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  • 401.
    Eck, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The origins of policing institutions: Legacies of colonial insurgency2018In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of colonial-era armed conflict on contemporary institutions. It argues that when British colonial administrators were faced with armed insurrection they responded with institutional reform of the police, and that the legacy of these reforms lives on today. Violent opposition prompted the British colonial administration to expand entrance opportunities for local inhabitants in order to collect intelligence needed to prosecute a counterinsurgency campaign. This investment in human capital and institutional reform remained when the colonial power departed; as a result, countries which experienced colonial-era conflict have more efficient policing structures today. I demonstrate how this worked in practice during the Malayan Emergency, 1948–60. Archival data from Malaysia show that local inhabitants were recruited into the police force in greater numbers and were provided with training which they would not have received had there been no insurgency. This process was consolidated and reproduced upon independence in path-dependent ways. To expand the empirical domain, I statistically explore new archival data collected from the UK National Archives on police financing across colonial territories. The results show that armed insurgency during the colonial era is associated with higher percentages of police expenditure during the colonial era and higher perceived levels of contemporary policing capacity.

  • 402.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Cohen, Dara Kay
    Harvard University.
    The ethics of student research on political violence: A call to action for faculty and academic programs2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Undergraduate and master’s students are increasingly conducting their own original human subjects research on topics related to political violence and human rights—often, but not always, in the field. This work typically involves the direct collection of data from vulnerable populations, in unstable contexts and about sensitive topics. However, despite the rich literature about research ethics, the ethics of advising, enabling and encouraging this type of student research on political violence has been largely overlooked. This article aims to (1) raise awareness about the proliferation of undergraduate and master’s students engaging in human subjects research on topics related to political violence and human rights; (2) discuss the risks inherent in this enterprise that are distinct from those that most faculty and doctoral students face, including little or no training in necessary methods or research ethics, few (if any) formal mechanisms of ethical oversight, short time horizons, clustering in over-researched areas, and the unlikely prospect of publication or dissemination of research results; (3) provide concrete suggestions about how to mitigate some of those risks, including a shift away from fieldwork-based research projects. We ultimately argue that it is educators’ and academic institutions’ responsibility to require that students engage in ethical practices, including discouraging some types of research.

  • 403.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Fariss, Christopher J.
    University of Michigan.
    Ill-Treatment and Torture in Sweden: A Critique of Cross-Case Comparisons2018In: Human Rights Quarterly, ISSN 0275-0392, E-ISSN 1085-794X, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 591-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common perceptions of Sweden seldom include images of ill treatment and torture. However, human rights reports published by Amnesty Int'l and the US State Dept. describe recurring allegations of ill treatment and torture perpetrated by security forces in Sweden. What explains this unexpected case of human rights abuse? The answer to this question reveals an important theoretical concept that has not previously been discussed in human rights documentation and measurement projects: the level of institutional transparency. We provide evidence of the process by which the bureaucracy in Sweden ensures an extremely high level of transparency about allegations of human rights abuse by government agents. We argue that this transparency likely varies systematically over time but especially across countries. The major implication of our study therefore travels beyond Sweden: documentation and measurement projects that do not account for differential levels of transparency of government institutions may not be comparable across cases, possibly introducing bias to cross-sectional comparisons.

  • 404.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hultman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    One-Sided Violence Against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data2007In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents new data on the direct and deliberate killings of civilians, called one-sided violence, in intrastate armed conflicts, 19892004. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on violence against civilians in three important respects: the data provide actual estimates of civilians killed, the data are collected annually and the data are provided for both governments and rebel groups. Using these data, general trends and patterns are presented, showing that the post-Cold War era is characterized by periods of fairly low-scale violence punctuated by occasional sharp increases in violence against civilians. Furthermore, rebels tend to be more violent on the whole, while governments commit relatively little violence except in those few years which see mass killings. The article then examines some factors that have been found to predict genocide and evaluates how they correlate with one-sided violence as conceptualized here. A U-shaped correlation between regime type and one-sided violence is identified: while autocratic governments undertake higher levels of one-sided violence than other regime types, rebels are more violent in democratic countries.

  • 405.
    Eck, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    One-Sided Violence and Non-State Conflict2004In: States in Armed Conflict 2003, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University , 2004, p. 133-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 406.
    Eckegren, Nelly
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    For the sake of ruling: A qualitative study on the effect civil society organisations have on post-conflict state legitimacy2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 407.
    Egnell, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lessons from Helmand, Afghanistan: What now for British counterinsurgency?2011In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 297-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of lessons stand out from the analysis of British operations in Helmand between 2006 and 2010: First, contrary to the legacy, British competence in the field of counterinsurgency is neither natural nor innate through regimental tradition or historical experience. The slow adaptation in Helmand is an indication that the expertise British forces developed in past operations is but a distant folktale within the British Armed Forces. Substantially changed training, painful relearning of counterinsurgency principles, and changed mindsets are therefore necessary to avoid repeated early failures in the future. Moreover, despite eventually adapting tactically to the situation and task in Helmand, the British Armed Forces proved inadequate in dealing with the task assigned to them for two key reasons. First, the resources of the British military are simply too small for large scale complex engagements such as those in Helmand or southern Iraq. Second, the over-arching comprehensive approach, especially the civilian aspects of operations that underpinned Britain’s historical successes with counterinsurgency, is today missing. In the end, the article calls for greater realism about what British contributions to international intervention can achieve – a strategy in tune with actual resources.

  • 408.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Haldén, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Contextualising international state-building2010In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 409.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Haldén, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Laudable, ahistorical and overambitious: Security sector reform meets state formation theory.2009In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 27-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security sector reform (SSR) is a concept that is highly visible within policy and practice circles and that increasingly shapes international programmes for development assistance, security co-operation and democracy promotion. This paper examines the concept and practice of SSR using theories of the state and state formation within a historical-philosophical perspective. The paper recognises that the processes of SSR are highly laudable and present great steps forward towards more holistic conceptions of security and international development. However, the main argument of the paper is that we should be careful of having too high expectations of the possibility of SSR fulfilling its ambitious goals of creating states that are both stable and democratic and accountable. Instead, we should carefully determine what level of ambition is realistic for each specific project depending on local circumstances. A further argument of this paper is that legitimate order and functioning state structures are prerequisites and preconditions for successful democratisation and accountability reforms within the security sector.

  • 410.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hojem, Petter
    Berts, Hannes
    Implementing a Gender Perspective in Military Organisations and Operations: The Swedish Armed Forces Model2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since UNSCR 1325 was passed, the Swedish Armed Forces have gone through an impressive process of change from limited early projects to an institutionalised gender organisation that has worked to mainstream a gender perspective, to conduct training, and to establish specific gender-related functions, such as Gender Field Advisors and Gender Focal Points. The Gender Field Advisors have during this process been deployed with Swedish and international units in conflicts around the world and have thereby gained important experience as well as continued to refine the Swedish approach to gender implementation in military operations. The latest development has been the establishment of the Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations, which will seek to function as a platform for continued implementation of a gender perspective in both Sweden and abroad.

    The purpose of this report is to increase the understanding of these organisational processes, the driving factors and roadblocks within the armed forces, the activities conducted in the field and their impact at home and in the area of operations is essential to the continuing implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the implementation of a gender perspective more broadly. This understanding has the potential to provide support and lessons for similar processes in the armed forces of other countries and even other contexts.

  • 411.
    Egnell, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Ångström, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Afghanistans trettioåriga krig2012In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 129-143Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 412.
    Ekelund, Ana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Abstention as a Legacy of Violence: An investigation into enduring impacts of violence on politicalparticipation in the Colombian peace referendum of 20162019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Peace referendum of 2016 was an attempt by the Colombian government under president Juan Manuel Santos to seek popular ratification for the newly signed peace agreement with left-wing guerilla group FARC, after more than half a decade of hostilities. When the ballots closed, however, it was with a record high abstention, and a small majority of votes for the No-side. Despite enjoying a decrease of violence and being in the national and international spotlight, conflict areas displayed a particularly high abstention - largely missing from the ballots were the victims of the conflict themselves. Through a mixed method approach, this field study inquires into the potential role enduring effects of violence played, building on Ojeda’s psychological theories of political participation and the substantial scholarly body on mental health outcomes of violence. Challenging the dominating theory of contemporary violence as the cause for abstention, it finds support for an enduring impact of past violence on political participation on an aggregated level. This is partly contradicted by the answers given by inhabitants of Colombian municipalities Valdivia and El Retiro, where interviews and surveys were conducted in the winter of 2018. Nonetheless, the answers of the residents provide important and noteworthy implications, as the effects of violence appear to transform depending on the milieu in which its victims are situated.

  • 413. Eklöw, Karolina
    et al.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Climate-related security risks and peacebuilding in Somalia2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-related security risks are transforming the security landscape in which multilateral peacebuilding efforts take place. This policy paper offers a glimpse into the future of peacebuilding in the time of climate change by providing an in-depth assessment of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM).

    Climate-related change in Somalia has reduced livelihood options and caused migration. It has also left significant parts of the population in a vulnerable condition. These climate-related security risks contribute to grievances and increase inequality and fragility, which in turn pose challenges to the implementation of UNSOM’s mandate.  The impacts of climate change have hindered UNSOM in its work to provide peace and security in Somalia and in its efforts to establish functioning governance and judicial systems.

    UNSOM has responded to the growing impact of climate-related change. It has learned lessons from previous failed responses—notably the 2011 drought—and has created innovative initiatives that have been effective. While there is still room for improvement, UNSOM’s new initiatives may help to deliver a set of responses that meet the short-term need for a rapid humanitarian response and the long-term objective of achieving a sustainable and resilient society.

    The challenges faced by UNSOM and its responses to them have wider implications. They suggest that there is a need for synergetic policy responses that can turn the responses to climate-related security risks into opportunities for UN efforts to sustain peace.

  • 414.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Central Politics and Local Peacemaking: The Conditions for Peace after Communal Conflict2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under what conditions can peace be established after violent communal conflict? This question has received limited research attention to date, despite the fact that communal conflicts kill thousands of people each year and often severely disrupt local livelihoods. This dissertation analyzes how political dynamics affect prospects for peace after communal conflict. It does so by studying the role of the central government, local state and non-state actors, and the interactions between these actors and the communal groups that are engaged in armed conflict. A particular focus is on the role of political bias, in the sense that central government actors have ties to one side in the conflict or strategic interests in the conflict issue. The central claim is that political bias shapes government strategies in the face of conflict, and influences the conflict parties’ strategic calculations and ability to overcome mistrust and engage in conflict resolution. To assess these arguments, the dissertation strategically employs different research methods to develop and test theoretical arguments in four individual essays. Two of the essays rely on novel data to undertake the first cross-national large-N studies of government intervention in communal conflict and how it affects the risk of conflict recurrence. Essay I finds that conflicts that are located in an economically important area, revolve around land and authority, or involve groups with ethnic ties to central rulers are more likely to prompt military intervention by the government. Essay II finds that ethnic ties, in turn, condition the impact that government intervention has on the risk of conflict recurrence. The other two essays are based on systematic analysis of qualitative sources, including unique and extensive interview material collected during several field trips to Kenya. Essay III finds that government bias makes it more difficult for the conflict parties to resolve their conflict through peace agreements. Essay IV finds that by engaging in governance roles otherwise associated with the state, non-state actors can become successful local peacemakers. Taken together, the essays make important contributions by developing, assessing and refining theories concerning the prospects for communal conflict resolution.

    List of papers
    1. Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 791-805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    What factors drive governments’ decisions to intervene in local conflicts within their borders? Communal conflict – that is, organized violence between non-state groups that are mobilized along a shared communal identity – kills thousands each year and severely impacts local livelihoods, at times threatening to spread and affect entire regions. Given the state’s assumed monopoly over the legitimate use of force, we should expect the concerned governments to be critical actors of the overall effort to restore peace in cases of local communal conflict, but empirical evidence indicates that central states tend to only intervene in some cases but not in others. This phenomenon has so far been understudied and the variations in states’ efforts to manage these conflicts remain unexplained. This article presents the first quantitative study of state intervention in communal conflicts. Building on existing scholarly work, I argue that state intervention is explained by a combination of strategic interests and state capacity, and that interests related to ethnic constituencies and land control play an important part in explaining governments’ strategies. These propositions find support in a statistical analysis covering sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2010.

    Keywords
    Communal conflict, intervention, land control, non-state, non-state conflict, sub-Saharan Africa
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265486 (URN)10.1177/0022343315597968 (DOI)000364164200007 ()
    Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflict
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324925 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2017-08-18
    3. The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya
    2019 (English)In: Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, E-ISSN 1552-3829, Vol. 52, no 13-14, p. 2061-2096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    How does government bias affect prospects for peace agreements in communal conflicts? Government bias has been shown to have a strong impact on the incidence and dynamics of localized ethnic conflict, but the way that it affects conflict resolution remains underexplored. I argue that government bias makes the conflict parties less likely to overcome the commitment problem, because they cannot trust the government’s willingness to guarantee or uphold any agreement they reach. Consequently, bias reduces the chances that the parties are able to reach a peace agreement. A systematic comparison of four cases in Kenya provides support for this argument. I also distinguish between bias related to strategic interest and bias related to relationships, and find that the former is more durable, whereas the latter is more likely to be influenced by political turnover, thereby opening up possibilities for peacemaking.

    Keywords
    African politics, conflict resolution, communal conflict, ethnic conflict, Kenya
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379112 (URN)10.1177/0010414019830734 (DOI)000487028700004 ()
    Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Under what circumstances can non-state actors become successful local peacemakers? A growing body of research documents the involvement of non-state actors in local conflict resolution in Africa. However, there is large variation in such actors' power, legitimacy, and ultimately their ability to contribute to conflict resolution. The ways in which contextual and dynamic factors at local and national levels, and in particular the relationship between non-state and state actors and institutions, affect local conflict resolution are not sufficiently understood. To address this gap, this paper analyses the peace process addressing a long-standing conflict in Kerio Valley, Kenya. The analysis illustrates how the failure of the state to provide security and basic services led non-state actors to fill important roles in governance. Through this process, they were endowed with legitimacy and power which enabled them to play key roles in a peace process that led to a mutually acceptable peace agreement.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Research subject
    Peace and Conflict Research
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300965 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X16000227 (DOI)000382379300005 ()
    Available from: 2016-08-16 Created: 2016-08-16 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
  • 415.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How government bias can fuel communal conflicts in Africa2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 416.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Local peacebuilding: Inspiring examples from African countries2011In: Peace Monitor, ISSN 0031-353X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 417.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mustafa Dikeç (2017). Urban Rage: The Revolt of the Excluded2019In: Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, ISSN 1752-4512, E-ISSN 1752-4520Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 418.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns and Drivers of Communal Conflict in Kenya2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity / [ed] Ratuva, Steven, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes patterns of communal conflict – i.e., violent conflicts between non-state groups which are organized based on communal identities – in Kenya. The politicized nature of ethnicity in Kenya, and the fact that both elections and land tenure are closely associated with ethnic identity, are highlighted as key factors explaining the prevalence of violent communal conflict. After discussing the main patterns of conflict since 1989, the chapter goes on to identify four main drivers of conflict: electoral politics, cattle raiding, local resources, and boundaries and local authority. The specific dynamics at play in different conflicts vary, and empirical examples illustrate how the precise way that different conflict drivers interact is different from case to case. The chapter also discusses different strategies by state and non-state actors to address and resolve communal conflicts, and how devolution – the decentralization of significant power to the local level under the 2010 constitution – has affected communal conflicts. As the discussion of devolution illustrates, a major point is that while communal conflicts in general should be seen against the background of a state and a political culture where ethnicity is strongly politicized, the impact of national-level political dynamics on communal conflicts will vary from case to case.

    The full text will be freely available from 2022-02-10 09:32
  • 419.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace and Politics: Promoting durable solutions to communal conflicts2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 420.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace from below: Governance and peacebuilding in Kerio Valley, Kenya2016In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under what circumstances can non-state actors become successful local peacemakers? A growing body of research documents the involvement of non-state actors in local conflict resolution in Africa. However, there is large variation in such actors' power, legitimacy, and ultimately their ability to contribute to conflict resolution. The ways in which contextual and dynamic factors at local and national levels, and in particular the relationship between non-state and state actors and institutions, affect local conflict resolution are not sufficiently understood. To address this gap, this paper analyses the peace process addressing a long-standing conflict in Kerio Valley, Kenya. The analysis illustrates how the failure of the state to provide security and basic services led non-state actors to fill important roles in governance. Through this process, they were endowed with legitimacy and power which enabled them to play key roles in a peace process that led to a mutually acceptable peace agreement.

  • 421.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Providing security or protecting interests?: Government interventions in violent communal conflicts in Africa2015In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 791-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What factors drive governments’ decisions to intervene in local conflicts within their borders? Communal conflict – that is, organized violence between non-state groups that are mobilized along a shared communal identity – kills thousands each year and severely impacts local livelihoods, at times threatening to spread and affect entire regions. Given the state’s assumed monopoly over the legitimate use of force, we should expect the concerned governments to be critical actors of the overall effort to restore peace in cases of local communal conflict, but empirical evidence indicates that central states tend to only intervene in some cases but not in others. This phenomenon has so far been understudied and the variations in states’ efforts to manage these conflicts remain unexplained. This article presents the first quantitative study of state intervention in communal conflicts. Building on existing scholarly work, I argue that state intervention is explained by a combination of strategic interests and state capacity, and that interests related to ethnic constituencies and land control play an important part in explaining governments’ strategies. These propositions find support in a statistical analysis covering sub-Saharan Africa from 1989 to 2010.

  • 422.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Political Conditions for Local Peacemaking: A Comparative Study of Communal Conflict Resolution in Kenya2019In: Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, E-ISSN 1552-3829, Vol. 52, no 13-14, p. 2061-2096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does government bias affect prospects for peace agreements in communal conflicts? Government bias has been shown to have a strong impact on the incidence and dynamics of localized ethnic conflict, but the way that it affects conflict resolution remains underexplored. I argue that government bias makes the conflict parties less likely to overcome the commitment problem, because they cannot trust the government’s willingness to guarantee or uphold any agreement they reach. Consequently, bias reduces the chances that the parties are able to reach a peace agreement. A systematic comparison of four cases in Kenya provides support for this argument. I also distinguish between bias related to strategic interest and bias related to relationships, and find that the former is more durable, whereas the latter is more likely to be influenced by political turnover, thereby opening up possibilities for peacemaking.

  • 423.
    Elfversson, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Whose side are you on? Government bias, intervention and the recurrence of communal conflictManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 424.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Gusic, Ivan
    Lund University.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The spatiality of violence in post-war cities2019In: Third World Thematics, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 81-93Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is urbanising rapidly and cities are increasingly held as the most important arenas for sustainable development. Cities emerging from war are no exception, but across the globe, many post-war cities are ravaged by residual or renewed violence, which threatens progress towards peace and stability. This collection of articles addresses why such violence happens, where and how it manifests, and how it can be prevented. It includes contributions that are informed by both post-war logics and urban particularities, that take intra-city dynamics into account, and that adopt a spatial analysis of the city. By bringing together contributions from different disciplinary backgrounds, all addressing the single issue of post-war violence in cities from a spatial perspective, the articles make a threefold contribution to the research agenda on violence in post-war cities. First, the articles nuance our understanding of the causes and forms of the uneven spatial distribution of violence, insecurities, and trauma within and across post-war cities. Second, the articles demonstrate how urban planning and the built environment shape and generate different forms of violence in post-war cities. Third, the articles explore the challenges, opportunities, and potential unintended consequences of conflict resolution in violent urban settings.

  • 425.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Home of Last Resort: Fighting over Land in Kibera's Slum2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 426.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Home of last resort: Urban land conflict and the Nubians in Kibera, Kenya2018In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1749-1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amid expansive and often informal urban growth, conflict over land has become a severe source of instability in many cities. In slum areas, policies intended to alleviate tensions, including upgrading programmes, the legal regulation of informal tenure arrangements, and the reform of local governance structures, have had the unintended consequence of also spurring violence and conflict. This paper analyses the conflict over a proposed ‘ethnic homeland’ for the Nubian community in the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to advance knowledge on the strategies communities adopt to promote their interests and how such strategies impact on urban conflict management. Theoretically, we apply the perspective of ‘institutional bricolage’, which captures how actors make use of existing formal and informal structures in pragmatic ways to meet their conflict management needs. While previous research focuses primarily on how bricolage can facilitate cooperation, the case analysis uncovers how, over time, the land issue has become closely intertwined with claims of identity and citizenship and a political discourse drawn along ethnic lines. In turn, such processes may contribute to the intractability of conflict, causing significant challenges for urban planning.

  • 427.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Violence in the city that belongs to no one: urban distinctiveness and interconnected insecurities in Nairobi (Kenya)2019In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 347-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid urbanisation in the global South has prompted attention to the causes and dynamics of urban violence. Yet, much research tends to either analyse urban violence without attention to the broader conflict complexes of which it forms a part, neglecting linkages between different forms of urban violence and between urban and rural dynamics, or conversely study violence in cities without acknowledging the particularities of the urban context. In this article, we conceptualise urban violence, theorise how it is shaped by urban dynamics and explore its manifestations in Nairobi, Kenya. We find that while Nairobi is not uniquely violent inside Kenya, violence takes on distinct urban forms given citylevel processes, and also that urban violence has led to policies that increase securitisation and militarisation of the city. Our analysis thus improves knowledge of how criminal and political violence is shaped by and shapes the stability of developing cities.

  • 428.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordic Africa Institute.
    Djup splittring i Kenya efter valet2017In: Mänsklig SäkerhetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 28 november 2017 svors Uhuru Kenyatta in för en andra presidentperiod i Kenya. En uppslitande, omtvistad och utdragen valprocess fick därmed sin slutpunkt. Men den senaste tidens institutionella och politiska utveckling ger fog för oro inför Kenyas framtid, skriver forskarna Emma Elfversson, Kristine Höglund och Anders Sjögren.

  • 429.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindberg Bromley, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Williams, Paul D.
    b Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Urban peacekeeping under siege: attacks on African Union peacekeepers in Mogadishu, 2007–20092019In: Third World Thematics, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 4, no 2-3, p. 158-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peacekeepers in cities face particular challenges because cities are densely populated and heterogeneous, encompass multiple terrains and fluid features, and host key assets of political, economic and strategic importance. Attacks targeting peacekeepers in cities constitute a recurrent problem, but how do they affect a peace operation’s activities? We theorise the effects of such violence on three outcomes: patrolling and outreach, use of force, and the establishment of new bases. We explore these dynamics by analysing intra-city dynamics of violence and operational activity following attacks on African Union (AU) peacekeepers in Mogadishu, Somalia, from initial deployment in 2007 through 2009. We use the geo-referenced UCDP Peacemakers at Risk (PAR) dataset and extend it by coding specific city sub-locations for incidences of violence, allowing us to analyse the spatiality of violence involving peacekeepers in Mogadishu. The evidence suggests that during its first three years, attacks on AMISOM significantly hampered its ability to spread out in the city and operate effectively, but did not evidently alter wider patterns of violence in the city. Despite these challenges, AMISOM managed to fulfil the core element of its mandate: preventing the overthrow of the Somali Transitional Federal Government.

  • 430.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindberg Bromley, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Williams, Paul D.
    Urban peacekeeping: What we’ve learnt from AU’s mission in Somalia2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 431.
    Elfversson, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Do Local Power-Sharing Deals Reduce Ethnopolitical Hostility?: The Effects of ‘Negotiated Democracy’ in a Devolved Kenya2020In: Ethnopolitics, ISSN 1744-9057, E-ISSN 1744-9065, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do local power-sharing arrangements affect levels of ethnopolitical hostility? The introduction of decentralisation in contexts previously marked by communal conflict underscores the need to assess local power-sharing mechanisms. However, existing literature on power-sharing has mainly examined national-level arrangements. In this article we contribute to the literature on decentralisation and ethnopolitical conflict by analysing two conflict-affected cases in Kenya. We find that local power sharing in Nakuru made intercommunal relations less hostile than in Uasin Gishu, where no such arrangement was present. The introduction and effects of local power sharing, however, is highly conditioned by national politics.

  • 432.
    Ella, Nicole Doreen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Local Genevas: Towards Hybrid Humanitarian Negotiations in Syria2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a peaceful resolution to the conflict in Syria has never been greater. Yet while the UN focuses on brokering a nationwide solution to the conflict, humanitarian organisations are struggling to meet needs on the ground. The lack of a physical presence of international aid agencies outside Damascus is highlighting the role of what is commonly referred to as ‘the local response’, groups or organizations that do not fit within the traditional humanitarian sector, that are anecdotally having the best success in negotiating humanitarian access and associated ceasefires, leading the greatest provision of aid to vulnerable communities. Thus it is timely to investigate whether local, external or hybrid negotiations structures result in the most robust localised humanitarian outcomes.  Drawing on post-liberal theory this study argues that combining local and external conflict management processes into authentically hybrid negotiation structures leverages the strengths of both parties to best result in localised humanitarian outcomes. However a structured comparative case study investigation demonstrates that is in fact locally-managed and facilitated negotiations that result in the greatest humanitarian outcomes in Syria including the number of people provided with humanitarian aid as well as the implementation of associated ceasefire agreements.

  • 433.
    Emina, Mujic
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Impact of The Mediator: Can Mediator Status Lead to Success?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 434.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The EU´s Collective Use of Force: Exploring the Factors behind its First Military Operations2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has since 2003 carried out six military operations.  This thesis seeks to determine the circumstances under which the EU will, or will not, undertake military operations.  It does so through the study of two main cases of EU military operations: the case when an operation was planned in the Lebanon war 2006 but did not occur, and the positive case of EUFOR RD Congo that same year which did occur. Three additional cases are presented. An analytical tool built on the techniques of defence planning and concepts derived from the scholarly literature is applied to the cases for the purpose of identifying the main driving and inhibiting factors behind the operations. The functional  theme of the use of force and the organizational theme of the multilateralisation of intervention serve as the main scholarly concepts.  The interaction between the intervener and the local actors, as well as between political and resource factors, is introduced in order to create an integrated framework for the analysis of the dynamics at play in the EU’s use of force. The limitations to the "jus bellum" tradition is noted in the analysis of the EU´s operations that have situated themselves in a low-to-middle bandwidth in terms of interests and risks at stake. Among the findings, the growing importance of local actors in shaping the room for the EU´s deployment of military force stands out, as do resource constraints, in the EU´s case primarily in the form of its limited command and control structures but also through the overstretch of the global pool of expeditionary forces felt around 2006. As seen from the organizational perspective, the EU´s first military operations can best be understood in the context of the increasing role of regional security providers in an unofficial division of labour with regard to the multilateralisation of intervention.

  • 435.
    Engberg, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    To Intervene or Not to Intervene?: The EU and the Military Option in the Lebanon War of 20062010In: Perspectives on European Politics and Society, ISSN 1570-5854, E-ISSN 1568-0258, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 408-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Lebanon war in the summer of 2006, the EU made an effort to raise its profile in the Middle East, playing a political role more commensurate with European values and interests at stake in its immediate neighbourhood. The EU, already the main provider of humanitarian aid to the region, was expected to provide the bulk of forces to any successor to the UN’s ill fated peacekeeping force UNIFIL I. It was not only UN Secretary General Annan asking Europeans to assume a leading role for the force, but so did Israel, looking for a way out of a war that was not going as expected. For a couple of weeks in July, the EU internally debated the possibility of assuming command and control for the force. France, the prime contender for the role as ‘framework nation’ for the operation, in the end declined to assume the command and control of an EU-led force, instead deciding to put its forces under UN lead and fold its forces into what became UNIFIL II. While it may have been premature for the EU, who initiated its military operations only in 2003, to take on the responsibility for an operation fraught with risks, and possibly also of long duration in the Middle East, the fact that it discussed the possibility at all is indicative of the EU’s ambition in the field of military crisis management and its wish to play a role in case there would in the future be a settlement between Israel and Palestine that would require the presence of international stabilisation forces.

  • 436.
    Engvall, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Andersson, Magnus
    The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand2014In: Asian Economic Papers, ISSN 1535-3516, E-ISSN 1536-0083, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 169-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hotspot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in language use and religious practices (rather than international borders, infrastructure, and physical geography) influence the prevalence and patterns of violence.

  • 437.
    Enquist, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    How to grow a tree by watering its roots: A quantitative analysis on the role of local communities in peace agreements and its effects on peace durability.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 438.
    Eriksson, AnnaVera
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Non-Unitary Actors in Intrastate Armed Conflict: A Quantitative Analysis of Civilian Defense Forces’ Effect on Intrastate War Duration2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 439.
    Eriksson, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Women in leadership and sexual violence: A case study of the role of women in FARC2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 440.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Att skildra tillståndet i världen2003In: Politologen, Vol. Hösten, p. 80-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 441.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bibliographic Overview of International Sanctions Literature2003Report (Other scientific)
  • 442.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Targeting the Leadership of Zimbabwe: A Path to Democracy and Normalization?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a set of interviews and observations from a research mission undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe in September 2006. As part of a broader dissertation project conducted at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, this field trip to Zimbabwe was designed to study the impact of targeted sanctions. Of particular concern was the impact of the travel bans and assets freeze measures on targeted individuals applied by the European Union (EU). Other sanctions measures in place, such as the arms embargo or other indirect trade restrictions, are omitted in this study. A set of interviews were conducted with different members of the civil society (both national and international); key representatives of the government of Zimbabwe; political parties (ZANU-PF and MDC factions), foreign embassy representatives, as well as researchers.

    All interviews had an open-ended character with guiding questions. Anonymity was granted to those interviewed. Additionally information public reports, news-articles and monthly bulletins covering African and Zimbabwean issues were used (also news articles from state owed papers) in order to include government perceptions.

    The Human Rights Trust of Southern Africa (SAHRIT) was instrumental in facilitating contacts during the mission, while the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala Sweden was supportive in awarding me a travel grant. Hence, both institutions deserve special thanks. It should be noted that some interviews that were made with particular targeted entities of sanctions have been left out here, and will be incorporated in the PhD thesis.

    Summary and Recommendations are included in the final section

     

     

     

     

  • 443.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desiree
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20002001Report (Other academic)
  • 444.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
    Patterns of major armed conflicts, 1990- 20022003In: SIPRI Yearbook 2003, Oxford University Press, Oxford , 2003, p. 109-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 445.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Patterns of Major Armed Conflicts, 1990-20012002In: SIPRI Yearbook 2002, Oxford University Press, Oxford , 2002, p. 63-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 446.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflict, 1989-20032004In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 625-636Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 447.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
    Patterns of major armed conflicts, 1990-20032004In: SIPRI Yearbook 2004, Oxford University Press, Oxford , 2004, p. 132-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 448.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Peace Support Operat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Univ Notre Dame, Kroc Inst, Fremantle, WA 6959, Australia.;Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Targeting sanctions and ending armed conflicts: first steps towards a new research agenda2015In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 91, no 6, p. 1387-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capitalizing on the newly released dataset on United Nations sanctions and armed conflicts, this article raises the question whether targeted sanctions have an impact on the dynamics of armed conflicts, and, if they do, in what way. To answer this question the authors correlate UN sanctions policies to measures related to armed conflict in the period 1991-2013. This is done by systematizing and analysing data produced by the UN Targeted Sanctions Consortium (TSC) and the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). It is a first attempt to deal with questions such as the relationship between UN targeted sanctions and armed conflict type, conflict termination and conflict outcome (victory, peace agreements, etc.). The article demonstrates that there are several instances where the UN has decided not to impose targeted sanctions, although the conditions were similar to those cases that saw such action. There is a tendency to use targeted sanctions only in certain types of conflicts. The authors suggest that this is partly rooted in the structure of the UN as an inter-state organization. Thus, sanctions are more of a political instrument than has perhaps been recognized in sanctions research to date.

  • 449.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed Conflict, 1989-20022003In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 593-607Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 450.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Högbladh, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    States in Armed Conflict 20022004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract
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