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  • 301.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Marknaden kan inte längre finansiera seriös journalistik2016Ingår i: Respons. Recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap., ISSN 2001-2292, nr 6, s. 19-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I mars 2015 gav regeringen journalisten Anette Novak i uppdrag att leda arbetet med att utreda dagens mediemarknad och ta fram förslag till mediepolitiska åtgärder för framtiden. I början av november i år presenterades Medieutredningens slutbetänkande, som ger en dyster bild av mediernas och journalistikens situation. De digitala jättarna tar journalistikens intäkter, vilket ses som ett hot mot demokratin. Därför föreslås bland annat ett nytt teknikneutralt mediestöd. Mottagandet av utredningen har överlag varit positivt, men kritiker ser problem med de åtgärdsförslag som presenteras.

  • 302.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Massmedieproblem: Mediestudiets formering2015Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 303.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Rankings and Mediatization of University2016Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory / [ed] Michael A. Peters, Singapore: Springer, 2016, s. 1-5Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 304.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Rankningar och medialiseringen av universitetet2017Ingår i: Kunskap motstånd möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Farsta: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, s. 213-231Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 305.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Tillväxthögskolan: Ett ideologiskt projekt2015Ingår i: Ikaros, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 12, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 306.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, HUMlab, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities, Gävle, Sweden.
    The Formation of Swedish Media Studies, 1960–19802018Ingår i: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 86-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 1960, the politics of the emerging media society in Sweden tended to fixate the formative functions of mass communication. The monopoly of public service broadcast media, press subsidies and new tendencies in film policy were some of the issues around which uncertainty prevailed. New methods to provide reliable data were sought by politicians, since empirical facts were required as arguments for an updated media policy. This article examines the different ways that the field of media studies was introduced in Sweden between 1960 and 1980. We argue that Swedish academic media studies departed from, and emerged within, a rather diffuse borderland between industry, politics and academia. The formation of national media research in Sweden can partly be seen as an effect of politicians and the media industry wanting to be better informed on issues such as media influence, media ownership and the habits and composition of the media audience.

  • 307.
    Hägglund, Christoffer Hägglund
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    "Som en pressad frukt": Om grekiska arbetares upplevelser av nyliberalism2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 308.
    Ibrahim, Zauq
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    An Ethnographic Study of 2010 Flood Affected People: “The Case of Kot-Addu village in Southern Punjab of Pakistan”2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, Pakistan’s majority of the rural population witnessed the major flash flood, which not only destroyed the infrastructure, but also led to human causalities and affected severely the entire social fabric of society. The present research is about the experiences of facing the havocs of flood by vulnerable rural people of Kot Addu, a small town located within an already underdeveloped region of Pakistan. The flood occurred due to heavy rains in the monsoon season that is the chief rainfall system in South Asia. Generally, the region is already underdeveloped and majority of the inhabitants of Kot Addu had very limited access to social, economic, and other material resources, however, flood brought havocs and exacerbated their vulnerabilities. Further, Due to cut from mainstream media news about flood of high magnitude and also because institutional neglect of State Administration, the poor villagers had to bear the excruciating damages both in terms of material and non-material things. Although every year people face small floods, called “chull” in the local language, this time they faced the biggest flood in the history of Pakistan. In addition, the inhabitants of region had to face the human casualties, because the rescue and relief activity by concerned authorities were not started timely. The study find out that the people of Kot Addu predominantly dependent on agriculture and livestock, had to face the disastrous conditions after the flooding had spoiled their standing crops, stored food grains, and livestock. Such losses exacerbated the sufferings of flood affected people manifold but such sufferings seemed to have lessened after the next crops. Nevertheless, the 2010 floods in Pakistan revealed a history and myriad of crisis and uncertainty. The State that was still handling the hazards of the 2005 earthquake now had to face another catastrophe. In Pakistan, issues of governance and administration have never been considered as based on non-delivering of services to citizens. Similarly, the absence of political consensus on building mega dams for water storage resulted into people facing of the worst water-caused destruction ever witnessed in sixty years of the country’s history. The present research stresses the need to look into immorality and inequality as a means to address post-disaster phenomena in affected societies. In addition, the study helps in understanding about how the life of already marginalized and vulnerable people becoming more vulnerable due to catastrophes, mismanagement of hazards and institutional neglect. The Government had not taken any measures to control even the small-scale floods in these areas that occur frequently. The supposed inefficient and morally corrupted political system was another reason behind not taking any efficient measures since the politicians focused more on protecting their own land and people in flood zones than on managing the risk hazards. The flood affectees pointed to the negligence of the Government and the different state departments for not warning people in time, for ineffective evacuation procedures and for the mismanagement in mitigation of flood hazards. Nevertheless, the flood affectees seemed much pleased with the activities of non-governmental international and national aid agencies especially in post flood period.

  • 309.
    Jesper, Eriksson
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Empatins gräns: att förstå den andras känslor2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is the ability to understand another person's subjective condition, including emotions. Depending on culture, emotions are expressed differently, hence there might occur difficulties for one person to understand emotions in another if they belong to different cultures. This study explores how depression is described in western psychiatry, compared to alternative cultural forms of similar conditions. Building on how the understanding of the client's emotions is shaped in the psychiatric meeting, the limit of empathy is discussed as well as what might influence the understanding of another person's emotions.

    Two limits of empathy are revealed, both depending on differences in the individuals relation to the surrounding world. The first limit is found in differences between emotions, the second limit is related to differences in experience due to when they are based in either emotional or cognitive conceptions. The conclusion of this study is that the scientific thinking and the cognitively based understanding of emotions changes the comprehension of them – from being interpreted as a way to relate to the world to being interpreted more as characteristics within the individual. Consequently, the possibility to empathetically understand the other's emotions diminishes.

  • 310.
    Johansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    "Life is Chaos Now": Water, Modernity and Changing Landscapes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study details the effects of climate change and market fluctuations on the rural district of Cu Lao Dung located in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam. Using theoretical concepts on modernity, the environment and water from researchers Arjun Appadurai, Tim Ingold and Veronica Strang I study the political ecology of the Delta. Through interviews with farmers I found that climate change and market fluctuations are stalling economic development and significantly worsening already strong migration flows, leading to many people of working age leaving the district. Insufficient government support and dire climate projections means that the problems observed on Cu Lao Dung are only posed to grow worse.

  • 311.
    Johansson, David
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Vad innebär tecknande för den antropologiska observationsprocessen idag?: En undersökande studie om den grafiska antropologins vara eller icke-vara; om reflexivitet, empati och icke-textuell representation2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 312.
    Johansson, David
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Vad innebär tecknande för den antropologiska observationsprocessen idag?: En undersökande studie om den grafiska antropologins vara eller icke-vara; om reflexivitet, empati och icke-textuell representation.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 313.
    Johansson, Fanny
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    It Looks Good on Paper: An Anthropological Exploration of Volunteer Tourism and English Teaching in Northeastern Thailand2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores volunteer tourism in the context of English teachingin Northeastern Thailand, with the specific purpose of exploring whethervolunteer tourism can lead to positive structural positive changes withinthe Thai education system, particularly with regard to improving thequality of education, and reducing inequalities in access to education. Thestudy is based on two months of fieldwork in Nong Khai and Udon Thaniprovinces in Northeastern Thailand, during which interviews andobservations were conducted in two volunteer organizations workingactively with English teaching in the area. One organization was acommercial company while the other was a charity organization, formingthe basis for comparisons between different types of volunteer tourism.The study shows that volunteers working within the charity sector weremore dedicated to their work than vounteers working within thecommercial sector. Furthermore, they were more confident that they weremaking an actual contribution. The motivations of volunteers to partake inthe volunteer programs are explored and discussed in relation to the Thaieducation system and the growing desire for native-speaking and foreignteachers. Locating the stories and experiences of different actors in thelocal volunteer tourism industry within the larger context of the Thaieducation system, the study shows that significant inequalities within theeducation sector, coupled with increasing neoliberal processes ofmarketization and privatization, interact with volunteer organizations tocreate a situation in which young, unskilled volunteers are replacing Thaiteachers in the classrooms. This perpetuates a system in which the rightsof underprivileged school children are significantly downplayed. Thenotion that volunteer tourism leads to a greater cross-cultural understanding and a breakdown of cultural stereotypes is questioned;rather, negative stereotypes can be reinforced if programs are not carefullymanaged by the organizations. The study further argues that the focus onpersonal development and intimacy in volunteer tourism, as well as thelack of professionalization in commercial volunteer programs, can lead toa situation in which the structural inequalities which volunteer tourismshould supposedly address are effectively overshadowed.

  • 314.
    Johansson, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The In-Betweens of Space and Time in Transit: Spatial and temporal realities for urban refugees in Eastleigh, Nairobi2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study on how Somali and Oromo refugees manage under uncertain circumstances in Eastleigh, Nairobi. Fleeing from war, persecution and violence, the refugees expected to find protection and a quick transfer to a third country, which was not the case. Instead, they ended up in being stuck, unsafe, and questioned. The refugees aimed for resettlement to a third country; a decision depending on approval from the hosting state, a receiving state, and UNHCR. This process normally included 8-10 years or more of waiting and a positive answer was not guaranteed. The spatial realities in displacement in Eastleigh included a status of illegitimacy, socioeconomic hardships, and unpredictability of an eventual resettlement in a third country. In the protracted waiting for resettlement they struggle to become part of the place but in the state of transit, and in an excluding context, they are in-between – in a liminal state in both space and time.

  • 315. Jörgel, Magnus
    et al.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Mano river basin area: formal and informal security providers in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past 20 years the Mano River Basin (MRB) has been an area of violent upheavals and political instability. Although the area today enjoys peace in formal terms, life for many citizens of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea is one of immense struggle in poverty for a decent livelihood. Both Sierra Leone and Liberia are currently recovering from a decade of devastating civil strife that tore countries apart and caused massive death as well as destruction of private property and state struc-tures. Despite ample emergency and development funds from Western donors being dispensed into the region, surprisingly little real development can be observed. This can have a real effect on long-term security and stability. Guinea awaits the death of its President, and with him a totalitarian ruling system. The abundance of different strategy papers, development blueprints, comprehensive approaches, multidimensional Security Sector Reform (SSR) attempts and other donor-orchestrated development efforts indicate a great deal of international interest in dealing with the post-conflict situation in the MRB region. Unfortunately, direct outcomes remain uncertain and results from donor investment have not led to the social stability and security that have been wished for. This study describes the functions of the formal structures of the MRB states, the MRU, ECOWAS and the AU. It also looks into the informal networks that enmesh this formality. The study shows that it is the informal that pursues and carries the formal forward. It argues that without a thorough understanding of the concept of Big Men and informal net-works external actors will never be able to make any real contribution to how political and social matters unfold in the MRB area. If we do not support this knowledge with comprehensive capacity-enhancing assets, and if we do not continue doing this for a substantial length of time, there will be no real change in the security situation in the region.

  • 316.
    Karcsics, Ann-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    “My Friends Are My Safety Net”: Friendship Amongst Young Adults in Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the unique post-war and post-socialist arena several recent studies onformer Yugoslavian countries indicate that young people confronted by challengesof risk and uncertainty are turning away from the national and politicalsphere. Instead, they often seek trust and opportunities in their networks and relationshipson a personal level. This thesis explores the narratives and everydaypractices of young adults in Sarajevo regarding their friendship sociabilities. The aim is to provide an insight on how friendships are characterised, experiencedand related to the specific social and economic organisations that influencesthem.

    Based on fieldwork carried out in Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina myproject wants to present how young adults are reflecting and developing aspirationsin the light of their available choices and opportunities in life and how theyare using their friends in order to access various types of benefits and support. It is argued that in specific contexts friendships constitute the main social capitals and orientation points for young people. In order to explore and navigate through the different interests and agendas present in their community when it comes to personal education, career development and housing young peoplenecessarily choose to favour the reliance on their informal solidarities in form offriendships.

  • 317.
    Kaskija, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Images of a Forest People: Punan Malinau – Identity, Sociality, and Encapsulation in Borneo2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of groups of forest foragers and horticulturalists in the Malinau River basin in northeast Borneo. These groups are known to themselves and others as Punan, or more specifically – in order to distinguish them from other groups of Punan (or Penan) living in other parts of Borneo – as Punan Malinau. Scholars have debated whether the Punan are to be regarded as ‘genuine’ rain-forest hunter-gatherers or rather should be considered as groups of ‘runaway farmers’ who have left the fields for a life as professional collectors in the forest.

    The study is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out in Indonesian Borneo from August 1990 through May 1992, with shorter revisits in September–October 1997 and February 2000. The first three chapters offer a detailed overview of the many aspects of the recent hunter-gatherer debates in anthropology and related disciplines. Chapter four provides a description of the ethnic setting, giving brief information on the various ethnic groups of the area. Chapter five gives an ethno-historical sketch of the Malinau area, with particular reference to the last 200 years, during which the history of the Punan Malinau is intimately intertwined with that of the sedentary Merap. Chapter six presents general data on Punan subsistence, settlement patterns, social and political organization and local variation. In Chapter seven the focus is shifted from subsistence to ‘mode of thought’. A number of distinctive features of Punan sociality are explored – such as immediate return, individualism, opportunism, and sharing. Many of these features not only regulate internal relationships, but also serve as a collection of efficacious ‘tools’ by which social and natural resources of all kinds are examined and manipulated, including the management of contacts with surrounding societies. The concept of ‘encapsulation’ therefore becomes an important element in my discussion. Chapter eight, finally, is devoted to the situation at the turn of the millennium. In the course of the 1990s, a growing number of powerful outsiders started interfering with the local situation, including NGOs, and timber and mining companies. This was a time of increasing competition for land and various new sources of income among the people of the Malinau area. A Punan NGO was founded in the context of expanding political awareness, where lobbying for recognition and funding, from governmental or non-governmental organizations, became increasingly important. These developments show that the imaginings of the Punan, as well as their livelihoods, identity, and encapsulation are still a dynamic process.

  • 318.
    Kerstin, Mattsson
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    "One man´s terrorist is another man´s freedom fighter": En antropologisk studie om medias framställning av terrorism2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 319.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Designers and Brokers of the Mobility Regime2018Ingår i: Tricky Design: The Ethics of Things / [ed] Tom Fisher; Lorraine Gamman, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, s. 45-58Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 320. Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Material practices of power – part I: passports and passporting2015Ingår i: Design Philosophy Papers, ISSN 1448-7136, E-ISSN 1448-7136, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 97-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, passports are investigated as socio-technical artifacts with the capacity of interrogating the relation between design and politics. While they might appear as ‘trivial’ objects for some, passports tend to speak to the current political regime of mobility and more importantly immobility that produces refugee populations and undocumented migrants waiting in camps, transit zones or precarious clandestinity for several months and years. This inquiry in two parts aims to interrogate the artifacts of passport and its artifactual relations and practices – which I call passporting – in relation to the ways in which mobilities and immobilities are organized, controlled, regulated and shaped. Part I presents three interrelated ways of looking at passports: first, the historicity of passports and the ways in which technologies and material practices merge with the political, social and economic interests of specific times and spaces; second, the ways passports function and perform in a network of relations and ecologies which produce continuity as well as uncertainty with different effects, forms and scales in different environments; third, how passports and bodies change their positions constantly in the world in which the difficulties and uncertainties to locate either and/or become desirable space and time for manipulating and exercising power over undesired groups and individuals in local sites through a global rationale.

  • 321. Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Material practices of power – part II: forged passports as material dissents2016Ingår i: Design Philosophy Papers, ISSN 1448-7136, E-ISSN 1448-7136, Vol. 14, nr 1&2, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While mundane for the privileged few, passports, as discussed in the first part of this paper (DPP vol. 13, no. 2), are rather strong, thick and extensive devices of articulating, partitioning and producing possibilities of access, movement and inhabitations in the world. They have emerged from a certain intersection of social and material forces and continue to produce and provide new environments of power relations. It was proposed that these articulations are better to be renamed as passporting, which recognizes the regimes of practices involved in such environments beyond the single artifact of passport. Part II takes much further this analysis through proposing four lines of reading the passporting regime: materialities; sensibilities; part-taking; and translating. These lines, which point to the ontological qualities of passporting, can also be enacted for intervening into the passporting regime which articulates to the current hegemonic order of mobility. I trace such possible interventions in the acts of forgery of passports. Forgery uses, enables, dissents and rearticulates these very four lines of the passporting regime in other directions than the ones imagined by their initial design. By discussing the practices of passport forgery in relation to the passporting regime, this article offers a material and critical understanding of the notions of citizenship and nationality.

  • 322.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Sketch for a Theory of Design Politics2019Ingår i: Para-Platforms: On the Spatial Politics of Right-Wing Populism / [ed] Markus Miessen & Zoë Ritts, Berlin: Sternberg Press, 2019, s. 12-24Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 323.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The Design Politics of the Passport: Materiality, Immobility, and Dissent2019 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Design Politics of the Passport presents an innovative study of the passport and its associated social, political and material practices as a means of uncovering the workings of 'design politics'. It traces the histories, technologies, power relations and contestations around this small but powerful artefact to establish a framework for understanding how design is always enmeshed in the political, and how politics can be understood in terms of material objects.Combining design studies with critical border studies, alongside ethnographic work among undocumented migrants, border transgressors and passport forgers, this book shows how a world made and designed as open and hospitable to some is strictly enclosed, confined and demarcated for many others - and how those affected by such injustices dissent from the immobilities imposed on them through the same capacity of design and artifice.

  • 324.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The Violence of Humanitarian Design2018Ingår i: The Design Philosophy Reader / [ed] Anne-Marie Willis, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, s. 120-127Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    War, conflict, economic and environmental pressures are prompting mass movements of people from the Global South to Europe, USA and even far-distant Australia. This is being met with increasing efforts to contain, control and exclude them. Borders are sought to be secured by a variety of spatial and non-spatial practices that create virtual borders that are no less real in their effects -thus we can speak of borderwork, bordering and passporting, which Mahmoud Keshavarz does in an extensive study on 'Design-Politics' from which the following is extracted. The focus here is on the problematic role of humanitarian design in the exclusionary and frequently violent borderwork that is re-creating the Mediterranean Sea as European space. A design proposal for a 'life saving' line of buoys is given particular critical attention.

  • 325.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Snodgrass, Eric
    Linneaus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Orientations of Europe: Boats, the Mediterranean Sea and the Materialities of Contemporary Mobility Regimes2018Ingår i: Borderlands e-journal, ISSN 1447-0810, E-ISSN 1447-0810, Vol. 17, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an investigation of how the specific design and materiality of the artefact of the boat, as well as the various material, visual, technical and geographical practices at work in the space of Mediterranean Sea, orientate a specific space and produce a selective politics of seeing, saving and framing of bodies on the move. It highlights how the very presence and movement of ‘unseaworthy boats’ in this actively orientated space of the sea brings to the fore the many strategies and techniques that have been employed to make it a space of European control. We argue that this is an active and deadly orientation carried out in an often dispersed number of practices and interventions within a seemingly flat space of water. The paper concludes that border transgressors’ act of moving by boat, with all of the losses involved, both challenge and potentially reorientate European mobility regimes.

  • 326.
    Keshavarz, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Design Theory, Växjö, Sweden.
    The Politics of Borders in the Emergence of Modern Swedish Craft2019Ingår i: Journal of Modern Craft, ISSN 1749-6772, E-ISSN 1749-6780, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 13-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nation states have been imagined and constructed by defining certain identities and practices. Among cultural and economic practices bound to material culture, craft has played a significant role in the processes of imagining communities and consequently nationalities in modern times. These imaginations were produced and sustained by various discursive and materialized borders that were based on simultaneous practices of inclusion and exclusion, targeting certain bodies within the formation of a nation state. In this article, we discuss instances of such bordering in Sweden, by looking at specific state documents of controlling the movement and residence of those who were seen as suspicious and potentially threatening. Among these individuals were craftspeople with religious and/or ethnic backgrounds different than the imagined modern Swedish subjects. They were often represented as a threat to the economic, social, and cultural prosperity of the Swedish nation state. These individuals and groups, and their craft practices, were variously appropriated, erased, included, and excluded by the nation state. This article argues that an understanding of modern Swedish craft is impossible without recognizing the crafts that were excluded from its emergence, articulation, and sustainment over the last hundred years. This is to argue that an understanding of the politics of craft requires recognition of the borders that regulate how—and by whom—craft can be practiced.

  • 327.
    Khalilova, Amal
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The tension between a postcolonial feminist and a native informant2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 328.
    Kilje, Bim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    The Conception of Responsibility: Experiences of and Reflections on Male Contraceptive Responsibility in Sweden2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines male contraceptive responsibility in theory and practice, within the framework of experiences of existing contraceptives, as well as views on new contraceptives for men that are being researched.

       In today’s Sweden, contraception is largely a female area. However, with progress on the area of research into new hormonal male contraceptives, we might be headed towards a different reality. In hope of gaining a fuller understanding of contraceptive experiences, this paper aims to contribute to the understudied area of men and reproduction, and add understanding of how men would approach a new contraceptive.

       The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with five male Medicine students and Intern Physicians living in Sweden – some of the people who are going to influence other’s contraceptive realities in their professional practice. The essay explores the social contexts in which these men’s personal contraceptive experiences and thoughts around responsibility are created.

       The results show that women use contraceptive methods to a greater extent than men do. However, it is thought among the students and Physicians that contraceptive responsibility should be equal between the genders, and the approach to using a new male contraceptive is positive.

       Female contraceptive use is understood by the informants as a “burden”, the sharing of which is posed as the main reason to use new male contraceptives. New male contraceptives are hence found to be understood as a female right, rather than a male right.

       The essay shows that perceptions of responsibilities for contraception are rooted in cultural discourses, such as the assumption that women are more concerned to avoid pregnancy, and that it is difficult to develop contraceptives for men. Therefore, new male contraceptives might extend the possibilities for men to be involved in contraception – but our gendered ideas of, for example risk, might not change just because new contraceptives become available.

  • 329.
    Knoph, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Socialvetare utan yrkesexamen: En etnografisk studie om studenters förhoppningar om sin framtida arbetsmarknad2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien uppmärksammar högskolestudenter, som läser sista året på ett socialvetenskapligt kandidatprogram på Gävle högskola, och deras förhoppningar för framtiden. Studenterna har utländsk bakgrund och kommer från resurssvagare uppväxtförhållanden. Studieresultaten visar att studenternas förhoppningar för framtiden både formas efter studenternas uppväxtförhållanden och deras erfarenheter från utbildningen. För att illustrera detta, jämförs studenternas förhoppningar för framtiden med antropologisk forskning av Arjun Appadurais (2004). Appadurai menar att individers förhoppningar om framtiden formas efter hennes tillgänglighet till olika resurser. Mina resultat visar att studenterna, trots sina resurssvagare bakgrunder, har under utbildningen tillgodogjort sig nya resurser om hur de ska möta sin framtid.  Avslutningsvis föreslår studien att studenternas förhoppningar för framtiden, trots deras svagare förutsättningar, är sannolika i dagens Sverige.

  • 330.
    Konde, Patrick
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Ra(ce)ising Questions About School: Analyzing social structures in a Swedish High School2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based in a Swedish high school and scrutinizes social interaction among students. The material was gathered in semi-structured interviews and observations made outside of classrooms, but inside the school grounds. The study strives to analyze power dynamics that the students adhere to in their social relationships at the school. It uses intersectionality as an analytical tool to understand the gendered and racialized ways in which students understand themselves in the social complex as social beings within a system. Based on three months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted at this Stockholm-region high school during the spring of 2016, this essay also seeks to address the narrow ways in which Swedishness and non-Swedishness are constructed as dichotomous, as well as the power relations attached to acknowledgement of national belonging. Furthermore, the study analyzes ways in which students reinforce and communicate group belonging through attire, body language and speech. The thesis also considers how power dynamics stipulated by homosociality become an important factor in determining agency.

  • 331.
    Konstantinov, Yulian
    et al.
    New Bulgarian University, Sofia.
    Vladimirova, Vladislava
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Ambiguous Transition: Agrarian Reforms, Management, and Coping Practices in Murmansk Region Reindeer Herdin2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reforms in the Russian Federation have so far shown a significant degree of ambiguity. Taken as leading to a transition from a totalitarian state of command socialism to a democratic state with a market-oriented economy, the reforms tend to show only surface resemblances to such a process. Taken in an “oligarchic” sense, that is, as dispensing with social security and greatly expanding the sphere of the informal (“grey”) economy, the process seems to be fully completed.

    Against this background we ask how specifically agrarian reforms reflect on reindeer herding in the Russian North. Field research based data indicates that while local administrations continue to rule in a Soviet manner, in a mix with high orbit “grey” economic practices, agricultural workers rely on lower level informalities to cope with a continuing economic and social crisis. Searching for reliance on traditional or neo-traditional land-use is pronouncedly absent and in this context the Murmansk Region seems to stand apart from developments in many other parts of the Russian North and Siberia. Reasons may be found in the longest history of colonisation of this region (since the 10th century), in a traditionally non-nomadic herding, and in very strong local preferences for state socialist forms of management (“sovkhoism”). At the same time, there are signs of opposition to the current management practices of village cooperatives, fuelled by the appearance of new liberal agrarian legislation. This is the point at which agrarian reforms acquire real life significance locally. The article describes and discusses such a situation on the basis of recent material from six months of field work with reindeer herders and the administration of SKhPK “Tundra” in the settlement 1 Yulian Konstantinov, New Bulgarian University, Sofia; e-mail: bsrcs@mbox.cit.bg 2 Vladislava Vladimirova, Uppsala University 2of Lovozero, Murmansk Region. The field work was carried out in three consecutive periods in 2001

  • 332. Konstantinov, Yulian
    et al.
    Vladimirova, Vladislava
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Changes in Property Regimes and Reindeer Herding Management in Post-Soviet Herding Collectives: The Case of the Municipality of Lovozero (Murmansk Region, Northwest Russia)2006Ingår i: Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: Linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems / [ed] B.C. Forbes et al, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, s. 117-137Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 333. Konstantinov, Yulian
    et al.
    Vladimirova, Vladislava
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för rysslandsstudier. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Ekspeditsiia NOMAD. Sinergetika izmenenii klimata I ekstenzivnogoolenevodstvo na Kiol’skom poluostrove: The NOMAD Expedition:Studying Synergy between Socio-Economic and Climate Change in Relation toExtensive Reindeer Husbandry (Kola Peninsula,NW Russia)2008Ingår i: Ekologicheskoe planirovanie i upravlenie, ISSN 1991-9344, Vol. 8-9, nr 3-4, s. 69-77Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334.
    Konstantinov, Yulian
    et al.
    New Bulgarian University, Sofia; University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Vladimirova, Vladislava
    ax Planck Institute of Social Anthropology in Halle/Saale.
    The performative machine: Transfer of ownership in a northwest Russian reindeer herding community (Kola Peninsula)2006Ingår i: Nomadic Peoples, ISSN 0822-7942, E-ISSN 1752-2366, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 166-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is based on longitudinal fieldwork with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia. Its main ethnographic focus is SKhPK 'Tundra' (sel'sko khoziastvennaia proizvoditel'naia kooperatsiia – agricultural producing cooperative) of Lovozero. The main argument is that a state of communal affairs under the dominance of the state farm (sovkhoz), during the Soviet period, privileged domestic economies of the farm workers to be supported by the collective assets of the farm. The authors see this state of 'private-in-the-collective' arrangement as 'sovkhoism' and view the present variety of rural organisational forms in Russia as greater or lesser departures from it.

  • 335.
    Koné, Bintou
    et al.
    Institut des sciences humaines de Bamako.
    Hagberg, Sten
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    En quête de la députation: Parenté et politique dans une campagne électorale au Mali2019Ingår i: Démocratie par le bas et politique municipale au Sahel / [ed] Sten Hagberg, Ludovic O. Kibora et Gabriella Körling, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2019, s. 43-58Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 336.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    A Death in the Rainforest: How a Language and a Way of Life Came to an End in Papua New Guinea2019Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    As a young anthropologist, Don Kulick went to the tiny village of Gapun in New Guinea to document the death of the native language, Tayap. He arrived knowing that you can’t study a language without understanding the daily lives of the people who speak it: how they talk to their children, how they argue, how they gossip, how they joke. Over the course of thirty years, he returned again and again to document Tayap before it disappeared entirely, and he found himself inexorably drawn into their world, and implicated in their destiny. Kulick wanted to tell the story of Gapuners—one that went beyond the particulars and uses of their language—that took full stock of their vanishing culture. This book takes us inside the village as he came to know it, revealing what it is like to live in a difficult-to-get-to village of two hundred people, carved out like a cleft in the middle of a tropical rainforest. But A Death in the Rainforest is also an illuminating look at the impact of white society on the farthest reaches of the globe—and the story of why this anthropologist realized finally that he had to give up his study of this language and this village.

    An engaging, deeply perceptive, and brilliant interrogation of what it means to study a culture, A Death in the Rainforest takes readers into a world that endures in the face of massive changes, one that is on the verge of disappearing forever.

  • 337.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Anger, gender, language shift, and the politics of revelation in a Papua New Guinea village2015Ingår i: The Gender, Power and Culture Reader / [ed] Dorothy L. Hodgson, Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 190-200Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 338.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Fat Pets2009Ingår i: Fat Studies in the UK / [ed] Tomrley, Corinna., & Naylor Kaloski, Ann., Raw Nerve Books , 2009, s. 35-50Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 339.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Human-Animal Communication2017Ingår i: Annual Review Of Anthropology / [ed] Brenneis, D; Strier, KB, ANNUAL REVIEWS, 2017, s. 357-378Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demise in the 1980s of research by psychologists who attempted to teach human language to apes, a range of other perspectives has arisen that explore how humans can communicate with animals and what the possibility of such communication means. Sociologists interested in symbolic interactionism, anthropologists writing about ontology, equestrian and canine trainers, people with autism who say they understand animals because they think like animals, and a ragbag of sundry New Age women who claim to be able to converse with animals through telepathy have started discussing human- animal communication in ways that recast the whole point of thinking about it. This review charts how interest in human-animal communication has moved from a concern with cognition to a concern with ethics, and it discusses the similarities and differences that exist among the range of writing on this topic.

  • 340.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Humorless lesbians2017Ingår i: Gender: Laughter / [ed] Bettina Papenburg, Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference , 2017Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 341.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Is It Monologic? Is It Dialogic? What Difference Does It Make?2017Ingår i: The Monologic Imagination / [ed] Matt Tomlinson & Julian Millie, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, s. 81-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 342.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Jouir comme des bêtes2017Ingår i: Terrain, ISSN 1777-5450, Vol. 67, s. 110-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 343.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    La rappresentazione delle lesbiche prive di senso dell’umorismo2016Ingår i: de genere, ISSN 2465-2415, nr 2, s. 143-160Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 344.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Review of Megan B. McCullough & Jessica A. Hardin, eds. “Reconstructing Obesity: the meaning of measures and the measure of meanings”2015Ingår i: TAJA: The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 131-132Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 345.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    The gender of Brazilian transgendered prostitutes2015Ingår i: The Gender, Culture and Power Reader / [ed] Dorothy L. Hodgson, Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 65-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 346.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    The problem of speaking for others redux: insistence on disclosure and the ethics of engagement2017Ingår i: Knowledge Cultures, ISSN 2327-5731, E-ISSN 2375-6527, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 14-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 347.
    Kulick, Don
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    When privacy and secrecy collapse into one another, bad things can happen2015Ingår i: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 56, s. S241-S250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses privacy and secrecy in relation to the sexual lives of adults with significant disabilities. It compares ideologies and practices of privacy in two Scandinavian countries that diverge dramatically when it comes to sexuality and disability. In Sweden, the sexual lives of adults with disabilities are hindered and blocked by the people the welfare state pays to assist them. In Denmark, those same kinds of assistants facilitate sexual lives. A reason for this difference hinges on how "privacy" is conceptualized and practiced. In Denmark, to label something as "private" configures a particular kind of ethical space of engagement. In Sweden, "private" means "secret," "off limits," "beyond the boundary of knowledge or engagement." This collapse of privacy and secrecy into one another has dire consequences for people with disabilities.

  • 348.
    Kulick, Don
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Machado-Borges, Thais
    Leaky2015Ingår i: One world, many cultures / [ed] Stuart Hirschberg and Terry Hirschberg, Pearson Education Academic Publisher, 2015Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 349.
    Kulick, Don
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi, Kulturantropologiska avdelningen.
    Rydström, Jens
    Loneliness and its opposite: sex, disability and the ethics of engagement2015Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 350.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordic Africa Institute.
    The Crisis in CAR: Navigating Myths and Interests2014Ingår i: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 69-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    “Anarchy”, “religious war”, “genocide” and, recently, “cannibalism”– these are some of the most commonly used words in Westernnews media when referring to the crisis in the Central African Republic(CAR), at least since the takeover of power by the rebel coalition Sélékain March 2013. In the context of these media stereotypes, this articleunravels some of the complexities that have arisen in the CAR conflictsince the fall of the Bozizé regime and the Séléka takeover. We showhow international actors have been pivotal in shaping the current crisis inthe country. In order to help steer CAR out of its predicament, we showhow important it is that international peacekeeping operations, policymakersand diplomats understand not only the situation on the groundbut also the close ties major groups in CAR have with various regionaland other international actors. If context awareness remains scant, thereis a serious risk that their activities will at best be suboptimal and at worstaid in fuelling the crisis.

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