic process is necessaryin security in order to identify significant interests and values,and to formulate principles and policies. Handling security issuesand working for secure IT systems demand continuousadjustment to relevant values as well as the necessary personalskills and suitable group processes. Focusing on the method andmaking sure that the right way of proceeding has been adopted isthe way to get satisfactory answers to the problems of IT security.The philosophical method of deliberative thinking seems to be thebasis of such methods.

  • 337.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Björk, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    How ethical robots process information, communicate and act2015In: 1st TRANSOR Workshop: Methodological Problems of Social Robotics, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots can be of great help to obtain optimal solutions to problems in situations where humans have difficulties to perceive and process information, or make decisions and implement actions because of the quantity, variation and complexity of information.

     

    However, if they do not act in accordance to our ethical values they will not be used or will cause harm. Classical philosophical theory and psychological research on problem solving and decision making gives us a concrete definition of ethics and opens up the way for the construction of robots that can support handling of moral problems. Linguistic research focusing on language use as realization of meaning during the communication between humans and robots gives us the tools for investigating how particular linguistic features such as words and grammar may be related to ethical thinking.

     

    In such research work we can focus on three different kinds of robots: The first one is already programmed to act in certain ways, and the focus is on designers using ethical tools to identify moral problems and formulate solutions. The second is an integrated system which is also pre-programmed but also contains an ethical tool to gather information, to present it to the operators and to communicate with them. The third is trained autonomous systems in which we will implement automatic judgment. Such research will help us to clarify theoretical issues, to formulate working methods, and to develop technical solutions that will support ethical decision making of automated IT systems.

  • 338.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Informal learning in IT-use: Cognitive support as an operational strategy1999In: Human Centered Processes / [ed] P. Lenca, Brest: ENST Bretagne and Centre Universitaire , 1999, p. 29-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computerized support of personal and group skills for sustainability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a collaborative tool to facilitate and structure dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability, We have experienced that the tool is remarkably powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. Problems that involve many people, a trait that questions of sustainability share with ethics, can only be solved by answering questions about how these are affecting the problem situation and how these are affected by any proposed solution. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. Policy makers can get help to understand how arguments have been applied in concrete situations and how people and values can be affected by different courses of action. The structure of the tool invites to a proactive, concrete, solution-oriented dialogue where premises are made explicit and thus possible to address.

  • 340.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Etik och medicinteknik2015In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2015 / [ed] Fredrik Nikolajeff, Uppsala: Svensk Förening för Medicinsk Teknik och Fysik (MTF), Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala universitet , 2015, p. 94-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    De nya metoder för att diagnostisera och behandla sjukdomar och de nya möjligheter som den medicinska teknologin och då inte minst informationsteknologin erbjuder, ställer beslutsfattarna inom vården inför nya typer av etiska beslutssituationer. Förbättrade metoder för diagnosticering ger information som inte alltid har önskvärda konsekvenser, exempelvis abort av barn av oönskat kön. De nya möjligheterna att behandla sjukdomstillstånd som tidigare uppfattats som hopplösa innebär allvarliga och svåra val då liv kan komma att vägas mot samhällskostnad. Ny medicinteknik kan kräva snabbt beslutsfattande där eftertanke inte hinns med vilket ställer frågan om teknikleverantörens ansvar på sin spets. Den nya internetsjukvården, dvs. de nya möjligheter till medicinsk konsultation och information som skapats genom Internet ger upphov till nya relationer mellan vårdgivare och patient och aktualiserar därmed också frågor om ansvar och etik.

    Tekniken ger oss nya möjligheter för diagnos och terapi men även för organiseringen av vården, t ex patientjournaler och distansvård, men tekniken innebär också risker i form av feldiagnoser, skador i vården, intrång på patientintegritet, etc. Dialysolyckan i Linköping och konflikten om elektroniska patientjournaler är talande exempel. Det är viktigt att medicinteknik fungerar så som det är tänkt och att vårdpersonal, patienter och allmänhet litar på och accepterar tekniken. Annars kan vi inte dra nytta av det tekniken har att erbjuda.

    Det är också viktigt att vårdpersonal och alla användare av medicinteknik förstår hur den fungerar och vilka effekter den kan ha, och att de har kompetensen att hantera problem som kan uppstå vid användning, även icke tekniska sådana. Etiken är därför en mycket viktig aspekt i medicinteknikutvecklingen. Det är nödvändigt att integrera etiska bedömningar i utformningen av medicinsk teknik och förbereda vårdpersonal, patienter och alla berörda för en etisk användning.

    Om etiken är viktig för medicinsk teknik blir den intressanta frågan hur ska vi lyckas integrera etiken i forskning, utveckling, design, och användning av medicinteknik. Det vanligaste angreppsättet är att försöka anpassa tekniken till viktiga moraliska principer och regler. Om det fungerar är detta det snabbaste och enklaste sättet att bygga etisk medicinteknik. Det finns dock flera frågor med detta angreppsätt, t ex vilken princip som ska gälla och vilken tolkning som ska tillämpas i designen av medicinteknik. Det kan också upplevas som att etiken fungerar enbart begränsande i utvecklingsarbetet.

    Vi föreslår ett angreppsätt baserat på klassisk etikfilosofi. Vi skiftar fokus från det normativa innehållet till utvecklings- och användningsprocessen. Det viktiga blir att fokusera på hur vi skapar den kunskap vi behöver och hur ansvar kan fördelas när vi designar etisk medicinsk teknik. Detta öppnar upp för skapande av olika metoder och verktyg samt stöd för användares etiska kompetensutveckling.

  • 341.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Training and supporting education in sustainability by the use of an ICT tool2012In: New technologies, education for sustainable development and critical pedagogy / [ed] Vassilios Makrakis and Nelly Kostoulas-Makrakis, Rethymnon, Greece: ICTeESD, University of Crete , 2012, p. 225-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will present ColLab, a collaborative computerized tool to facilitate dialogue about concrete issues in sustainability. The tool is powerful in stimulating the inquiry in complex issues by constantly forcing the user to shift focus between the particular and the holistic. The design of the tool is theoretically founded in philosophy and knowledge about the psychological mechanisms, like cognitive biases, that are involved in decision making. It is based on the assumption that people are not making judgments in isolation, but rather in social settings. The main advantage with such a tool is that it supplies a shared platform in which an analysis can evolve organically, even in collaboration with competing parties. It is suitable for using in learning environments and for educational purposes as well as for formulation of sustainability policies.

  • 342.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    What are ethical agents and how can we make them work properly?2011In: The computational turn: Past, presetns, futures? / [ed] Charles Ess and Ruth Hagengruber, Münster: MV-Wissenschaft , 2011, p. 151-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support ethical decision making in autonomous agents, we suggest to implement decision tools based on classical philosophy and psychological research. As one possible avenue, we present EthXpert, which supports the process of structuring and assembling information about situations with possible moral implications.

  • 343.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Lennerfors, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Laaksoharju, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Björk, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Etikutbildning för ingenjörer: Övningar, verktyg, metoder2015In: 5:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges Ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Stefan Pålsson, Uppsala universitet, 2015, p. 30-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utbildning i etik som ska träna studenter att själva hantera etiska problem måste utgå ifrån klassisk filosofi och från etikpsykologisk forskning i problemlösning och beslutsfattande. Utbildningen ska koncentrera sig på praktiskt arbete och seminarier med egna verkliga etiska dilemman. Målet är utveckling av förmågan att lösa etiska problem, tolka och tillämpa viktiga principer och regler, och delta aktivt i dialog med andra intressenter. I workshopen kommer vi att visa metoder, verktyg och övningar som vi använder i våra etikkurser för ingenjörer och teknologer.

  • 344.
    Kesemen, Cem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing Mobile Companions for Cloud Storage Applications: Evaluation of interface differences between various platforms.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) has grown immensely in the last couple of years. Thanks to cheap costs and ever-online mobile computers such as iOS and Android devices, services that do not need any central installation and only require web browsers and client softwares to be functional have become the norm for many users.

    I wanted to emphasize “users” speciZically, because not everyone is happy with certain aspects of this brave new world. Namely corporations, who are extremely paranoid on security and would like to control every bit of their data.

    As ownCloud decided to grow and become a “cloud Zile systems provider for companies”, they needed to catch up with other players, and they needed to catch up fast. While one body of resources were set to work on closing any functional gaps on the web interface, another team was working on getting mobile clients ready.

    My study here is on getting mobile counterparts of ownCloud, by both protecting the familiarity to the web based client and making the apps follow their respective interaction guidelines. I have created mockups for all three major platforms (iOS, Android and Windows Phone). 

  • 345. Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Mazé, Ramia
    Design and Dissensus: Framing and Staging Participation in Design Research2013In: Design Philosophy Papers, E-ISSN 1448-7136, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 7-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Khan, Reem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    An investigation of relationship between Professional fitness trainers and usage of social platforms; Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how professional fitness trainers use four different social platforms; Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube professionally and what type of content they create. It also explores the specific aspects of each social platform in terms of features or general perception that affect how professional fitness trainers experience them and use them in their professional practice. The qualitative study revealed that professional fitness trainers use all social platforms professionally; to build and sustain their social media community, to educate themselves with fitness knowledge, to make social connections and to advertise themselves as expert fitness trainers. The qualitative study also revealed the unique features of each social platform and how professional fitness trainers engage with same activities differently from one platform to another. The findings support the use of social platforms for fitness purpose professionally and can also inform the design of technology that uses social media to help people stay fit and share fitness information.

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    fulltext
  • 347.
    Khay, Nang Hseing Noom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Embodiment in Online LARPing: Design Guidelines for Future LARP Designers2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online LARPing has been practiced for a long time, but gained its popularity as the Covid-19 pandemic hit. However, online platforms have some drawbacks and limitations in various aspects, for example, in embodiment, in accessibility, etc. This thesis aims to gain deeper insights into factors influencing players in terms of embodiment during online LARPing and important features that future online LARP designers should pay attention to. This thesis is a qualitative research aiming to create design guidelines through empirical investigations of online LARPing. For the empirical investigations, the study embraced an ethnographic approach through participatory observations, complimented by analysis of scripts and interviews with writers. The study then used the findings from the empirical investigations to understand what make players feel more embodied during an online LARPing and let the results inform the creation of design guidelines that could bring a higher degree of embodiment to online LARPing. The work is mainly a design proposal or a design guidance intended for future online LARP designers, instead of building a new technology or a new prototype. The design guidelines aim to create comprehensive recommendations to bring out more embodiment while LARPing online.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Embodiment in Online LARPing: Design Guidelines for Future LARP Designers
  • 348.
    Kim, Juhee
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Onboarding Interaction Design for Improved Learnability of GIS2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an era when the importance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is ever increasing, users still find them difficult to learn. The issue mainly derives from the fact that GIS interfaces’ learnability hurdles are not lowered for beginner users. Onboarding interaction is a way to tackle this issue, providing proper guidance to novice users the first time they use the software and consequently making it easier for them to learn the system. Throughout this paper, the study proposes a set of guidelines for designing onboarding interaction for assisting novice users utilizing GIS applications. Employing the method of Research through Design, a design prototype is developed through user studies, which in turn was used as a leverage to draw the guidelines as the final outcome of this research. The prototype addresses three different learnability problems of a GIS application identified through user studies and aims to provide design solutions for what users find difficult, important, and lacking in the GIS system. More specifically, the guidelines deal with helping users orient themselves in the application, learn easy functions by practicing them, and understand more complex features through watching instructive video materials.

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    fulltext
  • 349.
    Kiselman, Christer Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Hans Rådström and how to define smooth functions on any set2019In: The Bulletin of the Swedish Mathematical Society, ISSN 2003-055X, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hans Rådström (1919--1970) was a brilliant scientist with many ideas. The paper presents his project to define smooth functions on sets without a differentiable structure. He did not publish anything on this, but inspired several other mathematicians to do so.

  • 350.
    Knutsen, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Tågförares påverkan på simuleringRailsys-analyser vid simulering av ERTMS2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated the effects various effects that driver behavior has on the analyses and simulations carried out by the Swedish Transport Administration. By making assumptions about train drivers' braking ability - which has been modelled by braking percentage and implementing these in the same analysis methods that the Swedish Transport Administration use - the effect of how different driving behaviours affect the results of these analyses can be assessed. 

    The analyses have been carried out on the Sundsvall–Umeå line: a section where ERTMS is already implemented. The following analyses have been performed in the Railsys tool: runtime analysis, headway analysis (how close two trains can drive after each other), and punctuality analysis. The result of the runtime analysis shows that the effect on runtime is not significant between different driver behaviors. However, there is a greater effect on the headway analysis; the results show that trains can drive significantly closer after each other on stretches where braking is common. The punctuality analysis shows little difference in punctuality. But based on the result, the assumption was made that it would have a significantly greater effect on a railway system with more traffic - for example Stockholm - than for the simulated system in this study. 

    The conclusion of the study is that different driver behaviours have an effect on headway and punctuality analyses. However, it is not possible to obtain an exact value on how punctuality and runtimes are affected by variations in train driver behavior with the simulation methods used currently in Sweden.

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    fulltext
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