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  • 301.
    Fricke, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Andersson, C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Natural selection hampers divergence of reproductive traits in a seed beetle2010Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 1857-1867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Speciation is thought to often result from indirect selection for reproductive isolation. This will occur when reproductive traits that cause reproductive isolation evolve (i) as a by-product of natural selection on traits with which they are genetically correlated or (ii) as an indirect result of diversifying sexual selection. Here, we use experimental evolution to study the degree of divergent evolution of reproductive traits by manipulating the intensity of natural and sexual selection in replicated selection lines of seed beetles. Following 40 generations of selection, we assayed the degree of divergent evolution of reproductive traits between replicate selection lines experiencing the same selection regime. The evolution of reproductive traits was significantly divergent across selection lines within treatments. The evolution of reproductive traits was both slower and, more importantly, significantly less divergent among lines experiencing stronger directional natural selection. This suggests that reproductive traits did not evolve as an indirect by-product of adaptation. We discuss several ways in which natural selection may hamper divergent evolution among allopatric populations.

  • 302.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual selection and the evolution of sex-role reversal in honeylocust beetles2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection is the prime evolutionary force that makes males and females different. This process has long been viewed as one where male compete with one another and where females choose. However, since the discovery that multiple mating by females is common in animals, sexual selection theory has been expanded to include mate competition between females and mate choice by males. However, empirical studies addressing these themes are scarce. In my thesis, I explore the evolution of sex role reversed mating systems using the honey locust beetles (Megabruchidius dorsalis and M. tonkineus). I used these species to shed light on (1) how closely sexual selection in females resembles its better‑studied male counterpart, (2) the implications of male mating costs for mating system evolution and (3) the effects of reproductive competition between females on the evolution of female courtship behaviour. By manipulating male mating rate, I found that males that mated more lived shorter lives, showing that mating is costly for males. I also demonstrated that males are choosy about whom they mate with and prefer vigorously courting females (Paper II). In contrast to males, previous studies suggested that female honey locust beetles benefit nutritionally from mating due to the large ejaculates provided by males. I manipulated male condition to show that male adult feeding had significant effects on female reproduction. Females that mated with males of good condition lived longer and produced more offspring than females whose mates were in poor condition (Paper III). When mating is costly for males, theory predicts that sexual selection in females can be strong. I compared sexual selection in honey locust beetles to that in two other species of seed beetles with conventional sex roles. I found substantial sexual selection in honey locust beetle females, which was comparable in strength to that in males (Paper I). I also measured the evolutionary effects of altered sex ratios on mating system parameters in both honey locust beetle species, using an experimental evolution design. Under female-biased sex ratios, representing strong sexual selection in females, females of M. dorsalis rapidly evolved elevated courtship intensity, thereby intensifying the reversal of sex roles (Paper V). In M. tonkineus, males evolved under male-biased sex ratios to transfer larger ejaculates, demonstrating the role of male-male reproductive competition for the evolution of male provisioning (Paper IV). My thesis highlights the essential, and often overlooked, role that females play in mating system evolution and that their contribution cannot simply be reduced to mate choice.

    Delarbeten
    1. Homage To Bateman: Sex Roles Predict Sex Differences In Sexual Selection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Homage To Bateman: Sex Roles Predict Sex Differences In Sexual Selection
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 7, s. 1926-1936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species.

    Nyckelord
    Bateman gradient, mating system, sexual dimorphism, sperm competition
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204985 (URN)10.1111/evo.12086 (DOI)000321184500009 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-08-16 Skapad: 2013-08-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. The cost of mating and mutual mate choice in 2 role-reversed honey locust beetles
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The cost of mating and mutual mate choice in 2 role-reversed honey locust beetles
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 1104-1113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Situations where both males and females simultaneously exercise mate choice may be much more common than previously believed. Yet, experimental studies of mutual mate choice are rare as is information on the types of female traits that are favored by male mate choice. We first assessed the cost of mating to males under different feeding regimes in 2 honey locust beetles (Bruchidae, Megabruchidius spp.) where females actively search for and court males. Further, in a series of mate choice trials, we manipulated female mating status and male food provisioning to assess how male and female characteristics affected the outcome of male-female interactions. Mating carried substantial costs to males, but these costs were independent of food availability. Males generally showed a preference for large females but also for females that delivered a more vigorous courtship display. Moreover, males preferred virgin females in one species but nonvirgin females in the other species, and we provide data suggesting that this choice is adaptive. Female choice was restricted to a lower rate of female mate rejection of larger males in one of the species. Our results reveal a striking interspecific variation in mutual mate choice, even between these closely related species, and show that sexual selection in females can act on much the same types of traits that are commonly considered sexually selected in males, such as size-related traits and courtship vigor. This suggests that a preference for condition-dependent traits may be a commonality that is shared between mate choice by both sexes.

    Nyckelord
    allometry, Bruchidae, mate choice, nuptial gifts, sex-role reversal, sexual selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158884 (URN)10.1093/beheco/arr097 (DOI)000294358400029 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-20 Skapad: 2011-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. The effects of male phenotypic condition on reproductive output in a sex role-reversed beetle
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The effects of male phenotypic condition on reproductive output in a sex role-reversed beetle
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 102, s. 209-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In insects with sex role reversal in mating, in which females actively court males, large and nutritious ejaculates are a common direct benefit to females. Such ejaculates are costly for males to produce and their size and composition can depend on male condition. However, the fitness effects to males and females of such condition-dependent provisioning are less clear. Here, we studied the effects of phenotypic condition on mating behaviour, ejaculate size and reproductive output in honeylocust beetles, Megabruchidius dorsalis. Our experimental design allowed us to disentangle the independent effects of juvenile resource acquisition in both sexes (as reflected by body size) and resource acquisition by adult males (feeding). We show that phenotypic condition of both sexes had sizeable independent and interactive effects on mating and reproductive output. In males, resources accrued during the juvenile phase had significant but relatively marginal effects on male mating and reproduction. Male adult feeding, in contrast, had sizeable effects on almost all aspects of male and female reproduction, through the nutritional effects of ejaculates in females. We discuss our findings in light of the reversal of both sex roles and sexual size dimorphism exhibited by this species, relative to related species. Our results highlight the importance of testing the interaction of male and female condition on components of fitness to understand the evolution and maintenance of mating systems.

    Nyckelord
    condition dependence, fecundity selection, nuptial gift, nutritious ejaculates, sex role reversal, sexual selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246714 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.01.025 (DOI)000351058700021 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-09 Skapad: 2015-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Sperm competition generates evolution of increased paternal investment in a sex role-reversed seed beetle
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sperm competition generates evolution of increased paternal investment in a sex role-reversed seed beetle
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 2841-2849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When males provide females with resources at mating, they can become the limiting sex in reproduction, in extreme cases leading to the reversal of typical courtship roles. The evolution of male provisioning is thought to be driven by male reproductive competition and selection for female fecundity enhancement. We used experimental evolution under male- or female-biased sex ratios and limited or unlimited food regimes to investigate the relative roles of these routes to male provisioning in a sex role-reversed beetle, Megabruchidius tonkineus, where males provide females with nutritious ejaculates. Males evolving under male-biased sex ratios transferred larger ejaculates than did males from female-biased populations, demonstrating a sizeable role for reproductive competition in the evolution of male provisioning. Although larger ejaculates elevated female lifetime offspring production, we found little evidence of selection for larger ejaculates via fecundity enhancement: males evolving under resource-limited and unlimited conditions did not differ in mean ejaculate size. Resource limitation did, however, affect the evolution of conditional ejaculate allocation. Our results suggest that the resource provisioning that underpins sex role reversal in this system is the result of male-male reproductive competition rather than of direct selection for males to enhance female fecundity.

    Nyckelord
    experimental evolution, fecundity enhancement, Megabruchidius tonkineus, paternal investment, reproductive competition, sex role reversal
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-242014 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12549 (DOI)000346280100025 ()25394675 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-01-20 Skapad: 2015-01-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. The experimental evolution of sex roles in beetles
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The experimental evolution of sex roles in beetles
    (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Nyckelord
    sexual selection, female courtship, sex role reversal, mating system evolution
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247577 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-22 Skapad: 2015-03-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-07-07
  • 303.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Homage To Bateman: Sex Roles Predict Sex Differences In Sexual Selection2013Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 7, s. 1926-1936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species.

  • 304.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The effects of male phenotypic condition on reproductive output in a sex role-reversed beetle2015Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 102, s. 209-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In insects with sex role reversal in mating, in which females actively court males, large and nutritious ejaculates are a common direct benefit to females. Such ejaculates are costly for males to produce and their size and composition can depend on male condition. However, the fitness effects to males and females of such condition-dependent provisioning are less clear. Here, we studied the effects of phenotypic condition on mating behaviour, ejaculate size and reproductive output in honeylocust beetles, Megabruchidius dorsalis. Our experimental design allowed us to disentangle the independent effects of juvenile resource acquisition in both sexes (as reflected by body size) and resource acquisition by adult males (feeding). We show that phenotypic condition of both sexes had sizeable independent and interactive effects on mating and reproductive output. In males, resources accrued during the juvenile phase had significant but relatively marginal effects on male mating and reproduction. Male adult feeding, in contrast, had sizeable effects on almost all aspects of male and female reproduction, through the nutritional effects of ejaculates in females. We discuss our findings in light of the reversal of both sex roles and sexual size dimorphism exhibited by this species, relative to related species. Our results highlight the importance of testing the interaction of male and female condition on components of fitness to understand the evolution and maintenance of mating systems.

  • 305.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    The experimental evolution of sex roles in beetlesArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 306.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The measurement of sexual selection on females and males2013Ingår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 558-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As in any field of research, the study of sexual selection is subject to ongoing debate over definitions and interpretations of the fundamental concepts involved. These arguments generally promote progress, as they highlight areas where current explanations are incomplete. Here we briefly review two ongoing discussions in the sexual selection literature. First, the definition of sexual selection has received renewed interest in light of increasing research effort into when and how it operates in females. Second, how best to measure sexual selection is an ongoing subject of debate; in practice, recognition that the appropriate measures depend on the focus of the specific study, and that multiple measures should be employed wherever possible, seems to provide the most informative approach. The wide scope of recent empirical work in these and related areas, with the application of new techniques and approaches, reflects that the field of sexual selection is being constantly expanded and enriched.

  • 307.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Graz Univ, Dept Zool, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex Ratio Bias Leads to the Evolution of Sex Role Reversal in Honey Locust Beetles2016Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, nr 18, s. 2522-2526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reversal of conventional sex roles was enigmatic to Darwin, who suggested that it may evolve when sex ratios are female biased [1]. Here we present direct evidence confirming Darwin's hypothesis. We investigated mating system evolution in a sex-role reversed beetle (Megabruchidius dorsalis) using experimental evolution under manipulated sex ratios and food regimes. In female-biased populations, where reproductive competition among females was intensified, females evolved to be more attractive and the sex roles became more reversed. Interestingly, female-specific mating behavior evolved more rapidly than male-specific mating behavior. We show that sexual selection due to reproductive competition can be strong in females and can target much the same traits as in males of species with conventional mating systems. Our study highlights two central points: the role of ecology in directing sexual selection and the role that females play in mating system evolution.

  • 308. Gavrilets, S
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Friberg, U
    The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, nr 1466, s. 531-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 309. Gelter, H. P.
    et al.
    Tegelstrom, H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    EVIDENCE FROM HATCHING SUCCESS AND DNA FINGERPRINTING FOR THE FERTILITY OF HYBRID PIED X COLLARED FLYCATCHERS FICEDULA-HYPOLEUCA X ALBICOLLIS1992Ingår i: Ibis, Vol. 134, nr 1, s. 62-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 310. Gelter, H. P.
    et al.
    Tegelstrom, H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Evidence from hatching success and DNA fingerprinting for the fertility of hybrid pied×collared flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca×albicollis1992Ingår i: Ibis, Vol. 134, nr 1, s. 62-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 311.
    Geritz, Stefan A. H.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Math & Stat, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Metz, Johan A. J.
    Leiden Univ, Math Inst, POB 9512, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Inst Biol, POB 9512, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.;Naturalis, Netherlands Ctr Biodivers, POB 9517, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.;Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, Evolut & Ecol Program, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria..
    Rüffler, Claus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Mutual invadability near evolutionarily singular strategies for multivariate traits, with special reference to the strongly convergence stable case2016Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Biology, ISSN 0303-6812, E-ISSN 1432-1416, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 1081-1099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades evolutionary branching has emerged as a possible mathematical paradigm for explaining the origination of phenotypic diversity. Although branching is well understood for one-dimensional trait spaces, a similarly detailed understanding for higher dimensional trait spaces is sadly lacking. This note aims at getting a research program of the ground leading to such an understanding. In particular, we show that, as long as the evolutionary trajectory stays within the reign of the local quadratic approximation of the fitness function, any initial small scale polymorphism around an attracting invadable evolutionarily singular strategy (ess) will evolve towards a dimorphism. That is, provided the trajectory does not pass the boundary of the domain of dimorphic coexistence and falls back to monomorphism (after which it moves again towards the singular strategy and from there on to a small scale polymorphism, etc.). To reach these results we analyze in some detail the behavior of the solutions of the coupled Lande-equations purportedly satisfied by the phenotypic clusters of a quasi-n-morphism, and give a precise characterisation of the local geometry of the set in trait space squared harbouring protected dimorphisms. Intriguingly, in higher dimensional trait spaces an attracting invadable ess needs not connect to . However, for the practically important subset of strongly attracting ess-es (i.e., ess-es that robustly locally attract the monomorphic evolutionary dynamics for all possible non-degenerate mutational or genetic covariance matrices) invadability implies that the ess does connect to , just as in 1-dimensional trait spaces. Another matter is that in principle there exists the possibility that the dimorphic evolutionary trajectory reverts to monomorphism still within the reign of the local quadratic approximation for the invasion fitnesses. Such locally unsustainable branching cannot occur in 1- and 2-dimensional trait spaces, but can do so in higher dimensional ones. For the latter trait spaces we give a condition excluding locally unsustainable branching which is far stricter than the one of strong convergence, yet holds good for a relevant collection of published models. It remains an open problem whether locally unsustainable branching can occur around general strongly attracting invadable ess-es.

  • 312.
    Germain, Marion
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The links between dispersal and individual fitness: correlation or causality?: Exploring mechanisms using correlative and experimental approaches in a passerine bird species, the collared flycatcher2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is commonly defined as the movement of an individual from its natal orprevious breeding site to a new breeding site. Because dispersal involves movements ofindividuals and genes among populations, it is recognized as a key life history trait withstrong effects on many ecological and evolutionary processes such as populationdynamics and genetics but also species spatial distribution or response to brutalenvironmental variations induced by human activities. Yet, the consequences of dispersalin terms of individual fitness remain poorly understood despite their crucial importance inthe understanding of the evolution of dispersal. The aim of this PhD is to get betterinsights in the fitness consequences of dispersal using both correlative and experimentalapproaches at different scales, i.e. annual and lifetime scales, in a wild patchy populationof migratory passerine bird, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). Using a long-termdata set encompasses more than 20 years of data, differences between dispersing andphilopatric individuals were demonstrated both at a lifetime and annual scale. The resultsshowed strong phenotypic- and condition-dependent effects of dispersal and highlightthat the balance between the costs and benefits of dispersal is likely to be the result ofsubtle interactions between environmental factors and individuals’ phenotype. Moreover,the forced dispersal experiment demonstrated that dispersal might entail costs link tosettlement in a new habitat, which only some individuals may overcome. Nevertheless,the absence of difference in major fitness related decisions after settlement suggests thatdispersal is mostly adaptive for individuals overcome such costs.Key words: dispersal, fitness, collared flycatcher, dispersal costs and benefits,experimental approach, correlative approach, passerine.

  • 313.
    Germain, Marion
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    Lower settlement following a forced displacement experiment: nonbreeding as a dispersal cost in a wild bird?2017Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 133, s. 109-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a key life history trait impacting ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, the fitness consequences of dispersal remain poorly investigated. Using a displacement experiment of 616 individuals in a patchy population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we investigated behavioural responses to forced movement in terms of settlement, subsequent breeding performance and return rate. Newly arrived birds were caught and displaced between patches or released back in the patch of capture. We analysed (1) the probability of successful settlement within the study area, (2) for displaced birds, the probability of accepting the forced movement rather than returning to the patch of capture, (3) components of reproductive performance and (4) return rate in subsequent years according to experimental treatment. The probability of settling within the study area tended to be lower for displaced than control birds and was lower for immigrants than local birds. This suggests that displacement induced long-distance dispersal movements or nonbreeding, which could reflect costs of unfamiliarity with the environment. Nondispersers (individuals caught early in the breeding season in the same patch as their previous one) were more likely to return to their patch of capture, probably because of higher benefits of familiarity. Once individuals had settled, their breeding performance did not vary markedly between treatments, although displaced individuals that did not return to their patch of capture raised lighter young than other individuals. This could indicate a lower phenotypic quality of these individuals or, again, a cost of breeding in an unfamiliar environment. Finally, individuals that settled (and non-dispersers) were more likely to return to the study area in subsequent years than individuals that disappeared (and immigrants/dispersers, respectively). Together, these results suggest that, in addition to the costs of transience, dispersal (here forced) may entail costs linked to settlement in an unfamiliar habitat.

  • 314.
    Germain, Marion
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik. Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Lyon 2, Univ Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Natal dispersers pay a lifetime cost to increased reproductive effort in a wild bird population2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, nr 1851, artikel-id 20162445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natal dispersal is assumed to be costly. Such costs can be difficult to detect, and fitness consequences of dispersal are therefore poorly known. Because of lower phenotypic quality and/or familiarity with the environment, natal dispersers may be less buffered against a sudden increase in reproductive effort. Consequently, reproductive costs associated with natal dispersal may mostly be detected in harsh breeding conditions. We tested this prediction by comparing lifetime reproductive success between natal dispersers and non- dispersers in a patchy population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) when they reared either a non- manipulated brood or an experimentally increased or decreased brood. Natal dispersers achieved lower lifetime reproductive success than non- dispersers only under more stressful breeding conditions (i. e. when brood size was experimentally increased). This was mostly due to a lower number of recruits produced in the year of the increase. Our results suggest a cost associated with natal dispersal paid immediately after an increase in reproductive effort and not subsequently compensated for through increased survival or future offspring recruitment. Natal dispersers adjusted their breeding investment when reproductive effort is as predicted but seemed unable to efficiently face a sudden increase in effort, which could affect the influence of environmental predictability on dispersal evolution.

  • 315.
    Goenaga, Julieta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Jose Fanara, Juan
    Hasson, Esteban
    Latitudinal Variation in Starvation Resistance is Explained by Lipid Content in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster2013Ingår i: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 601-612Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common environmental stressors is a shortage or suboptimal quality of food, thus all animals deal with periods of starvation. In the present study we examine variation in starvation resistance, longevity and body lipid content and the correlations between traits along an environmental gradient using isofemale lines recently derived from natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from South America. The use of isofemale lines and controlled rearing laboratory conditions allows us to investigate within and among population components of genetic variation and the potential associations among starvation resistance, longevity and body lipid content. All these traits were analyzed separately in females and males, improving our understanding of sexual dimorphism. Our results revealed significant differences among populations in starvation resistance and longevity. Actually, the opposing latitudinal cline detected for starvation resistance suggests that natural selection played an essential role in shaping the pattern of geographic variation in this trait. Moreover, we also detected a positive relationship between starvation resistance and body lipid content in both sexes, providing evidence for a physiological and/or evolutionary association between these traits. Conversely, starvation resistance was not correlated with longevity indicating that these traits might be enabled to evolve independently. Finally, our study reveals that there is abundant within population genetic variation for all traits that may be maintained by sex-specific effects.

  • 316.
    Goenaga, Julieta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Aarhus Univ, Aarhus Inst Adv Studies, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Yamane, Takashi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Within-species divergence in the seminal fluid proteome and its effect on male and female reproduction in a beetle2015Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 15, artikel-id 266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), transferred to females during mating, are important reproductive proteins that have multifarious effects on female reproductive physiology and that often show remarkably rapid and divergent evolution. Inferences regarding natural selection on SFPs are based primarily on interspecific comparative studies, and our understanding of natural within-species variation in SFPs and whether this relates to reproductive phenotypes is very limited. Here, we introduce an empirical strategy to study intraspecific variation in and selection upon the seminal fluid proteome. We then apply this in a study of 15 distinct populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Results: Phenotypic assays of these populations showed significant differences in reproductive phenotypes (male success in sperm competition and male ability to stimulate female fecundity). A quantitative proteomic study of replicated samples of male accessory glands revealed a large number of potential SFPs, of which >= 127 were found to be transferred to females at mating. Moreover, population divergence in relative SFP abundance across populations was large and remarkably multidimensional. Most importantly, variation in male SFP abundance across populations was associated with male sperm competition success and male ability to stimulate female egg production. Conclusions: Our study provides the first direct evidence for postmating sexual selection on standing intraspecific variation in SFP abundance and the pattern of divergence across populations in the seminal fluid proteome match the pattern predicted by the postmating sexual selection paradigm for SFP evolution. Our findings provide novel support for the hypothesis that sexual selection on SFPs is an important engine of incipient speciation.

  • 317.
    Golab, Maria J.
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sniegula, Szymon
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Let's mate here and now - seasonal constraints increase mating efficiency2019Ingår i: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 623-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Latitudinal climatic conditions shape the length of the mating season and could thus influence reproductive traits. Knowledge of how animals behave along latitudinal clines will increase understanding of the impact of climate on sexual selection and might help in the prediction of whether peripheral populations will spread or shrink in response to changes in climate. 2. This study investigated variation in the mating efficiency of a temperate insect, the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa, under semi-natural field conditions along a latitudinal gradient covering three regions of the species' distribution: south, central and north. 3. A comparison was done of the proportion of copulating males, the proportion of males that formed tandems but did not copulate (unsuccessful males), and the proportion of males that did not attempt to form a tandem (passive males) in these three regions. 4. It was found that the proportion of copulations was significantly higher at northern latitudes than in the southern and central regions. Southern latitudes had a higher proportion of successful copulations compared with central latitudes. The northern region had a significantly lower frequency of passive males. The southern region had an intermediate proportion of passive males, and the central region had the highest proportion. The proportion of unsuccessful males did not differ between regions. The population density across sites did not affect these results. 5. The study shows that damselflies inhabiting northern populations mate more intensively than individuals from southern and central populations. This suggests that more restrictive environmental conditions during a brief mating season select for higher mating efficiency.

  • 318. Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights2015Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 218, nr 11, s. 1639-1646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O-2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O-2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O-2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O-2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid-O-2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O-2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O-2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O-2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O-2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth.

  • 319.
    Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Anim Behav, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Evolutionary ecology of pipefish brooding structures: embryo survival and growth do not improve with a pouch2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 3608-3620Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For animals that reproduce in water, many adaptations in life-history traits such as egg size, parental care, and behaviors that relate to embryo oxygenation are still poorly understood. In pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons, males care for the embryos either in some sort of brood pouch, or attached ventrally to the skin on their belly or tail. Typically, egg size is larger in the brood pouch group and it has been suggested that oxygen supplied via the pouch buffers the developing embryos against hypoxia and as such is an adaptation that has facilitated the evolution of larger eggs. Here, using four pipefish species, we tested whether the presence or absence of brood pouch relates to how male behavior, embryo size, and survival are affected by hypoxia, with normoxia as control. Two of our studied species Entelurus aequoreus and Nerophis ophidion (both having small eggs) have simple ventral attachment of eggs onto the male trunk, and the other two, Syngnathus typhle (large eggs) and S. rostellatus (small eggs), have fully enclosed brood pouches on the tail. Under hypoxia, all species showed lower embryo survival, while species with brood pouches suffered greater embryo mortality compared to pouchless species, irrespective of oxygen treatment. Behaviorally, species without pouches spent more time closer to the surface, possibly to improve oxygenation. Overall, we found no significant benefits of brood pouches in terms of embryo survival and size under hypoxia. Instead, our results suggest negative effects of large egg size, despite the protection of brood pouches.

  • 320.
    Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Anim Behav, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1813, artikel-id 20150690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipelish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O-2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments.

  • 321. Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ahnesjo, Ingrid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sagebakken, Gry
    Jones, Adam G.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish2015Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 114, nr 3, s. 639-645Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In species that provide parental care, individuals should invest adaptively in their offspring in relation to the pre- and post-zygotic care provided by their partners. In the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhleL., females transfer large, nutrient-rich eggs into the male brood pouch during mating. The male broods and nourishes the embryos for several weeks before independent juveniles emerge at parturition. Given a choice, females clearly prefer large partners. Yet, females provide protein-richer eggs when the same individual mates with a smaller than a larger male. In the present study, we allowed each female to mate with one small and one large male, in alternated order. We found a strong effect of female mating order, with larger clutches and higher embryo mortality in first- than second-laid broods, which may suggest that eggs over-ripen in the ovaries or reflect the negative effects of high embryo density in the brood pouch. In either case, this effect should put constraints on the possibility of a female being selective in mate choice. We also found that small and large males produced embryos of similar size and survival, consistent with the reproductive compensation hypothesis, suggesting that, in this species, larger males provide better nourishment to the embryos than smaller males.(c) 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 114, 639-645.

  • 322.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Sexual selection determines parental care patterns in cichlid fishes2008Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, nr 8, s. 2015-2026Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a massive research effort, our understanding of why, in most vertebrates, males compete for mates and females care for offspring remains incomplete. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction of causality between parental care and sexual selection. Traditionally, sexual selection has been explained as a consequence of relative parental investment, where the sex investing less will compete for the sex investing more. However, a more recent model suggests that parental care patterns result from sexual selection acting on one sex favoring mating competition and lower parental investment. Using species-level comparative analyses on Tanganyikan cichlid fishes we tested these alternative hypotheses employing a proxy of sexual selection based on mating system, sexual dichromatism, and dimorphism data. First, while controlling for female reproductive investment, we found that species with intense sexual selection were associated with female-only care whereas species with moderate sexual selection were associated with biparental care. Second, using contingency analyses, we found that, contrary to the traditional view, evolutionary changes in parental care type are dependent on the intensity of sexual selection. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that sexual selection determines parental care patterns in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes.

  • 323.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Sex, Ecology and the Brain: Evolutionary Correlates of Brain Structure Volumes in Tanganyikan Cichlids2010Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. e14355-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of the macroevolutionary correlates of brain structure volumes allow pinpointing of selective pressures influencing specific structures. Here we use a multiple regression framework, including phylogenetic information, to analyze brain structure evolution in 43 Tanganyikan cichlid species. We analyzed the effect of ecological and sexually selected traits for species averages, the effect of ecological traits for each sex separately and the influence of sexual selection on structure dimorphism. Our results indicate that both ecological and sexually selected traits have influenced brain structure evolution. The patterns observed in males and females generally followed those observed at the species level. Interestingly, our results suggest that strong sexual selection is associated with reduced structure volumes, since all correlations between sexually selected traits and structure volumes were negative and the only statistically significant association between sexual selection and structure dimorphism was also negative. Finally, we previously found that monoparental female care was associated with increased brain size. However, here cerebellum and hypothalamus volumes, after controlling for brain size, associated negatively with female-only care. Thus, in accord with the mosaic model of brain evolution, brain structure volumes may not respond proportionately to changes in brain size. Indeed selection favoring larger brains can simultaneously lead to a reduction in relative structure volumes.

  • 324.
    Graham, Stuart
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA..
    Kozma, Radoslav
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The utility of effective population size in population management 1:estimating contemporary effective size2016Ingår i: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of effective population size (Ne) are highly desirable in managed populations because they are informative of the rate at which genetic variation is being lost through the processes of genetic drift or inbreeding. Due to the notorious difficulty of accurate Ne estimation in natural populations, myriad estimation methods have been developed over the last 50 years. Conservation practitioners and researchers who are unfamiliar with the Ne estimation literature are now faced with an overwhelming amount of choice when selecting an estimation method and, unfortunately, the resources available to help them make this decision rarely consider the practicalities of implementing these methods. This review aims to alleviate this problem by explicitly considering these practicalities while describing and comparing the most popular estimation methods available. We begin by clearly describing how estimates of Ne can be used in population management. We then go on to describe the most popular methods available for Ne estimation, stating the assumptions that are made and the data that are required. The review concludes with recommendations of the most appropriate estimation methods given specific motivations for estimating Ne and the types of data that are practical to collect.

  • 325.
    Grieshop, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual conflict, sexual selection, and genetic variance in fitness2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår kunskap om könsspecifik selektion och genetisk variation för fitness är central för förståelsen av evolutionära processer. I den här avhandligen presenteras resultaten av empiriska undersökningar av just könsspecifik genetisk variation för fitness. Resultaten diskuteras med fokus på deras betydelse för de klassiska evolutionära paradoxerna angående vad som bibehåller genetisk variation i fitness och varför organismer som förökar sig sexuellt är så vanliga, men även mer specifika konsekvenser för en populations anpassningsförmåga och livskraftighet avhandlas. Evolutionen har ofta gynnat olika reproduktiva strategier hos hannar och honor, och dessa strategier kan medföra kostnader för det motsatta könet. Den könskonflikt som uppstår på grund av detta kan också inbegripa en genetisk dragkamp eftersom könen delar genetisk arvsmassa men gynnas av olika anpassningar. Konsekvensen är att alternativa varianter av gener gynnas hos honor och hanar, vilket resulterar i en form av balanserande selektion som kan bibehålla genetisk variation i en population. Genetisk variation i fitness kan även upprätthållas genom en jämvikt mellan ett konstant inflöde av genetisk variation via mutationer med svagt negativ effekt och svag selektion mot dessa mutationer.  Eftersom en negativ mutation normalt kommer vara skadlig för båda könen kommer den här typen av källa till genetisk variation i fitness ha liknande effekt hos könen.  I arbetet med denna avhandlig har jag använt en vilt infångad population av fröbaggaen Callosobruchus maculatus för att undersöka dessa två underliggande mekanismer bakom upprätthållandet av genetisk variation för fitness, samt vilka potentiella konsekvenser de kan ha för en populations anpassningsförmåga och för bibehållandet av sexuell reproduktion. Resultaten i denna avhandling stödjer i stort många av de antaganden som ligger till grund för teorin om könskonflikter, sexuell selektion och vad som upprätthåller genetisk variation för fitness. Resultaten ger också upphov till nya idéer och hypoteser angående  genetisk variation med könsspecifika effekter och dess interaktion med partiellt recessiva negativa mutationer.

    Delarbeten
    1. Intralocus Sexual Conflict and Environmental Stress
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Intralocus Sexual Conflict and Environmental Stress
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, nr 8, s. 2184-2196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) occurs when selection at a given locus favors different alleles in males and females, placing a fundamental constraint on adaptation. However, the relative impact of IaSC on adaptation may become reduced in stressful environments that expose conditionally deleterious mutations to selection. The genetic correlation for fitness between males and females (r(MF)) provides a quantification of IaSC across the genome. We compared IaSC at a benign (29 degrees C) and a stressful (36 degrees C) temperature by estimating r(MF)s in two natural populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using isofemale lines. In one population, we found substantial IaSC under benign conditions signified by a negative r(MF) (-0.51) and, as predicted, a significant reduction of IaSC under stress signified by a reversed and positive r(MF) (0.21). The other population displayed low IaSC at both temperatures (r(MF): 0.38; 0.40). In both populations, isofemale lines harboring alleles beneficial to males but detrimental to females at benign conditions tended to show overall low fitness under stress. These results offer support for low IaSC under stress and suggest that environmentally sensitive and conditionally deleterious alleles that are sexually selected in males mediate changes in IaSC. We discuss implications for adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing populations.

    Nyckelord
    Adaptation, condition dependence, genetic quality, sexual selection, sexually antagonistic, temperature
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ekologi Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232012 (URN)10.1111/evo.12439 (DOI)000340470600003 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2010-5266EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, AdG-294333
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-09-15 Skapad: 2014-09-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles
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    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1201-1210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F-0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F-1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F-2. Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F-0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction.

    Nyckelord
    adaptation, genetic correlation, intralocus sexual conflict, pleiotropy, population viability, sexual antagonism, sexual selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304536 (URN)10.1111/jeb.12862 (DOI)000382498900009 ()26991346 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, AdG-294333Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2010-5266
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-12 Skapad: 2016-10-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Male-benefit sexually antagonistic genotypes show elevated vulnerability to inbreeding
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Male-benefit sexually antagonistic genotypes show elevated vulnerability to inbreeding
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, artikel-id 134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is theoretical and empirical evidence for strong sexual selection in males having positive effects on population viability by serving to purify the genome of its mutation load at a low demographic cost. However, there is also theoretical and empirical evidence for negative effects of sexual selection on female fitness, and therefore population viability, known as the gender load. This can take the form of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation where alleles with a selective advantage in males pose a detriment to female fitness, and vice versa. Here, using seed beetles, we shed light on a previously unexplored manifestation of the gender load: the effect of SA genetic variation on tolerance to inbreeding.

    Results

    We found that genotypes encoding high male, but low female fitness exhibited significantly greater rates of extinction upon enforced inbreeding relative to genotypes encoding high female but low male fitness. Also, genotypes encoding low fitness in both sexes exhibited greater rates of extinction relative to generally high-fitness genotypes (though marginally non-significant), an expected finding attributable to variation in mutation load across genotypes. Despite follow-up investigations aiming to identify the mechanism(s) underlying these findings, it remains unclear whether the gender load and the mutation load have independent consequences for tolerance to inbreeding, or whether these two types of genetic architecture interact epistatically to render male-benefit genetic variation relatively intolerant to inbreeding.

    Conclusions

    Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), our results show that male-benefit/female-detriment SA genetic variation poses a previously unseen detriment to population viability due to its elevated vulnerability to inbreeding/homozygosity. This suggests that sexual selection in the context of SA genetic variance for fitness may enhance the gender load on population viability more than previously appreciated, due to selecting for male-benefit SA genetic variation that engenders lineages to extinction upon inbreeding. We note that our results imply that SA alleles that are sexually selected for in males may be underrepresented or even lacking in panels of inbred lines.

    Nyckelord
    Antagonistic pleiotropy, Balancing selection, Fitness, Genetic variation, Inbreeding depression, Intralocus sexual conflict, Mutation load, Sexually antagonistic selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327273 (URN)10.1186/s12862-017-0981-4 (DOI)000403408600001 ()28606137 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, GENCON AdG-294333Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2010-5266Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2014-4523
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-08 Skapad: 2017-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Sex-specific genetic variance for fitness characterized by sex-specific dominance and epistasis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sex-specific genetic variance for fitness characterized by sex-specific dominance and epistasis
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness suggests that antagonistic pleiotropy is one of the most likely and widespread mechanisms of balancing selection acting to maintain genetic variance for fitness. However, stable polymorphism via antagonistic pleiotropy requires dominance reversal for fitness—sex-specific dominance in the context of SA pleiotropy. Despite this possibly crucial role for sex-specific dominance reversal in maintaining genetic variance for fitness, it has rarely been addressed empirically. In addition to dominance reversal, SA epistasis, sex-biased gene expression (SBGE), and parental effects may also aid the maintenance genetic polymorphisms for fitness under SA selection. Here, we performed a full diallel cross among 16 inbred strains of a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We measured sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e. fitness) in the F1, for a total of 3278 individual fitness assays over 512 possible genetic combinations. Using Bayesian and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) diallel analyses in parallel, we partitioned phenotypic variance for fitness (after accounting for the effect of inbreeding) into additive genetic variance, parental effects, dominance, epistasis, asymmetric epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. Sex-specific variance in fitness exhibited pronounced contributions from dominance, sex-specific dominance, epistasis, and sex-specific epistasis, supporting a role for sex-specific dominance reversal and SA epistasis in contributing to the maintenance of SA genetic variance for fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed diallel partitioning of the sex-specific genetic architecture for fitness, shedding new light on an old question.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327275 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, GENCON AdG-294333Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2010-5266Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2014-4523
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-08 Skapad: 2017-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Sexual selection in males, but not females, purges the standing genetic load in a seed beetle
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sexual selection in males, but not females, purges the standing genetic load in a seed beetle
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of genic capture revealing the genetic quality in males is central to sexual selection theory and the potential for males to purge a population’s weakly deleterious partially recessive mutation load. However, empirical demonstrations of sexual selection in males purging the standing genetic load on a population are almost completely lacking, perhaps in part because of the partially hidden/recessive nature of mutation load limiting its detection. Here, we exposed mutation load by experimentally increasing homozygosity in 16 strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus isolated from a natural population. We then assessed the potential for selection to purge load in males and females separately by correlating the breeding values for variance in competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e. fitness) among the outbred combinations of those strains with the difference between outbred and inbred breeding values for fitness (i.e. mutation load), in a way that avoided correlating confounded variables. Outbred breeding values for male fitness were significantly negatively correlated with mutation load, demonstrating the ability of males to purge mutation load. Breeding values for female fitness, however, were uncorrelated to mutation load, likely because female fitness did not vary enough to reflect genetic quality. Thus, our results are consistent with an additional value to sexual reproduction beyond recombination: whereas females experience relatively weak selection, limiting purging of their own mutation load, this may be achieved by producing males and having them compete intensely for access to their eggs, such that only those of high genetic quality contribute to the next generation. These results have important implications for our understanding of sexual selection, the maintenance of variation in fitness-related traits, and the prevalence of sexual reproduction.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327303 (URN)
    Projekt
    Karl Grieshop_Doctoral thesis
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, GENCON AdG-294333Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2010-5266Vetenskapsrådet, 621-2014-4523Vetenskapsrådet, 2015-05223
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-08 Skapad: 2017-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-08
  • 326.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex-specific dominance reversal of genetic variation for fitness2018Ingår i: PLoS biology, ISSN 1544-9173, E-ISSN 1545-7885, Vol. 16, nr 12, artikel-id e2006810Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of genetic variance in fitness represents one of the most longstanding enigmas in evolutionary biology. Sexually antagonistic (SA) selection may contribute substantially to maintaining genetic variance in fitness by maintaining alternative alleles with opposite fitness effects in the two sexes. This is especially likely if such SA loci exhibit sex-specific dominance reversal (SSDR)-wherein the allele that benefits a given sex is also dominant in that sex-which would generate balancing selection and maintain stable SA polymorphisms for fitness. However, direct empirical tests of SSDR for fitness are currently lacking. Here, we performed a full diallel cross among isogenic strains derived from a natural population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that is known to exhibit SA genetic variance in fitness. We measured sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e., fitness) in >500 sex-by-genotype F-1 combinations and found that segregating genetic variation in fitness exhibited pronounced contributions from dominance variance and sex-specific dominance variance. A closer inspection of the nature of dominance variance revealed that the fixed allelic variation captured within each strain tended to be dominant in one sex but recessive in the other, revealing genome-wide SSDR for SA polymorphisms underlying fitness. Our findings suggest that SA balancing selection could play an underappreciated role in maintaining fitness variance in natural populations.

  • 327.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex-specific genetic variance for fitness characterized by sex-specific dominance and epistasisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness suggests that antagonistic pleiotropy is one of the most likely and widespread mechanisms of balancing selection acting to maintain genetic variance for fitness. However, stable polymorphism via antagonistic pleiotropy requires dominance reversal for fitness—sex-specific dominance in the context of SA pleiotropy. Despite this possibly crucial role for sex-specific dominance reversal in maintaining genetic variance for fitness, it has rarely been addressed empirically. In addition to dominance reversal, SA epistasis, sex-biased gene expression (SBGE), and parental effects may also aid the maintenance genetic polymorphisms for fitness under SA selection. Here, we performed a full diallel cross among 16 inbred strains of a population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We measured sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e. fitness) in the F1, for a total of 3278 individual fitness assays over 512 possible genetic combinations. Using Bayesian and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) diallel analyses in parallel, we partitioned phenotypic variance for fitness (after accounting for the effect of inbreeding) into additive genetic variance, parental effects, dominance, epistasis, asymmetric epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. Sex-specific variance in fitness exhibited pronounced contributions from dominance, sex-specific dominance, epistasis, and sex-specific epistasis, supporting a role for sex-specific dominance reversal and SA epistasis in contributing to the maintenance of SA genetic variance for fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed diallel partitioning of the sex-specific genetic architecture for fitness, shedding new light on an old question.

  • 328.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual selection in males, but not females, purges the standing genetic load in a seed beetleManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of genic capture revealing the genetic quality in males is central to sexual selection theory and the potential for males to purge a population’s weakly deleterious partially recessive mutation load. However, empirical demonstrations of sexual selection in males purging the standing genetic load on a population are almost completely lacking, perhaps in part because of the partially hidden/recessive nature of mutation load limiting its detection. Here, we exposed mutation load by experimentally increasing homozygosity in 16 strains of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus isolated from a natural population. We then assessed the potential for selection to purge load in males and females separately by correlating the breeding values for variance in competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e. fitness) among the outbred combinations of those strains with the difference between outbred and inbred breeding values for fitness (i.e. mutation load), in a way that avoided correlating confounded variables. Outbred breeding values for male fitness were significantly negatively correlated with mutation load, demonstrating the ability of males to purge mutation load. Breeding values for female fitness, however, were uncorrelated to mutation load, likely because female fitness did not vary enough to reflect genetic quality. Thus, our results are consistent with an additional value to sexual reproduction beyond recombination: whereas females experience relatively weak selection, limiting purging of their own mutation load, this may be achieved by producing males and having them compete intensely for access to their eggs, such that only those of high genetic quality contribute to the next generation. These results have important implications for our understanding of sexual selection, the maintenance of variation in fitness-related traits, and the prevalence of sexual reproduction.

  • 329.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Male-benefit sexually antagonistic genotypes show elevated vulnerability to inbreeding2017Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, artikel-id 134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is theoretical and empirical evidence for strong sexual selection in males having positive effects on population viability by serving to purify the genome of its mutation load at a low demographic cost. However, there is also theoretical and empirical evidence for negative effects of sexual selection on female fitness, and therefore population viability, known as the gender load. This can take the form of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation where alleles with a selective advantage in males pose a detriment to female fitness, and vice versa. Here, using seed beetles, we shed light on a previously unexplored manifestation of the gender load: the effect of SA genetic variation on tolerance to inbreeding.

    Results

    We found that genotypes encoding high male, but low female fitness exhibited significantly greater rates of extinction upon enforced inbreeding relative to genotypes encoding high female but low male fitness. Also, genotypes encoding low fitness in both sexes exhibited greater rates of extinction relative to generally high-fitness genotypes (though marginally non-significant), an expected finding attributable to variation in mutation load across genotypes. Despite follow-up investigations aiming to identify the mechanism(s) underlying these findings, it remains unclear whether the gender load and the mutation load have independent consequences for tolerance to inbreeding, or whether these two types of genetic architecture interact epistatically to render male-benefit genetic variation relatively intolerant to inbreeding.

    Conclusions

    Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), our results show that male-benefit/female-detriment SA genetic variation poses a previously unseen detriment to population viability due to its elevated vulnerability to inbreeding/homozygosity. This suggests that sexual selection in the context of SA genetic variance for fitness may enhance the gender load on population viability more than previously appreciated, due to selecting for male-benefit SA genetic variation that engenders lineages to extinction upon inbreeding. We note that our results imply that SA alleles that are sexually selected for in males may be underrepresented or even lacking in panels of inbred lines.

  • 330.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Polak, Michal
    University of Cincinnati.
    Evaluating the post-copulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution reveals evidence for pleiotropic harm exerted by the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae2014Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 2676-2686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary explanation for the rapid evolutionary diversification ofanimal genitalia is that such traits evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae play an adaptive role in post-copulatory sexual selection. Whereas previous work on two Drosophila species shows that these spines function in precopulatory sexual selection to initiate genital coupling and promote male competitive copulation success, further research is needed to evaluate the potential for Drosophila genital spines to have a post-copulatory function. Using a precision micron-scale laser surgery technique, we test the effect of spine length reduction on copulation duration, male competitive fertilization success, female fecundity and female remating behaviour. We find no evidence that male genital spines in this species have a post-copulatory adaptivefunction. Instead, females mated to males with surgically reduced/blunted genital spines exhibited comparatively greater short-term fecundity relative to those mated by control males, indicating that the natural (i.e.unaltered) form of the trait may be harmful to females. In the absence of an effect of genital spine reduction on measured components of post-copulatory fitness, the harm seems to be a pleiotropic side effect rather than adaptive. Results are discussed in the context of sexual conflict mediating the evolution of male genital spines in this species and likely other Drosophila.

  • 331.
    Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Stångberg, Josefine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles2016Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1201-1210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F-0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F-1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F-2. Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F-0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction.

  • 332.
    Griesser, M.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Anthropol, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Bern, Switzerland.;Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Wagner, G. F.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Anthropol, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Bern, Switzerland..
    Drobniak, S. M.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Anthropol, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Reproductive trade-offs in a long-lived bird species: condition-dependent reproductive allocation maintains female survival and offspring quality2017Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 782-795Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Life history theory is an essential framework to understand the evolution of reproductive allocation. It predicts that individuals of long-lived species favour their own survival over current reproduction, leading individuals to refrain from reproducing under harsh conditions. Here we test this prediction in a long-lived bird species, the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus. Long-term data revealed that females rarely refrain from breeding, but lay smaller clutches in unfavourable years. Neither offspring body size, female survival nor offspring survival until the next year was influenced by annual condition, habitat quality, clutch size, female age or female phenotype. Given that many nests failed due to nest predation, the variance in the number of fledglings was higher than the variance in the number of eggs and female survival. An experimental challenge with a novel pathogen before egg laying largely replicated these patterns in two consecutive years with contrasting conditions. Challenged females refrained from breeding only in the unfavourable year, but no downstream effects were found in either year. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that condition-dependent reproductive allocation may serve to maintain female survival and offspring quality, supporting patterns found in long-lived mammals. We discuss avenues to develop life history theory concerning strategies to offset reproductive costs.

  • 333.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst & Museum, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst & Museum, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Vila, Carles
    CSIC, EBD, Conservat & Evolutionary Genet Grp, E-41080 Seville, Spain..
    Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species2015Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 24, nr 22, s. 5726-5738Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird species is genetically and socially monogamous and lives in groups that are formed through the retention of offspring beyond independence, and the immigration of socially unfamiliar nonbreeders. Observations on feeders showed that genetic relatedness modulated aggression of breeders towards immigrants in a graded manner, in that they chased most intensely the immigrant group members that were genetically the least related. However, cross-fostering experiments showed that breeders were equally tolerant towards their own and cross-fostered young swapped as nestlings. Thus, breeders seem to use different mechanisms to recognize socially unfamiliar individuals and own offspring. As Siberian jays show a high degree of nepotism during foraging and predator encounters, inclusive fitness benefits may play a role for the evolution of fine-scale kin recognition. More generally, our results suggest that fine-graded kin recognition can evolve independently of social familiarity, highlighting the evolutionary importance of kin recognition for social species.

  • 334.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sahlman, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    What are the strengths and limitations of direct and indirect assessment of dispersal?: Insights from a long-term field study in a group-living bird species2014Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 485-497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular methods of assessing dispersal have become increasingly powerful and have superseded direct methods of studying dispersal. Although now less popular, direct methods of studying dispersal remain important tools for understanding the evolution of dispersal. Here, we use data from Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, to compare natal dispersal distances and rates using visual mark-recapture, radio-tracking and microsatellite data. Siberian jays have bimodal natal dispersal timing; socially dominant offspring remain with their parents for up to 5 years (delayed dispersers), while they force their subordinate brood mates to leave the parental territory at independence (early dispersers). Early dispersers moved about 9,000 m (visual mark-recapture, radio-tracking) before settling in a group as a non-breeder. In contrast, delayed dispersers moved about 1,250 m (visual mark-recapture only) and mainly moved to a breeding opening. Dispersal distances were greater in managed habitat compared to natural habitat for both early and delayed dispersers. Molecular estimates based on 23 microsatellite loci and geographical locations supported distance estimates from the direct methods. Our study shows that molecular methods are at least 22 times cheaper than direct methods and match estimates of dispersal distance from direct methods. However, molecular estimates do not give insight into the behavioural mechanisms behind dispersal decisions. Thus, to understand the evolution of dispersal, it is important to combine direct and indirect methods, which will give insights into the behavioural processes affecting dispersal decisions, allowing proximate dispersal decisions to be linked to the ultimate consequences thereof.

  • 335.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Anthropol;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut.
    Mourocq, Emeline
    Univ Zurich, Dept Anthropol;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut.
    Barnaby, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Bowgen, Katharine M.
    Bournemouth Univ, Fac Sci & Technol, Dept Life & Environm Sci.
    Eggers, Sonke
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kozma, Radoslav
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kurz, Franziska
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nystrand, Magdalena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Sorato, Enrico
    Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol..
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species2017Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 126, nr 9, s. 1258-1268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here we assessed the causes of mortality for 371 radio tagged Siberian jays. This sedentary bird species lives in family groups that contain a breeding pair as well as related and unrelated non-breeders. Ninety-five percent of death were due to predation (n = 59 out of 62 individuals) and most individuals were killed by Accipiter hawks. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models showed that non-breeders had a lower survival than breeders, but only in territories in managed forest with little visual cover. Examining breeders, only sex influenced survival with males having a lower survival than females. For non-breeders, juveniles had lower survival than older non-breeders, and those on managed territories had lower survival than those on unmanaged territories. Additionally, a low feather quality reduced the survival probability of non-breeders only. Thus, living on managed territories and having a low feature quality affected only non-breeders, particularly juveniles. These findings add to previous research demonstrating that juvenile Siberian jays acquire critical antipredator skills from experienced group members. Thus, experience can buffer extrinsic mortality, highlighting that group living not only provides safety in numbers, but also provide social opportunities to learn critical life-skills.

  • 336.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.
    Kyoto Univ, Ctr Ecol Res, 2-509-3 Hirano, Otsu, Shiga 5202113, Japan;Grad Univ Adv Studies, SOKENDAI, Dept Evolutionary Studies Biosyst, Hayama, Kanagawa 2400193, Japan.
    From bird calls to human language: exploring the evolutionary drivers of compositional syntax2018Ingår i: CURRENT OPINION IN BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, ISSN 2352-1546, Vol. 21, s. 6-12Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compositional syntax, where lexical items are combined into larger units, has been assumed to be unique to human language. Recent experiments, however, showed that Japanese tits combine alert and recruitment calls into alert-recruitment sequences when attracting conspecifics to join in mobbing a predator. We speculate that such call combinations are favoured when: Firstly, callers and receivers have shared interests in exchanging information; secondly, species produce different types of calls in different situations, leading to distinct behavioural responses in receivers; and finally, complex situations exist in which receivers benefit by combining two or more behaviours. These preconditions were also present in human ancestors. Thus, future work on bird calls may provide insights into the evolution of compositional syntax in human language.

  • 337.
    Griffin, Robert M.
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Turku 20014, Finland..
    Hayward, Adam D.
    Univ Stirling, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland..
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Maklakov, Alex A
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
    Lummaa, Virpi
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Turku 20014, Finland..
    Sex differences in adult mortality rate mediated by early-life environmental conditions2018Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 235-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in sex differences is affected by both genetic and environmental variation, with rapid change in sex differences being more likely due to environmental change. One case of rapid change in sex differences is human lifespan, which has become increasingly female-biased in recent centuries. Long-term consequences of variation in the early-life environment may, in part, explain such variation in sex differences, but whether the early-life environment mediates sex differences in life-history traits is poorly understood in animals. Combining longitudinal data on 60 cohorts of pre-industrial Finns with environmental data, we show that the early-life environment is associated with sex differences in adult mortality and expected lifespan. Specifically, low infant survival rates and high rye yields (an important food source) in early-life are associated with female-bias in adult lifespan. These results support the hypothesis that environmental change has the potential to affect sex differences in life-history traits in natural populations of long-lived mammals.

  • 338.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany.
    Caillaud, Damien
    Robbins, Martha M.
    Vigilant, Linda
    Females Shape the Genetic Structure of a Gorilla Population2008Ingår i: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 18, nr 22, s. 1809-1814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 339.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Krause, Johannes
    Sawyer, Susanna
    Valente, Luis M.
    Bailey, Sebastian
    Finstermeier, Knut
    Sabin, Richard
    Gilissen, Emmanuel
    Sonet, Gontran
    Nagy, Zoltan T.
    Lenglet, Georges
    Mayer, Frieder
    Savolainen, Vincent
    Next-Generation Museomics Disentangles One of the Largest Primate Radiations2013Ingår i: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 539-554Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are one of the most diverse groups of primates. They occupy all of sub-Saharan Africa and show great variation in ecology, behavior, and morphology. This variation led to the description of over 60 species and subspecies. Here, using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in combination with targeted DNA capture, we sequenced 92 mitochondrial genomes from museum-preserved specimens as old as 117 years. We infer evolutionary relationships and estimate divergence times of almost all guenon taxa based on mitochondrial genome sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, we infer divergence dates and reconstruct ancestral geographic ranges. We conclude that the extraordinary radiation of guenons has been a complex process driven by, among other factors, localized fluctuations of African forest cover. We find incongruences between phylogenetic trees reconstructed from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, which can be explained by either incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization. Furthermore, having produced the largest mitochondrial DNA data set from museum specimens, we document how NGS technologies can “unlock” museum collections, thereby helping to unravel the tree-of-life. [Museum collection; next-generation DNA sequencing; primate radiation; speciation; target capture.]

  • 340.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Olivieri, G.
    Funk, S. M.
    Radespiel, U.
    MtDNA reveals strong genetic differentiation among geographically isolated populations of the golden brown mouse lemur, Microcebus ravelobensis2007Ingår i: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 809-821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 341.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Max Planck Inst Evolutionary Anthropol, Leipzig, Germany.
    Vigilant, Linda
    McNeilage, Alastair
    Gray, Maryke
    Kagoda, Edwin
    Robbins, Martha M.
    Counting elusive animals: Comparing field and genetic census of the entire mountain gorilla population of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda2009Ingår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, nr 2, s. 290-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate population size estimates are an essential part of every effective management plan for conserving endangered species. However, censusing rare and elusive wild animals is challenging and often relies on counting indirect signs, such as nests or feces. Despite widespread use, the accuracy of such estimates has rarely been evaluated. Here we compare an estimate of population size derived solely from field data with that obtained from a combination of field and genetic data for the critically endangered population of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. After genotyping DNA from 384 fecal samples at 16 microsatellite loci, the population size estimate was reduced by 10.1% to 302 individuals, compared with 336 gorillas estimated using the traditional nest-count based method alone. We found that both groups and lone silverbacks were double-counted in the field and that individuals constructed multiple nests with an overall rate of 7.8%, resulting in the overestimation of the population size in the absence of genetic data. Since the error associated with the traditional field method exceeded the estimated population growth of 5% in the last 4 years, future genetic censusing will be needed to determine how the population size is changing. This study illustrates that newly improved molecular methods allow fast, efficient and relatively affordable genotyping of several hundred samples, suggesting that genetic censusing can be widely applied to provide accurate and reliable population size estimates for a wide variety of species. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 342.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Warnefors, Maria
    Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH), DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance.
    Kaessmann, Henrik
    Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH), DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance.
    The evolution of duplicate gene expression in mammalian organs2017Ingår i: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 1461-1474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here, we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs. We observe dynamic changes in tissue expression preference of paralogs with different duplication ages, suggesting differential contribution of paralogs to specific organ functions during vertebrate evolution. Specifically, we show that paralogs that emerged in the common ancestor of bony vertebrates are enriched for genes with brain-specific expression and provide evidence for differential forces underlying the preferential emergence of young testis-and liver-specific expressed genes. Further analyses uncovered that the overall spatial expression profiles of gene families tend to be conserved, with several exceptions of pronounced tissue specificity shifts among lineage-specific gene family expansions. Finally, we trace new lineage-specific genes that may have contributed to the specific biology of mammalian organs, including the little-studied placenta. Overall, our study provides novel and taxonomically broad evidence for the differential contribution of duplicate genes to tissue-specific transcriptomes and for their importance for the phenotypic evolution of vertebrates.

  • 343.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    5. Collared flycatcher1989Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 344.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fitness factors in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Temm1985Ingår i: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Abstracts of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science, s. 1-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 345.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fitness factors in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis Temm1986Ingår i: Dissertation Abstracts International C European Abstracts, Vol. 47, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 346.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUAL COAL TITS, PARUS-ATER, IN RELATION TO THEIR AGE, SEX AND MORPHOLOGY1988Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, Vol. 36, s. 696-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 347.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Foraging behaviour of individual coal tits, Parus ater, in relation to their age, sex and morphology1988Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 696-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 348.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Heritability and selection of a secondary sexual trait in the collared flycatcher1997Ingår i: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, Vol. 78, nr 4 SUPPL.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 349.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    How many birds breed on Gotland?1982Ingår i: Bläcku, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-69Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 350.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    INTERSPECIFIC AND INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION FOR NEST HOLES IN A POPULATION OF THE COLLARED FLYCATCHER FICEDULA-ALBICOLLIS1988Ingår i: Ibis, Vol. 130, nr 1, s. 11-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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