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  • 301.
    Petrini, Carlo
    et al.
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Farisco, Michele
    Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy Correspondence: Michele Farisco, Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Informed Consent for Cord Blood Donation: A Theoretical and Empirical Study2011In: Blood Transfusion, ISSN 1723-2007, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 292-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) banking and therapeutic use raiseseveral ethical issues: medical indications, legal framework, public versus private biobanks,autologous versus allogeneic use, ownership, commercialisation, quality assurance and manyothers. Surrogate informed consent is one of the most notable controversial ethical issues. Theaim of this study was to analyse and compare informed consent forms for CB collection, storageand use in the 18 accredited biobanks of the Italian Network.

    Material and methods

    The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the scientificframework, the comparison of allogeneic and autologous use and Italian regulations. In thesecond part the contents of the consent forms from the 18 Italian biobanks are compared with the"NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release forAdministration".

    Results

    Most of the Italian consent forms differ significantly from the NetCord-FACTStandards, with regards both to formal and substantial aspects.

    Conclusion

    Italian forms for CB collection, storage and use need standardisation to meetinternational criteria.

  • 302. Racine, Eric
    et al.
    Dubljevic, Veljko
    Jox, Ralf J.
    Baertschi, Bernard
    Christensen, Julia F.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Jotterand, Fabrice
    Kahane, Guy
    Muller, Sabine
    Can Neuroscience contribute to practical ethics?: A critical review and discussion of the methodological and translational challenges of the neuroscience of ethics2017In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 2017, no 31, p. 328-337, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an "ethics of neuroscience" and a "neuroscience of ethics". However, questions surface as to whether a "neuroscience of ethics" is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. 

  • 303.
    Reagan, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Sovereignty of Subjectivity: Pursuing a Philosophically Optimal Justification of Claims Affirming the Existence of Universal Human Rights2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nation’s mandate to engineer international peacecraft is correlated with the promotion of universal human rights. Universal human rights are held to apply consistently to everyone everywhere without conceivable exception. There is some debate as to whether universal human rights possibly exist. This debate centers around two difficulties: 1) the task of identifying a single trait or capability that all human beings necessarily share, and 2) the task of relating human rights to this trait or capability. Conventional epistemic justifications defending the existence of universal human rights attempt to address both difficulties. However, they have become the focus of numerous criticisms. By conducting systematizing and critically reviewing text analyses, I will conclude that conventional epistemic justifications are unable to refute standard criticisms satisfactorily. In their place, I will introduce an epistemic justification from the philosophy of mind. I will attempt to demonstrate that this justification is capable of 1) identifying a single trait that all human beings necessarily share, 2) relating human rights to this trait, and 3) satisfactorily refuting the standard criticisms raised against conventional epistemic theories. I have produced this paper in the hope of further legitimizing the UN’s mandate to engineer international peacecraft by providing a more philosophically optimal justification of claims affirming the existence of universal human rights. 

  • 304.
    Rejnö, Åsa
    et al.
    University West, Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Lennart, Nordenfelt
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Silfverberg, Gunilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Godskesen, Tove E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Dignity at stake: Caring for persons with impaired autonomy2019In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dignity, usually considered an essential ethical value in healthcare, is a relatively complex, multifaceted concept. However, healthcare professionals often have only a vague idea of what it means to respect dignity when providing care, especially for persons with impaired autonomy. This article focuses on two concepts of dignity, human dignity and dignity of identity, and aims to analyse how these concepts can be applied in the care for persons with impaired autonomy and in furthering the practice of respect and protection from harm. Three vignettes were designed to illustrate typical caring situations involving patients with mild to severely impaired autonomy, including patients with cognitive impairments. In situations like these, there is a risk of the patient’s dignity being disrespected and violated. The vignettes were then analysed with respect to the two concepts of dignity to find out whether this approach can illuminate what is at stake in these situations and to provide an understanding of which measures could safeguard the dignity of these patients. The analysis showed that there are profound ethical challenges in the daily care of persons with impaired autonomy. We suggest that these two concepts of human dignity could help guide healthcare professionals to develop practical skills in person-centred, ethically grounded care, where the patient’s wishes and needs are the starting point.

  • 305.
    Remes, Pauliina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Logic and Metaphysics.
    Plotinus2013In: International Encyclopedia of Ethics / [ed] Hugh LaFollette, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Riede, Felix
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ.
    Andersen, Per
    Aarhus Univ.
    Price, Neil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Does environmental archaeology need an ethical promise?2017In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 466-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental catastrophes represent profound challenges faced by societies today. Numerous scholars in the climate sciences and the humanities have argued for a greater ethical engagement with these pressing issues. At the same time, several disciplines concerned with hazards are moving towards formalized ethical codes or promises that not only guide the dissemination of data but oblige scientists to relate to fundamentally political issues. This article couples a survey of the recent environmental ethics literature with two case studies of how past natural hazards have affected vulnerable societies in Europe's prehistory. We ask whether cases of past calamities and their societal effects should play a greater role in public debates and whether archaeologists working with past environmental hazards should be more outspoken in their ethical considerations. We offer no firm answers, but suggest that archaeologists engage with debates in human-environment relations at this interface between politics, public affairs and science.

  • 307.
    Risberg, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Naturalism, non-naturalism eller misstagsteori?: Bergström och Olson om normativa skäl2017In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308.
    Risberg, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    The Entanglement Problem and Idealization in Moral Philosophy2018In: Philosophical quarterly (Print), ISSN 0031-8094, E-ISSN 1467-9213, Vol. 68, no 272, p. 542-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to many popular views in normative ethics, meta-ethics, and axiology, facts about what we ought to do or what is good for us depend on facts about the attitudes that some agent would have in some relevant idealized circumstances. This paper presents an unrecognized structural problem for such views which threatens to be devastating.

  • 309.
    Risberg, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Fogal, Daniel
    New York University.
    The Metaphysics of Moral Explanations2020In: Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Vol. 15 / [ed] Russ Shafer-Landau, Oxford University Press, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Risberg, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Johansson, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    The Problem of Justified Harm: A Reply to Gardner2018In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 735-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we critically examine Molly Gardner’s favored solution to what she calls “the problem of justified harm.” We argue that Gardner’s view is false and that her arguments in support of it are unconvincing. Finally, we briefly suggest an alternative solution to the problem which avoids the difficulties that beset Gardner’s proposal.

  • 311. Roeser, Sabine
    et al.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    Delft University of Technolog, Netherlands.
    Risk communication and moral emotions2013In: Effective Risk Communication / [ed] Joseph Arvai, Louie Rivers III, Routledge, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Rosenqvist, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Oorganiserade kollektiv kan handla2018In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 61-68Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag argumenterar för att oorganiserade kollektiv, såsom kollektivet av alla människor, kan handla moraliskt rätt och fel. Storskaliga problem likt den globala uppvärmningen är till exempel resultatet av en sådan kollektiv handling, nämligen hela mänsklighetens utsläpp av växthusgaser. Denna kollektiva handling är dessutom moraliskt fel, på grund av dess dåliga konsekvenser. Jag bemöter också en invändning mot denna uppfattning om kollektivt handlande, enligt vilken det är intuitivt orimligt att oorganiserade kollektiv såsom ”hela mänskligheten” kan handla.

  • 313.
    Rosenqvist, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Review of Joshua D. Greene's "Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap between Us and Them"2017In: Journal of Moral Philosophy, ISSN 1740-4681, E-ISSN 1745-5243, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 225-228Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Russell, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Mänsklig värdighet som tvärkulturell konsensus?: En diskursetisk analys av universell rättvisa2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 315.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Att öppna det etiska rummet - om Anne-Marie Thunbergs bidrag till den forskningsetiska debatten2015In: Anne-Marie Thunberg: Samhälls- och kulturdebatt under 1900-talets andra hälft / [ed] Sjöström, Lennart, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag , 2015, p. 231-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Rydén, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Leal Filho, Walter
    Technical University of Hamburg Harburg.
    Skubala, Piotr
    University of Silesia, Katowice.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    21. Behaviour and the Environment: Ethics, Education, and Lifestyle2003In: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 630-661Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 317.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Programa de Neuroetica, Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project2019In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

  • 318.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics2019In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 126-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In “Neuroethics at 15: The Current and Future Environment for Neuroethics” the Emerging Issues Task Force of the INS provides an overview of the current and future topics for neuroethics and the foreseeable challenges that the field will face. The authors note that these challenges, emerging both at individual, societal, and often global levels, are importantly connected to increasing knowledge of the brain and neurotechnical capabilities, to increasing awareness of value diversity and of the need to attend to a global landscape, and to novel applications (commercial, military, governmental) of neuroscientific findings. The overarching theme, the authors note, is expansion. In this commentary we focus on the fourth needed expansion: an expansion in how neuroethics and its methodologies are conceived and how neuroethical issues should be approached. Accordingly, we explore the key role that  conceptual analysis plays in normative discussions, in refining our empirical knowledge, and in fostering a clearer and more reliable vision on how to respond the many philosophical issues raised by neuroscientific knowledge and neurotechnologies

  • 319.
    Saman, Jane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Multiculturalism and Its Implications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis relies on the works of Charles Taylor in the field of multiculturalism, more specifically the well-known essay The Politics of Recognition. Through a theoretical analysis, arguments from Kenan Malik as well as Amelie Rorty are used as tools to highlight challenges with communitarian theory in the face of multiculturalism. The study exposes that communitarianism in the face of diversity can prove to be challenging, and that cultural identity is too comprehensive to substantially define. It is much more feasible to attain individual dignity, identity and worth in a multicultural society so as to promote personal freedom and negate the misrepresentation of groups.

  • 320.
    Saxton, Danielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    CSR Theory and Benhabib: What is the potential for moral universalism?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 321.
    Silén, Marit
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Hansson, Mats G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Haglund, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ethics rounds: An appreciated form of ethics support2016In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 203-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ethics rounds are one way to support healthcare personnel in handling ethically difficult situations. A previous study in the present project showed that ethics rounds did not result in significant changes in perceptions of how ethical issues were handled, that is, in the ethical climate. However, there was anecdotal evidence that the ethics rounds were viewed as a positive experience and that they stimulated ethical reflection.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how the ethics rounds were experienced and why the intervention in the form of ethics rounds did not succeed in improving the ethical climate for the staff.RESEARCH DESIGN:An exploratory and descriptive design with a qualitative approach was adopted, using individual interviews.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: An exploratory and descriptive design with a qualitative approach was adopted, using individual interviews.

    PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 11 healthcare personnel, working in two different psychiatry outpatient clinics and with experience of participating in ethics rounds, were interviewed.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was based on informed consent and was approved by one of the Swedish Regional Ethical Review Boards.

    FINDINGS: The participants were generally positive about the ethics rounds. They had experienced changes by participating in the ethics rounds in the form of being able to see things from different perspectives as well as by gaining insight into ethical issues. However, these changes had not affected daily work.

    DISCUSSION: A crucial question is whether or not increased reflection ability among the participants is a good enough outcome of ethics rounds and whether this result could have been measured in patient-related outcomes. Ethics rounds might foster cooperation among the staff and this, in turn, could influence patient care.

    CONCLUSION: By listening to others during ethics rounds, a person can learn to see things from a new angle. Participation in ethics rounds can also lead to better insight concerning ethical issues.

  • 322.
    Skogholt, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Hur bör vi förstå relationen mellan självförverkligande och moral?: En undersökning och diskussion av självförverkligandeteoretiska perspektiv hos Aristoteles,Jean-Paul Sartre, Charles Taylor och Bernard Lonergan2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 323.
    Spörndly, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Godskesen, Tove E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Swedish Clinical Cancer Trials: A Qualitative Study of Physicians' Experiences2018In: Harvard Public Health Review, Vol. 20, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International literature shows ethnic minorities and immigrants being underrepresented in clinical trials. This compromises the generalizability of the results and distributes the benefits of participating unequally. This problem is unexplored in Sweden. Therefore, this explorative qualitative study examines the barriers Swedish physicians encounter, the strategies they use to prevent and circumvent the issue, and the attitudes and perceptions they have. We found that physicians do encounter ethnic minority patients that they exclude from participation in clinical cancer trials. This is primarily because of language barriers preventing patients from understanding participant information. Conscious strategies to counter this are lacking. A lack of translated material and strict inclusion criteria are two obstacles that can be overcome. The general conception is that this issue is uncommon and unimportant from a medical perspective, but questions of fairness have been raised. For such reasons, further discussion and research on this issue are needed. 

  • 324.
    Stahl, Bernd Carsten
    et al.
    De Montfort Univ, Ctr Comp & Social Responsibil, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Akintoye, Simisola
    De Montfort Univ, Leicester De Montfort Law Sch, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Fothergill, Tyr
    De Montfort Univ, Ctr Comp & Social Responsibil, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Guerrero, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Neurogeriat, Solna, Sweden; Univ Chile, Dept Bioeth & Med Humanities, Santiago, Chile.
    Knight, Will
    De Montfort Univ, Ctr Comp & Social Responsibil, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Ulnicane, Inga
    De Montfort Univ, Ctr Comp & Social Responsibil, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Beyond Research Ethics: Dialogues in Neuro-ICT Research2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 105Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to help facilitate neuroscience adds a new level of complexity to the question of how ethical issues of such research can be identified and addressed. Current research ethics practice, based on ethics reviews by institutional review boards (IRB) and underpinned by ethical principlism, has been widely criticized. In this article, we develop an alternative way of approaching ethics in neuro-ICT research, based on discourse ethics, which implements Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) through dialogues. We draw on our work in Ethics Support, using the Human Brain Project (HBP) as empirical evidence of the viability of this approach.

  • 325.
    Stenström, Thure
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature.
    Rosenberg söker frihet i beroendet: Rec. av Göran Rosenberg, Plikten, profiten och konsten att vara människa. Essä (Stockholm, Bonniers 2003)2003In: Svenska Dagbladet den 21 november 2003Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Anmälan av journalisten Göran Rosenbergs essäbok Plikten, profiten och konsten att vara människa. Särskilt uppmärksammas Rosenbergs kritik av den individualism och ensidiga profitmoral som det moderna samhället inbjuder till och som borde ersättas av en pliktmoral, grundad på insikten om alla medborgares starka beroende av varandra.

  • 326.
    Stjernschantz Forsberg, Joanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Biobank research: who benefits from individual consent?2011In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 343, no Oct 4, p. d5647-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requiring informed consent for research on stored tissue samples and associated data safeguards the autonomy rights of donors. But Joanna Stjernschantz Forsberg, Mats Hansson, and Stefan Eriksson argue that this policy not only defeats the interest of society but also runs counter to the interests of the individuals it purports to protect.

  • 327.
    Ståhlberg, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Om kvalitetssäkring - för terapeutens skull1996In: Salubladet (Kontaktorgan för sammanslutning av Lukas-utbildade)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 328.
    Sundman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Egalitarian Liberalism Revisited: An integrationist approach towards social justiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Sundman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Excellens och facklig verksamhet2012In: En envis arkitekt i högskolelandskapet: Vänbok till Ann Fritzell / [ed] Git Claesson Pipping, Stockholm: Sveriges Universitetslärarförbund , 2012, p. 25-29Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Svalastog, Anna Lydia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    You can use my name; you don't have to steal my story: A critique of anonymity in indigenous studies2010In: Developing World Bioethics, ISSN 1471-8731, E-ISSN 1471-8847, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our claim in this paper is that not being identified as the data source might cause harm to a person or group. Therefore, in some cases the default of anonymisation should be replaced by a careful deliberation, together with research subjects, of how to handle the issues of identification and confidentiality. Our prime example in this article is community participatory research and similar endeavours on indigenous groups. The theme, content and aim of the research, and the question of how to handle property rights and ownership of research results, as well as who should be in charge of the research process, including the process of creating anonymity, should all be answered, before anonymity is accepted.

  • 331.
    Svöfudottir, Sigurros
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Membership, Morality and Global Justice: A Study of Feminist Contributions to Cosmopolitan Ethics2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a project based on a theoretical approach, where my aim is to search for the core elements of a viable feminist cosmopolitan ethics.  To further that purpose I identify, discuss, and compare some of the main components of such an ethics as proposed by political theorists Seyla Benhabib and Iris Marion Young.  In doing so I hope to contribute to the ongoing project of cosmopolitan feminism.  My task in this project is to answer the following questions; what are the main components of Seyla Benhabib and Iris Marion Young´s feminist cosmopolitan ethics? Second; where do Benhabib and Young stand with regards to the relationship between the principle of state sovereignity and the human right to membership? Finally, based on a comparative reading of Benhabib and Young´s theories I ask; what should be some of the core elements of a viable feminist cosmopolitan ethics? I argue that for a feminist cosmopolitan ethics to be considered viable, it must carry within itself an impetus towards increased respect for the basic human rights of the 64.9 million persons that are currently displaced due to conflicts, war, persecutions and human rights violations.  Following a comparative reading of some of the main components of Seyla Benhabib and Iris Marion Young´s cosmopolitan ethics, I promote a vision of feminist cosmopolitan ethics that carries within itself the hope that is inherent in the promise of human rights, while at the same time offering the tools that are necessary to identify and rectify the structural injustices exprssed in the status and real-life situations of the 64.9 million persons that are currently displaced due to conflicts, war, persecutions, and human rights violations.

  • 332.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Detaljernas paradox2012In: 10tal, ISSN 2000-5350, no 8/9, p. 91-93Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 333.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Disagreement: Ethics and Elsewhere2014In: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 79, no S1, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a traditional argument against moral realism, the existence of objective moral facts is hard to reconcile with the existence of radical disagreement over moral issues. An increasingly popular response to this argument is to insist that it generalizes too easily. Thus, it has been argued that if one rejects moral realism on the basis of disagreement then one is committed to similar views about epistemology and meta-ethics itself, since the disagreements that arise in those areas are just as deep as the moral ones. This in turn is taken to show that a moral anti-realist should seek another basis for her position. For, if she extends her anti-realism also to epistemology and meta-ethics, then she is no longer in a position to say that her meta-ethical position is true or that it is a fact that we have reason to accept it. She therefore seems left with a position that hardly even seems to be a position. The purpose of the paper is to challenge this response and in particular the claim that the argument from disagreement applies equally well to epistemology and meta-ethics as it does to ethics. It is argued that, despite contrary appearances, there are crucial differences between the disagreements that occur in ethics compared to those that arise in the other areas. Moreover, even granted that the disagreements are just as deep, there are other differences between the areas that nevertheless justify drawing different conclusions about their status from the existence of those disagreements.

  • 334.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Disagreement, Moral2013In: International Encyclopedia of Ethics / [ed] Hugh LaFolette, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the philosophical literature one often meets the locution “the argument from moral disagreement”, as if there is only one such argument. But there are in fact several arguments that appeal to moral disagreement, arguments that take quite different routes to their anti-realist conclusions. In what follows, some of these arguments are reconstructed and discussed.

  • 335.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Explaining the Reliability of Moral Beliefs2016In: Ethics and Explanation / [ed] Neil Sinclair and Uri Leibowitz, Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 37-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    From Scepticism to Anti-Realism2019In: Dialectica, ISSN 0012-2017, E-ISSN 1746-8361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common anti-realist strategy is to argue that moral realism (or at least the non-naturalist form of it) should be abandoned because it cannot adequately make room for moral knowledge and justified moral belief, for example in view of an evolutionary account of the origins of moral beliefs or of the existence of radical moral disagreement. Why is that (alleged) fact supposed to undermine realism? I examine and discuss three possible answers to this question. According to the answer that I think holds most promise, it undermines realism because it renders realism “epistemically incoherent” (in a sense explicated in the paper), and a central aim of the paper is to elaborate and defend that suggestion against certain objections. I end by briefly commenting on the more general significance of the discussion, by considering some other areas (epistemology and vagueness) where similar questions might be raised.

  • 337.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Global Warming and Collective Dilemmas2014In: Access to Resources: An Urban Agenda / [ed] Henrietta Palmer, Baunach: Spurbuchverlag , 2014, p. 320-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Intuitional Disagreement2012In: The Southern Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0038-4283, E-ISSN 2041-6962, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 639-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the best version of the ‘experimentalist’ challenge to the use of intuitions in philosophy and in particular in ethics and to discuss possible responses to the challenge. I focus especially on responses that invoke substantive assumptions of the very type intuitions are supposed to support. It is argued that even if this apparently circular strategy is thought legitimate, the prospects of providing a compelling response to the challenge are still bleak.

    Abstract: Some think that recent empirical research has shown that peoples' moral intuitions vary in a way that is hard to reconcile with the supposition that they are even modestly reliable. This is in turn supposed to generate skeptical conclusions regarding the claims and theories advanced by ethicists because of the crucial role intuitions have in the arguments offered in support of those claims. I begin by trying to articulate the most compelling version of this challenge. On that version, the main problem is the absence of a believable positive account of the reliability of the intuitions (rather than the bits of negative evidence that have so far been gathered). I then consider the response to this challenge that, in my view, holds most promise. It differs from others by invoking substantive moral assumptions. Such a strategy may appear problematically circular, in that the justification of those assumptions seems to presuppose the very thesis that is challenged (the thesis that our intuitions deserve being treated as evidence). However, although I think that objection can be met, I argue that there are other problems with the strategy. On the basis of a set of conditions that a successful defense of the pertinent kind plausibly must satisfy, I argue that the prospects of developing such an account are bleak.

  • 339.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Methodological Reflections on Hägerström’s Meta-ethics2014In: Axel Hägerström and Modern Social Thought / [ed] Sven Eliaeson, Patricia Mindus, Stephen P. Turner, Bardwell Press , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Moral Disagreement: Actual vs Possible2012In: Disagreement and Skepticism / [ed] Diego Machucha, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 90-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppose that the disagreement that exists regarding moral issues supports a skeptical or anti-realist conclusion of some sort (i.e., a conclusion to the effect that our moral convictions are not justified or cannot be (objectively) true). If so, could we plausibly generate the same conclusion by appealing to the mere possibility of such disagreement? This question has recently caused some controversy. In my paper, I explain why the answer is no and why the actual existence of certain types of disagreement have more weight, in the context of the realism/anti-realism debate, than the mere possibility of disagreements of the pertinent types. The view that ethical anti-realism can be defended with reference to the mere possibility of certain types of disagreement is sometimes held to lead to global anti-realism (on the ground that disagreement is, in any area, always possible). The second aim of the paper is to show that this contention is false. On can appeal to the mere possibility of certain types of disagreement in ethics in support of an anti-realist view and still, plausibly and coherently, deny global anti-realism.

  • 341.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Recent Work on Reflective Equilibrium and Method in Ethics2018In: Philosophy Compass, ISSN 1747-9991, E-ISSN 1747-9991, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e12493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of reflective equilibrium (IRE) remains the most popular approach to questions about method in ethics, despite the masses of criticism it has been faced with over the years. Is this due to the availability of compelling responses to the criticisms? Or is it rather due to factors that are independent of its reasonableness? The aim of this paper is to provide support for the first answer. I particularly focus on the recent discussion. Some recent criticisms are related to certain general arguments regarding the possibility of knowledge in ethics that are currently intensely debated, such as the evolutionary debunking arguments. I argue that nothing that has come to light in that debate, or in the recent discussion about IRE more generally, decisively strengthens the case against it. If anything, the recent developments show that IRE deserves its present status.

  • 342.
    Tersman, Folke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy. Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Review of Joyce, R., and Kirchin, S., (eds.), A World Without Values. Essays on John Mackie’s Moral Error Theory (Springer, 2010)2015In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism, ISSN 2210-5697, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 333-337Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 343.
    Tersman, Folke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Orback, Jens
    En tredje väg i säkerhetspolitiken2016In: Tiden magasin, ISSN 0040- 6759, no 3, p. 68-69Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 344.
    van Alphen, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Ethics in Ethical Food: A Qualitative Study on Consumers’ Considerations when Reflecting On Ethical Food Production and Consumption2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 345.
    Viklund, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Goda levnadsvillkor enligt LSS: Individers möjligheter och social rättvisa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994, the Act Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments, LSS, was introduced in Sweden. The aim of the Act is to achieve equality in living conditions and full participation in the community, with the goal to live as other people without impairments. The support and service in LSS shall secure good living conditions for the individual, but what ’good living condition’ implicate does not appear to be self-evident. The interpretation and content of good living conditions likely varies between people. However, for individuals with a need of receiving support from the Act, the content of good living conditions is thus significant. According to the fact that the individuals are dependent on authorities in order to be able to live an independent life.

    This thesis amis to explore and critically examine the content of good living condition in the Swedish Disability Act, LSS. The thesis explores the notion of good living conditions through a legal analysis method. Thenceforth, the content of good living condition in the Act is critically examined through a human rights-based approach, in this thesis the Capabilities Approach. The human rights-based approach enables examination of whether the content of the Act is legitimate from a perspective based on the freedom and choice of the individual to achieve central capabilities.

    This thesis concludes that the foundation of the Act is consistent with the human rights approach as well as with the Convention on the Rights of Peoples with Disabilities regarding the common intention and fundamental principles. The support and service in LSS can be understood as the societal responsibility to promote for individuals capabilities. Where the support and service essentially can be related to all central capabilities required for a life worthy of human dignity consistent with social justice. However, the notion of good living conditions in the Act contains significant shortcomings in the light of its implementation and the extent of the court’s trial, for individuals intrinsic opportunity to do and to be what they have reason to value.

  • 346.
    Villela Aldabalde, Tanain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Harms in the Humanitarian Aid System: Wide Road to Harm and the Narrow Road to Adjustment, A case study in Maban, South Sudan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the investigation is to underline how and why humanitarianinterventions can fail to adhere the “Do No Harm” and humanitarian principles, and toalso provide suggestions to improve future adherence. A theoretical framework ispresent on concepts of “Do No Harm” and conflict sensitiveness. An empirical casestudy was done with the methodological research tools of a case study of Maban andthe application of secondary data for discussion and analysis. It was found that thehumanitarian interventions in Maban caused four evident harms. Moreover, theresearch demonstrates why humanitarian interventions in Maban caused harm,presenting specific and common reasons. The research was also important toexacerbate that, in Maban, the link between politicization and humanitarian aid, cancause negative impact in the interventions. Furthermore, the multiple role and powerconcentration of UNHCR in Maban. intensified the harm caused in the region.

  • 347.
    Wagner, Ben
    et al.
    European University Viadrina.
    Mindus, Patricia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Multistakeholder Governance and Nodal Authority – Understanding Internet Exchange Points2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study considers Internet exchange points (IXPs) as an example of governance processes in action. Internet exchange points are the points of connection between different Internet networks, which enable different networks to exchange traffic at a shared facility without cost to either party through a process known as “peering”. Three different IXP governance models representing large and influential IXPs are compared: the DE-CIX in Frankfurt, CAIX in Cairo, and KIXP in Nairobi. DE-CIX, the largest IXP in the world, is a subsidiary of the German Internet trade association eco, and is thus “owned” by the Internet industry in Germany. Though well functioning, this has meant that key stakeholder groups such as civil society, and the academic and technical communities are excluded from participating in discussions over policy decisions. In contrast, the Cairo Internet Exchange Point (CAIX) is run by a public authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Though it is governed by a broad set of stakeholders including private sector, government, and civil society representatives, its decision-making processes are somewhat opaque. Lastly, KIXP was founded by a Kenyan network engineer and is governed by a local trade association. While set up with multistakeholder coordination under the leadership of the private sector, its dayto-day operations and governance fall under private sector control. By tracing out the plurality of models used for IXP governance and comparing the processes of developing peering relationships, this case provides unique lessons for the governance process, particularly surrounding trade-offs between inclusiveness and effectiveness.

  • 348.
    Wenzer, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    (O)frivilligt återvändande: I skärningspunkten mellan effektivitet och humanitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 349.
    Westelius, Tea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    An Evaluation of Jesper Ryberg and Torbjörn Tännsjö’s Solutions to the Repugnant Conclusion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 350. Whitehouse, Diane
    et al.
    Patrignani, Norberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Computers, time and speed: Five slow tech case studies2014In: ICT and society / [ed] K. Kimppa, D. Whitehouse, T. Kuusela and J. Phahlamohlaka, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 122-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines briefly the notions of time and speed. It introduces the notion of Slow Tech:information technology that is good, clean and fair, and places an especial emphasis on technologythat is clean. This chapter does not delve deep into the Slow Tech concept. Rather, it highlights a setof arguments about why speed is not always important or necessary. People are now increasinglybeginning to think about much longer periods and phases that may extend at least as long as theexistence of human beings on the globe. As illustrations, the chapter explores five specific casestudies. Each comes from a different location, yet all describe global implications and challenges.One example is in fact a mathematical model. Two sites, in sympathy with the location of theHuman Choice and Computing 11 (HCC11) conference, are from Scandinavia – one from Onkalo,Finland, and a second from Svalbard, a northern Norwegian island. A further two cases are from theUnited States of America. The logic behind these five case studies strengthens the arguments aboutwhy − with the support of the Slow Tech concept − it is increasingly important for society and itsmany stakeholders to question the current information and communication technology (ICT)obsession with speed and rethink the relationships between society and technology.

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