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  • 401.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Produkt Gotland: värdeskapande i företagarnätverk2012Ingår i: I de stora trendernas brus: kulturella och kreativa näringar på Gotland / [ed] Conny Pettersson & Torkel Molin, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2012, s. 371-394Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 402.
    Jönsson, Runa
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Historia.
    Fruar och fröknar i frikyrkan: en studie om framstående femtioåriga frikyrkotanter i Svenska Missionsförbundet under åren 1945 – 19702009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the New Testament different pictures of a Christian woman are presented, not only thepicture of someone who is nursing and caring, but also the picture of someone who is learningand being educated.Women are put into systems of gender which form them, and throughout the years the pictureof women has been that they primarily should be caring and nursing, not learning.Both of these pictures exist within the Swedish Missionary Society, a society that has not hadany constitution to comply with until 1964, which meant that each person could make his owninterpretation of the Bible and its texts.This essay examines how fifty-year-old women are pictured within the Swedish MissionarySociety 1945-1970, assuming that women who want to serve Jesus have to be prepared togive up their traditional role of nursing and caring, and focus on learning instead.The research method is qualitative, and the written sources are from a regional Christianweekly publication. The essay does not present an unambiguous picture of fifty-year-oldnonconformist women, but the results show that they are not being related to children, that themajority has a higher education than elementary school, and that many of them are addressedto as “Mrs”.

  • 403.
    Kabir, Muashab
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Ahmed, Naeem
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Extreme-day return as a measure of stock market volatility: comparative study developed vs. emerging capital markets of the world2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a new measure of volatility based on extreme day return occurrences and examines the relative prevailing volatility among worldwide stock markets during 1997-2009. Using several global stock market indexes of countries categorized as an emerging and developed capital markets are utilized. Additionally this study investigates well known anomalies namely Monday effect and January effect. Further using correlation analysis of co movement and extent of integration highlights the opportunities for international diversification among those markets. Evidences during this time period suggest volatility is not the only phenomena of emerging capital markets. Emerging markets offer opportunities of higher returns during volatility. Cross correlation analysis depicts markets have become more integrated during this time frame; still opportunities for higher returns prevail through global portfolio diversification.

  • 404.
    Kaivola-Bregenhøj, Annikki
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Klein, BarbroSwedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences.Palmenfelt, UlfHögskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Narrating, doing, experiencing: Nordic folkloristic perspectives2006Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 405.
    Kallin, Dan
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    Characters in Roleplaying Games: a study of the bond created between player and character2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The bond between player and character as perceived by many, in pen-and-paper roleplaying games, is unrivalled in its emotional strength. This is an opinion shared by many hardcore enthusiasts across the globe. Personally I have never achieved a connection to any digital character that even closely resembles the intense affection I have felt for my pen-and-paper characters, and this baffles me. The goal with this thesis is to try and find exactly what pen-and-paper roleplaying games do differently.

    The method used is qualitative interviews with students at Gotland University. The participants are experienced roleplayers in both the analogue and digital form. With their help I try to identify the reasons to why players get attached to pen-and-paper characters more than digital ones. The literature revolves around roleplaying and how we identify with characters in other media as well. The result shows that there are four distinct reasons to why players get attached to characters.

  • 406.
    Kameoka, Masahiro
    et al.
    Tokyo University of Science.
    Hayashi, Masaki
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    Furukawa, Toshihiro
    Tokyo University of Science.
    Improvement of Automatic BBS Visualization in T2V: Animation considering dialogue structure2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    T2V(Text-to-Vision) a technology which is capable of automatic animated movie generation to assist individuals who do not have special knowledge about animation production. This paper shows improvement of the function that animates BBS (Bulletin Board System) with this technology. T2V has a package (2ch convertor) that is capable of animating “2channel” (largest BBS in Japan). The present 2ch convertor, however, does not support dialogue situation based on quotation marks. Therefore, it causes a problem that it cannot produce animation with dialogue. In this paper we propose a method of animation production regarding the conversation structure in BBS to create more natural expression in the animation.

  • 407.
    Kamhaui, Nida
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Samhällsgeografi och etnologi.
    Big prisons: a study for the effects of the Israeli wall on Ni’lin village, in comparison with the effects of Berlin wall on Leipzig through Human Rights perspective2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    George Gregory wrote in his book ‘The Colonial Presents’ in defining the Post colonialism; since the last decades of the 20th century, Andreas Huyssen suggested that the ‘present future to present pasts’ became the post-colonialism, which is a whole commitment to a future that is free from colonial power, and the growth in the disposition is part of the criticism of continuity between the colonial past and present colonial rule. But they almost denied the capacities that belong to the colonial past are confirmed and activated again in the colonial present. And this is appearing in many histories of the colonialism, but post-colonialism came to distinguish from these projects or histories by the tight relation between culture and power.

    Building up Apartheid walls is a result to the colonial and Post colonial projects. As wall entered the political concept, we can see many built Apartheid walls through history.

    The Essay’s main aim is to study two selective walls; the Israeli wall in Palestine and Berlin wall, from human rights perspective, which can let readers to have fair information about those two walls, and their effects on people’s lives that live or lived beside those walls.

    A discussion will follow the illustrated information which I took them from many references which include direct information about those two walls.

    My results are that these two Apartheid walls affect and undermine people’s rights who are living beside and around those walls.

  • 408.
    Kanbjer, Jan-Åke
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Lilla å-promenaden Örebro: en studie av varseblivningens roll vid betraktande av skulpturer vid en promenadväg2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen innehåller en studie av fyra skulpturer som är utplacerade längs en längre promenadväg, Lilla å – promenaden i Örebro. Studien har haft två utgångspunkter. En har varit om verken har skapats och placerats så att det vid betraktandet av dem många sinnen tas i anspråk. Om de är integrerade i den gåendes väg eller om det har skapats speciella platser för dem. Jag har också undersökt om den sinnliga varseblivningen i sig själv kan spela huvudrollen i perceptionen av de enskilda verken. Detta med tanke på den viktiga roll som filosofen Maurice Merleau-Ponty ger varseblivningen. Den gående betraktaren har varit mig själv.

  • 409.
    Kangasniemi, Sanna
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Färgval hos blomkrabbspindeln (Misumena vatia) med och utan konkurrens2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The colour choice of spiders and the effects of competition on this phenomenon were examined in the laboratory using the sit-and-wait predator goldenrod crab spider (Misumena vatia, (Thomisidae)). This species can  be both white and yellow (could also change colour)  and it was here examined whether individuals preferred to sit on flowers which has the same colouration as their bodies. I found that M.vatia showed preference for flowers that matched their own body colour, but when competition was introduced this preference disappear. It seems, however, that position is a factor that can influences the substrate decisions of M. vatia, where the edge of the flower is preferred.

  • 410.
    Karlsson, Alexandra
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Nio individer från Västra farleden: en osteologisk analys av nio individer från medeltida Västergarn, Gotland2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteological examinations were executed on nine mediaeval individuals from Västergarn, Gotland, with the main aim to increase the knowledge about the people who lived there during the Middle Ages. A further aim was to compare the results from this study with other populations from the same time period, which in this case was the "Bonegathering" from Västergarn as well as previous osteological results from Sigtuna and Västerhus. Archaeological excavations have been occurring in Västergarn since 1971 and are still occurring in an educational purpose, for students of Gotland University. The age distribution of the individuals showed ages from 2 years old up to 44 years, with five adults and four children. The gender distribution show approximately five women and one man. A significant observation was made from the presence of caries and calculus, which can be observed in that some had more calculus then caries. Examples of the skeletal changes that occurred during the examinations was Schmorl`s noder, cribra orbitalia and inflammations. The comparison between other populations showed no obvious difference.

  • 411.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Ngigi Nielsen, Susan
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Buget som Styrmedel: en fallstudie på Högskolan på Gotland2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det var under 1920-talet som budgetering började användas som ett verktyg för att styra kostnader och kassaflöden. Budgeten började användas för att planera och samordna verksamheter och senare blev strategisk planering vanligt. Budgeten används som en plan för inkomster och utgifter under en viss tid. En plan upprättas för att skapa mål och handlingsvägar. Strategin och budgetprocessen utför tillsammans grunden för att besluta om vilka mål som är realistiska och hur de målen skall uppnås.

    Politikerna ställer idag krav på de myndigheter som de ansvarar för. De vill få underlag för att kontrollera att pengarna används på ett effektivt sätt och att verksamheten håller sig inom de angivna ramarna. Staten är idag ägare av Högskolan på Gotland och kontrollerar att deras verksamhet sköts. Högskolan på Gotland har en stabil ekonomisk situation och styrningen är idag inriktad på verksamhetsmål och vision. Kan en myndighet som Högskolan på Gotland då använda budgeten som ett verktyg för att nå sina verksamhetsmål? Problemformuleringen som växte fram var:

    - På vilket sätt använder Högskolan på Gotland budgeten och budgetprocessen som styrmedel?

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att studera Högskolan på Gotlands budgetprocess för att ta reda på om den används som ett styrmedel. I studien har det används organisationsdokument och det har även genomförts sju stycken intervjuer med personal som arbetar med dessa frågor för Högskolan på Gotland.

    För att förbättra sin verksamhet måste en organisation ha ekonomiska mål. Mål finns på de olika nivåerna i en organisation och används för att sammanföra planering och ansvar. För att kunna föra samman dessa krävs att organisationen har en plan, d.v.s. en strategi för hur de skall uppnå dessa mål. Det finns fyra olika styrmedel; organisation och bemanning, belöningssystem, formellt styrsystem och mindre formaliserad styrning. Dessa är beroende av varandra, men oftast läggs tyngden på en av dem.

    Budgeten är ett handlingsprogram för en organisations mål och handlingsramar och baseras på antaganden och förutsättningar under en bestämd tid. En budget har olika syften beroende på vilken organisation det är. Den är ett bra verktyg när en organisation skall göra en verksamhetsplan, budgeten är verksamhetsplanen i siffror. Med hjälp av strategi och budgetprocess kan en organisation fastställa mål och de strategier som en organisation behöver för att nå dessa mål. Budgetprocessen består av tre olika faser, budgetuppställning, budgetuppföljning och budgetanalys.

    Resultatet av studien är att Högskolan på Gotland använder budgeten och budgetprocessen som ett styrmedel tillsammans med verksamhetsplanen. Budgeten används som ett planeringsverktyg, då rektorn ger institutionerna anvisningar inför kommande perioder med hjälp av budgeten. Den används för att fördela ansvaret i organisationen och skapa en medvetenhet bland de anställda om varför en chef ibland säger nej till vissa saker. Den används också för att fördela de anslag som de får ifrån regeringen till de olika institutionerna. Budgeten används som styrmedel på både strategisk- och taktisk nivå.

  • 412.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Minne och framtidstro i svensk historia: ett urval i svensk medaljkonst2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Medaljen har sitt ursprung i det medeltida Italien och kom till Sverige först på 1500-talet. Den har som uppgift att förmedla ett budskap i form av att minna om en speciell person eller händelse. På medaljerna förekommer en hel del symboler och tecken. Dessa symboler är avsedda att stå för en speciell uppfattning, eller att förmedla en gärning, något den personen medaljen är slagen över gjorde sig känd för under sin levnad.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att försöka få klarhet i hur man skall kunna tolka en medalj och dess text.

    Kan symboliken på medaljerna tydas på något vis, och har olika medaljgravörer någon speciell stil man kan känna igen denne på?

    Finns det varierande stilar från olika epoker, eller är någon stil mer gångbar eller mer banbrytande än andra?

    Finns det en koppling till åtsida och frånsida, och kan man skönja ett mer dolt budskap vid tolkningen?

  • 413.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Konstvetenskap.
    Mässhaken: den prästerliga dräkten till ära och prydnad2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen försöker få klarhet i hur mässhaken kom till Sverige och varifrån den kommer, men även en kortare historik om dess väg genom seklerna till nutiden. Symboliken i motiven på mässhakarna som tagits med från Kronobergs län tyds ikonografiskt och genom semiotik tyds även de tecken som finns med. Vidare jämförs en mässhake från den katolska tiden med en mässhake från den protestantiska tiden, men även om det finns några likheter mellan en modern katolsk mässhake och en mässhake från medeltiden.

  • 414.
    Karlsson, Jennie
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi.
    I människans tjänst?: en studie om relationen mellan människa och djuroffer i gravar från yngre järnåldern2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    By examine cremated remains from graves dated to late Iron Age I wanted to find out what sorts of animals were placed in the graves. But also to see if the animal sacrifices had any connection to the Old Norse religion. The osteological material that were analysed were from both cremated humans and animals and had been dated to Viking Age. The material is from burial ground 59 at Laxare, Boge parish on Gotland. In addition to the human remains, the material contains bones from horse, cattle, sheep/goat, pig, dog, cat, bear, birds and fish. The combination between the species seems to be common all over Scandinavia during the late Iron Age. Except from analysing the material from Laxare I also studied litterature written by other scientist on the subject of animals in Old Norse religion. This was made to understand as much as possible about the religion and how people looked upon animals before Christianity.

    It seemed that animals were very important in religion during the Viking Age in this area on Gotland. Some of the species that were sacrifices in the graves had big importance in peoples daily life but also in myths. The world needed humans, animals and gods to survive and everything were depending on the harmony between them. The horse was clearly a religious animal, and it shows both in the archaeological material and in the written stories from this time. Even cattle, goat and pig are other animals that describe to be important for the religion. The dog seems to be important in the archaeological material but is not mentioned very much in the written myths.

    It is rather clear that the animal sacrificed in graves from the late Iron Age in Sweden is not only for food in the afterlife but also has a very important meaning for the religion and peoples understanding about Cosmos.

  • 415.
    Karlsson, Jennie
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi.
    Är vi lika dem?: en kraniestudie av hominider ur ett evolutionistiskt perspektiv2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    By examine plastic craniums from eight different hominids I wanted to find morfological characteristics that agreed with those of modern humans. The species that were selected had a plastic casting of its cranium in the laboratory at Gotland University. My focus was on species from the family Australopithecius and Homo and only working with their craniums. And this because the cranium and the theeth shows the most visible morfological characteristics between the different hominids. I also wanted,in a small part of the essay, to write about the differences in now living primates and humans skulls.

    Except from analysing the plastic castings I also studied surveys written by other scientist on the same subject. And in that chapter write as much about the whole skeleton as possible, eventhough that was not my main field, but I wanted to give the readers an overview of the species before the analysis took place.

    The most visible morfological characteristics is shown in the theeth because the diet changed during the million years that the evolution took place. It is possible to see the development in Foramen magnum too, the hole at the base of the skull were the vertebrate connects with the cranium. This hole gets more central over time showing that the species got more biped and started to walk upright on two legs just like humans do today. There are of course many more characteristics that are able to be seen that seperates us from the extinct hominids, but many of them are the same. If you look closely at the different craniums you can see how the fantastic evolution formed humans out of apes.

    It has to be mentioned that the scientist have many different theoris about the evolution, the species and who are the real ancestors to humans and I think the disagreement will continue for many years to come.

  • 416.
    Karlsson, Jenny-Gunay
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hur kunde det ske?: en studie av myndigheter och medias berättelser om ”fallet Louise”2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    2007, Swedish television, “Uppdrag granskning,” aired their story about “Louise” from Vetlanda. A drug dependent father had gotten custody of his daughter and sexually abused her from the age of 10 to 15. The local social services got several notifications about Louise suffering of negligence, and did investigate the family several times without taking any actions to protect her. At one time, father and daughter were living in his trailer placed in a gravel pit, and the police worried about her and called social services, because it was below cero degrees outside. That time the social services did not even start another investigation, and did not visit Louise in the trailer. How could that be possible? Why did not the social workers take any actions? Upon that, reportage followed a debate program in Swedish television, huge media hype in general and a street manifestation in Vetlanda. The purpose of the manifestation was to force the chiefs of the social services in Vetlanda to leave their positions. (In addition, they did) Between 2007-2009 Swedish television aired three programs about Louise (one to tell Louise’s story, one to debate how it could happened, and finally one last episode about her life today.) TV channel 8, aired one program “Adaktusson”, in witch the grandparents of Louise was welcome to tell their version of the story. They claimed that she had been living with them most of the time and that things were not as bad as they seemed in the Swedish television reportage.The aim of this report is to examine how narratives was constructed in institution’s and Media’s documentation about the child Louise, to find out how a Grand narrative can be built, and see if it is possible to get a kind of understanding for the actors by analyzing the process of storytelling.

  • 417.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    En skön själ i en kontrollerad kropp: ideal och dygd i porträtt av svenska kungligheter i ljuset av Castigliones Il Cortegiano2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Italy in 1528 the famous author Baldassare Castiglione published the book Il Cortegiano. In words Castiglione portraits the ideal courtiers and provides a lot of advice on how to achieve the ultimate courtier manner. For example he introduces and explains the words sprezzatura and grazia. His advice spread from Italy and influenced the courts around Europe. 

    My purpose with this study has been two folded. Firstly, I have analysed Castigliones Il Cortegiano in order to examine his vision of virtues and ideals. Castiglione’s advice on the perfect courtier is several and the book is quite extensive. In order to make his advice clear I have arranged these under five headings: noble birth, ideals of a gentleman, beautiful character, warlike virtues and book learning. Furthermore, I have analysed four portraits of Swedish rulers. The portraits are as follows: Johan Baptista van Uther’s portrait of Johan III produced in 1582, Matthaeus Merian’s picture of Gustav II Adolf from 1632, David Beck’s portrait of queen Kristina produced in 1650 and finally David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl’s portrait of the riding Karl XI from 1682. Finally, I have applied Castiglione’s advice on the portraits in order to study how well they conform.  

    The study has shown that many of the ideal and virtues emphasized by Castiglione are similar to many of those highlighted in the portraits. The idea of a beautiful soul in a controlled body seems to run like a thread through the selected portraits as well as in Castiglione’s advice on how to be an ideal courtier.

    In conclusion, many of the ideals stressed by Castiglione in sixteenth century Italy also inspired Swedish sovereigns. His advice also seems to have survived in the seventeenth century, if nonetheless in other forms.

  • 418.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Makten att bestämma människans öde: Fru Fortuna i bild och text från renässansen2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The capricious roman goddess Fortune is known for her strong power to influence or even decide the destiny of humans. In ancient Rome she was considered to be a good goddess, who brought the gifts of destiny and who also was seen as a possible ally. During the Middle Ages this position changed. Fortune was given two sides, a good and friendly one and a cruel impenetrable side. She was seen as one of God´s ministers and became an expression of divine providence.

    My purpose with this essay is to analyse three artworks of Fortune by Giovanni Bellini, Albrecht Dürer and Master MZ, but also some texts by the renaissance humanist Niccolò Machiavelli. When examining this representation I will try to determine the iconography of Fortune and see how or if the interpretations of her differs.

    The study has shown that the different representations of Fortune differ from one another of the artworks. However, there is one major resemblance that presents itself in each and every one of the artworks as well as in Machiavelli’s texts, the fact that Fortune is considered to be capricious. This attribute is frequent. In the works of art Fortune is depicted along with some kind of circular object like a ball or a sphere, a clear indication of instability. In Machiavelli’s texts Fortune is often, metaphorically or directly expressed, as capricious and unpredictable. According to Machiavelli, humans therefore have to be prepared, hold capability or virtù, to be able to resist her rapid changes. Like the humanist Machiavelli was it is likely that he represents the ancient view of Fortuna, although some medieval element cannot be omitted. Furthermore, in all of the selected works of art together, one can see elements of both an antique view of Fortuna as well as a medieval. Although the Renaissance was strongly influenced by ancient ideas and ways of life, it becomes clear that also some medieval features survived into the mindset of the Renaissance.

  • 419.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Modig som ett lejon och listig som en räv: historieskrivningen kring Monaldescos avrättning sett ur Machiavellis fursteteori2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Queen Kristina of Sweden (1626-1689) is a person who has been widely studied during the years. She is known as the monarch who left the Swedish throne and the protestant faith in favour of the catholic Rome. Even though Kristina left her powerful position as queen of Sweden she never gave up her dignity as a sovereign.  

    My purpose with this study is to analyse historians and other scholars different research concerning Kristina’s notorious execution of Monaldesco in 1657. This event took place during her time as a guest on Fontainebleau, the French king´s castle. In my literature study regarding this event I will apply the famous Italian humanist Niccolò Machiavelli’s advice on how to be a capable prince. With this mentioned my essay is named:  A Valiant Lion and a Cunning Fox. A Study on the Execution of Monaldesco from Machiavelli’s Theory of the Prince.  

    The Machiavellian theory of the prince is very complex. The demands to become an able prince according to Machiavelli are almost impossible to reach. However, in my study it becomes clear that Kristina was capable enough to capture Fortune when Jules Mazarin gave her the opportunity to join him in an alliance with the aim to conquer Naples. On the other hand, her choice did not only provide her with profits, it also put her in a position of dependence, a position which Machiavelli considers to be problematic. Furthermore, the literature claims that Kristina tried to use the cunning of a fox, the problem was that Mazarin was even more cunning the she was. Later the plans of conquering Napels was exposed by Kristina’s crown equerry Gian Rinaldo Monaldesco. The penalty for this crime he had to pay with his life, she executed him in Galerie des Cerfs on Fontainebleau. As a result of Kristina’s actions Europe got disturbed and a lot of rumours got spread which damaged her reputation badly. Nevertheless, Kristina took full responsibility of the execution. Machiavelli agrees on the fact that betrayal should be punished but the negative consequences gave Kristina a very bad reputation, and Machiavelli emphasizes that a capable prince should avoid being hated. My conclusion is that Kristina proves some minor signs of herself as a capable prince according to Machiavelli. However it should be pointed out that the capability that Machiavelli emphasizes is almost impossible to achieve. The study has also shown that, in contrast to Machiavelli’s capable prince, according to literature Queen Kristina´s foremost goal was nothing but her own independence and freedom.

  • 420.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Mot alla odds: en studie om Kristina av Sverige ur ett genusperspektiv2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Queen Kristina of Sweden (1626-1689) was in many ways an interesting, fascinating but also a very complicated woman, who has been studied widely by historians and other scholars throughout the years. However, there are few people who have considered the queens attitude towards the male norm which characterize Sweden, and most of Europe, during the seventeenth century.

    My purpose with this essay is therefore to apply the historian and gender expert Yvonne Hirdman´s theory about the gender system and the hierarchical order, where the male is the norm and representative of what is considered to be normal in the society, on literature regarding Queen Kristina of Sweden. The historical method of this essay will be historiography, as a result of the fact that my study is based on other historians and scholars research. Moreover, my intention is to include Kristina´s entire life in Sweden, from her birth as far as to her abdication from the Swedish throne and study this through the gender perspective introduced above. With this mentioned my essay therefore is named Against All Odds. A Study on Kristina of Sweden from a Gender Perspective. 

    The fact that Kristina of Sweden has been widely described by researchers with different disciplines and in various ways during the years becomes clear throughout this essay. In my essay concerning the male norm and queen Kristina it appears that elements like her male upbringing was of vital importance in her reply to the male norm and also towards her act against other females. The historian Peter Englund has mentioned the fact that Kristina carried out some form of mind change of her sex, maybe to be able to uphold the position as queen of Sweden. Moreover, Kristina broke the male norm by becoming queen but otherwise she accepted and, to some extent, even encouraged this dominant norm.       

  • 421.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    Ordning, fostran och disciplinering: en undersökning om vad elever och lärare på en gymnasieskola har för uppfattningar om ordning, fostran och disciplinering i skolan2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen har som syfte att undersöka vad elever och lärare på en gymnasieskola har för åsikter i frågor som rör ordning, fostran och disciplinering i dagens skola. Den övergripande frågan som uppsatsen har försökt att besvara är: Vad har elever och lärare för åsikter i frågor som rör ordning, fostran och disciplinering i skolan?

    Den empiriska undersökningen har gjorts i form av en enkätundersökning som har besvarats av 54 elever och 7 lärare. När resultatet av enkätundersökningen har diskuterats har det skett utifrån Michel Foucaults teorier om makt och disciplinering samt utifrån forskning kring läroplaner och skolans värdegrund kopplat till ordning, fostran och disciplinering.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att elevernas och lärarnas åsikter om ordning, fostran och disciplinering i skolan i huvudsak överensstämmer med varandra. Båda grupperna anser att skolan ska ha ett fostrande uppdrag, att fostran ska ske med stöd av gemensamma regler och, vid behov, påföljder om dessa inte följs. Lärarens betydelse betonas vad det gäller att engagera och motivera men också som övervakare av att reglerna följs. Dock anser eleverna i större utsträckningen än lärarna att betyg kan inverka positivt på ordningen i skolan – särskilt betyg i ordning och uppförande.

    Läraren, regler och påföljder är följaktligen viktiga för ordningen i skolan och för skolans fostrande uppdrag.

  • 422.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Historia.
    Ordning, reda och reglementen: en studie av disciplinen i tvågotländska folkskolor2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions about discipline have always been current within the Swedish school system, from the sixteenth century until today. The purpose of this study is to compare the discipline in two old-time elementary schools, located on Gotland, with each other.

    This study will compare an old-time elementary school from the countryside with an old-time elementary school from a town to show the differences in discipline between the coun-tryside and a town. This study will also focus on how questions about discipline changes from 1847 to 1937/1941. In order to do so I have studied the regulations from the two schools and compared them with each other. When I discuss discipline I will use Michel Foucault’s theory concerning the development of power and discipline in modern society.

    My study shows that it did not differ much in questions of discipline between the two ex-amined old-time elementary schools. However, changes in discipline between the two ex-amined periods are evident. Changes in society that follows in the footprints of liberalism and democratic progress are prominent in the latter period that I have studied. These changes in society have obviously effected questions about discipline as they appear in the regulations. The early form of discipline, often in the shape of a salient teacher using force to discipline the pupils, has transformed into a more subtle form of discipline. A new way to carry out dis-cipline, that uses other indirect forms of discipline such as grades and examinations, are tak-ing form during the nineteenth century and are probably still doing so.

  • 423.
    Karn, Amanda
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hav och Strand: stenteknologi och marin anpassning på Gotland under Senboreal/Tidigatlantisk tid2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The essay circulates around the technological analysis of flint material from four localities around the Baltic Sea basin. The analysis was created to investigate the question of where the first Gotlandic settlers originated from and to give clues about the colonization process. The investigated material was collected during the fall of 2011 and a correspondence analysis is used to analyze the collected material. The purpose of using a correspondence analysis is to test the method as a tool for investigating Mesolithic flint technologies. The essay also discusses marine hunter-gatherers, their economy and how their archeological remains differ from terrestrial hunter-gatherers.

  • 424.
    Karvakhal, Christina
    Högskolan på Gotland, Avdelningen för Samhällsgeografi och etnologi.
    Makt, kriminalitet och spelet om normalitetens gränser. Ur Foucaults perspektiv.2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Power, Criminality and the gamble about bordering normality. From theperspective of Foucault. This study is about how criminality becomes a strategy of power used by the individual to overcome difficulties and gain advantages. This strategy of power sets loose a process of identity formation within the individual that gives shape to his own norms which are opposite to the one of the society. The individual norms and the normative society cooperate with one another in a cultural teamwork. The individual get to use the original strategies of power when being sentenced to prison as the prison is experienced as a miniature, criminal society where the hierarchy is based on the level of criminality. The individual is then taught that the original tactics and strategies are the one that works.

  • 425.
    Kasic, Irhan
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Vindkraft och landskap2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens miljödebatt kring klimatförändringar har bidragit till att man satsar mer och mer på nya förnyelsebara energikällor som vindkraft, sol och biogas. Riksdagen har satt upp målet att vindkraft ska producera 10 TWh år 2015. I Sverige började man med vindkraftsetableringen i början av 1980 –talet. Sedan dess har utvecklingen fått en enormfart. Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda på vilka problem och vilka maktrelationer som förekommer i samband med vindkraftsetableringen och hur landskapet påverkas av vindkraftsetableringen med fokus på vissa fall i Falkenbergs och Varbergs kommuner. Denna  studie visar att vindkraftsetableringen är en mycket komplicerad process. Vindkraftenspåverkan på landskapet är påtaglig i båda kommunerna och kan ses i form av fysisk och visuell påverkan. Dit räknas också skuggor och buller. Vindkraftsetableringen kan också påverka djurlivet, särskilt fåglar, i ett område. De flesta vindkraftsparker är placerade utmed kusten men på sistone har man också börjat med vindkraftsetableringen i inlandet och till havs. I båda kommunerna finns det många människor som upplever vindkraft som störande på grund av ändrad utsikt, buller, skuggor eller att deras egendom tappar i ekonomiskt värde. Trots att vindkraft genererar ren och miljövänlig energi, med litet utsläpp och påverkan på naturresurser, är det många människor som motsätter sig vindkraftsutbyggnad. En viktig anledning till detta är placering av vindkraft och otillräcklig kommunikation mellan myndigheter, politiker, företag, närboende och alla andra inblandade i vindkraftsetableringeni en kommun. Detta kan kopplas ihop med myndigheternas makt och dess bruk som kan skapa grund till olika maktgrupperingar och konflikter mellan berörda intressenter. Gruppmakt och instrumental makt är de två maktkategorier som oftast förekommer i samband med vindkraftsetableringen. Denna studie visar också att, trots allmänna protester beviljar ansvariga myndigheter både i Falkenbergs och Varbergs kommuner utbyggnad av vindsnurror i en del miljökänsliga områden. Ett annat resultat som denna studie visar är att vindkraftsetableringen i Falkenbergs kommun har kommit längre än i Varbergs kommun. Orsaken till detta kan ses i att Falkenbergs kommun har en längre tradition än Varbergskommun.

  • 426. Kautsky, Nils
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Troell, Max
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö. Högskolan på Gotland, SWEDESD, Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Odlad fisk är mindre miljövänlig än många tror2003Ingår i: Torskar torsken?: forskare och fiskare om fisk och fiske / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2003, s. 93-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 427.
    KC, Pramila
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Mai Lien, Huynh
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Vientamese suppliers in Swedish apparel value chains: a focus on insertion and upgrading2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to contribute to global value chain studies by examining an empirical case of vietnamese apparel firms in Swedish clothing value chains with a focus on insertion and upgrading issues . we apply mixed method of  both qualitative and quantitative tools from a holistic approach researching from both vietnamese suppliers and Swedish buyers perspective. Our findings show some progressive improvements of Vietnamese suppliers in GVC especially of private sector. In swedish value chain trust and long term cooperative business realtions for mutual benefits are among the key points for insertion and ugrading. On Vietnamese suppliers side, lack of information serves as the main reson for their reluctance in approaching Swedish market . Willingness to listen to buyer's advice or suggestions and management strategic Vision of development are critical for upgrading sucess of suppliers.

  • 428.
    Keith, Martin
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Bilder av Trotskij2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 429.
    Kenczek, Carolin
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Rådjur (Capreolus Capreolus) på Gotland: populationsutveckling och spridningsmönster2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland is an island in the Baltic Sea where man has introduced roe deer. The last successful reintroduction was in the 1980s and is the base of the viable roe deer population of today.

    The aim of this study was to estimate the roe deer population density in 2012 and the species population dynamic since the time when studies on the population started. The result indicates a population size of 850 roe deer in 2012. There was no significant population dynamic, which may be due to insufficient data. The population occurs basically over the whole island but have not yet been established in all suitable areas. Since reporting of hunting numbers of roe deer started they have increased while the hunting numbers of red fox have declined. Red fox is the most frequent predator on roe deer on the island.

  • 430.
    Khalatyan, Ashot
    et al.
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Jouri, Luay
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Influence of institutional shareholders on CEO compensation in Sweden2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Chief executive officer’s (CEO) compensation and its optimal level is an interesting and important topic. How successful and skilled are shareholders monitoring and making changes in its level and its mix? Ownership dispersion is an important determinant of it. In this study we try to answer this question from the perspective of institutional shareholders as they hold a substantial part of equity in firms. The paper sheds light on institutional ownership dispersion effect on CEO total and cash compensation in Sweden.

    Analysing data from the 26 largest companies listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange over the time period 2004 - 2008 we find that institutional ownership concentration decreases top executive officer’s total and cash compensation. We also find that small institutional shareholdings are positively associated with chief executive officer’s total and cash compensation. Overall this relationship suggests that institutions are powerful monitors of corporate governance.

  • 431.
    Khan, Delwara Kiran
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Äktenskapet och det förändrade samhället: en kvalitativ studie om den förändrade giftermålsfrekvensen under 1900-talet2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, the meaning of marriage has been an agreement between two people to live together and have children in a legitimate manner. The marriage was not just to form a couple; it was also to merge two families together. From the early 1900s until today the allegation of marriage and its influence got a significant change compared to early societies which have aroused my interest to perform this into a research paper. My study is focused on marriage and social changes during the 1900s. Thoughts that arise now is that why there was a remarkable change in the marriage rate during the 1900s and whether there were any social changes had to do something with it. The investigation is based primarily on the statistical calculation that shows that the marriage rate during the 1900s got a remarkable change and behind this change lies among others the provision of welfare state and women's emancipation. The paper analyzes the changes that occurred during the 1900s marriage rates and the social changes that occurred at the same period and are associated with the changing of family patterns during the 1900s.

  • 432.
    Khatib, Youssef
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    Examining the Essentials of Stealth Game Design2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Through looking into the inner workings of stealth centric games, this paper aims to find out the essential components of this type of videogames. Examining the history of such games and the design principles of stealth centric games in relation to the participating player this paper will methodically examine games in the light of the arguments of industry professionals. After that a framework is extracted, identifying the principal core components of stealth centric game design.

  • 433.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Coin finds and the idea of monetary space2006Ingår i: Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift - Scandinavian Numismatic Journal, ISSN 0078-107X, s. 208-227Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med artikeln är att presentera och synliggöra hur forskningen om myntfynd i Skandinavien domineras av tre olika traditioner. Den merkantila, monopolistiska och antropologiska traditionen har presenterat olika koncept i tolkningen av myntfynd. Särskilt diskussionen om övergången mellan vikingatid och medeltid har visat hur oförenliga de teoretiska utgångspunkterna kan vara. Ensamfunna mynt som växande fyndkategori har under senaste år rönt alltmer uppmärksamhet bland arkeologer och mynthistoriker. Här finns möjligheter att mötas på ett gemensamt plan. Författaren betonar att ensamfunna mynt ingår i arkeologiska kontexter och är således del av den materiella kulturen. Just arkeologin har fört en fruktbar debatt om hur materiell kultur påverkar människors handlingar i tid och rum. Men samtidigt skapar myntekonomin egna normer och konventioner. Bruket av mynt regleras av påtvingade förordningar men formas samtidig även av folkliga traditioner. Som studiet av ensamfunna mynt och depåfynd i arkeologiska kontexter kan visa så leder myntbruket till en relation av mynt och valutor till specifika platser och situationer. Myntfynden förkroppsligar ett värde- och normsystem vilket skapar monetärt sanktionerade rum.

  • 434.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    General comment on S. Brather: Silver, weights and scales around the Baltic, 8th to 11th centuries2010Ingår i: Trade and communication networks of the first millennium AD in the northern part of Central Europe: central places, beach markets, landing places and trading centres / [ed] Ludowici, Babette et al., Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag, 2010, s. 165-169Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 435.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Hack-Silver, Weights and Coinage: The Anglo-Scandinavian Bullion Coinages and their Use in Late Viking-Age Society2011Ingår i: Silver Economies, Monetisation and Society in Scandinavia, Ad 800-1100 / [ed] James Graham-Campbell, Sören M. Sindbaek, Gareth Williams, Aarhus: Aarhus University Press , 2011, s. 259-280Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the monetary use and function of the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages, especially the Sigtuna coinage. Ever since their discovery by the Swedish scholar Nicolas Keder, in 1706, the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages have been puzzling. In the early days of numismatic research their status among other Viking-age and early medieval coinages was not clearly understood, nor was it clear how they should be classified. Today, their status as Scandinavian imitations of English coins – minted in Viking towns such as Sigtuna and Lund – has been recognized. Their numismatic classification has recently been accomplished by meticulous die-studies, but the question of how they were used as means of payment remains unresolved.

    It is suggested that the coinages did not necessarily have a nominal value, but an officially sanctioned exchange-value, which could only be reckoned and valued by weight and not by number. In such a monetary system, which had both elements of a coin-based and a bullion-based economy, weighing was probably the only way in which to settle the exchange-value. The archaeological evidence from the Sigtuna mint seems to suggest that the Sigtuna coins were weighed with oblate spheroid weights. These weights follow the Islamic mitqal standard which was the basis for the Scandinavian ertog standard.

    It is also argued that at some stage in the bullion economy, coined silver was preferred to hack-silver in transactions. Because of that there might have existed a similar situation in the transactional sphere in the Viking Age, as later during the Middle Ages, whereby different qualities of silver were recognized and valued according to different exchange-rates. This change in the transactional sphere had probably been influenced by the arrival of Western European silver coins to Scandinavia at the turn of the first millennium AD.

    Finally, the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages probably did not have any monetary valueoutside the strongholds in which they were minted. They were intended for use only by people visiting the town and using its market. It would be reasonable to suggest a short time period of value and use during which these coins were regarded as being worth more than ordinary weighed silver. Another conclusion based on this observation is that both English coins and Anglo-Scandinavian imitations were regarded as being of the same silver quality and handled for a higher exchange-rate than, for instance, German coins or hack-silver in the Sigtuna market.

  • 436.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Kaupang from Afar: Aspects of the Interpretation of Dirham Finds in Northern and Eastern Europe between the Late 8th and Early 10th Centuries2008Ingår i: Means of Exchange: Dealing with Silver in the Viking Age / [ed] Skre, Dagfinn, Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2008, s. 199-252Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The settlement at Kaupang has proved to be uniquely rich in dirhams, quite on its own on the North Sea coast of Scandinavia. From stratigraphical evidence and comparative numismatic studies it has already been shown that dirhams were circulating in Kaupang in great quantity by the second half of the 9th century. These finds of individual coins differ from the evidence of hoards from Southern and Western Scandinavia, which on the whole appear only from the beginning of the 10th century. The coins found at Kaupang are in fact consistent with the dirhams found in Eastern Europe and around the Baltic of the 9th century.

    This chapter seeks to analyse and to explain the individual finds of dirhams at Kaupang within a wider geographical and chronological perspective, taking account of the hoard finds from Northern and Eastern Europe. This study shows that the use of dirhams as silver bullion differed as it developed regionally, specifically in respect of the conventions and procedures established within the networks that were responsible for the distribution of silver. Thus the evidence of the dirham hoards not only provides evidence of contacts, but testifies above all to the acceptance of dirham silver in the particular region.

    A regional analysis of finds, in which the inflow of dirhams is phased, is used to argue that the use of dirhams in Kaupang forms part of a longer-term sequence that began in the Southern Caucasus and Eastern Europe towards the end of the 8th century. The use of dirham silver gained a foothold in the Baltic area in the second quarter of the 9th century. In the course of the second half of the 9th century the use of dirham silver expanded to the West, to appear in a few coin hoards on the Continent and in Britain. It is further proposed that the significant upswing in the hoarding of dirhams after c. AD 860 reflects an increase in the inflow of silver from the East. The common notion that there was a silver crisis is challenged on methodological grounds.

    As a result, Kaupang may be regarded as a local entrepôt at which dirham silver was used in a way that probably increased in tempo during the second half of the 9th century and then lasted to early 930s at the latest. At Kaupang, dirham silver was handled in various ways, as weighed silver bullion in relatively small units or in the production of larger units such as ingots. In this way, Kaupang played a crucial role in the distribution of silver in such larger unit-forms beyond the settlement during this period.

  • 437.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Kombinationer av föremål - de vikingatida mittspännedepåerna2008Ingår i: Facets of archeology: essays in honour of Lotte Hedeager on her 60th birthday / [ed] Prescott, C. & Chilidis, K. & Lund, J., Oslo: Unipub forlag, 2008, s. 323-338Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De vikingatida ädelmetalldepåerna har i utgångspunkt diskuterats som en sammanhängande fyndgrupp även om betoningen i debatten generellt har legat på silverfyndens betydelse. Att man bör skilja silverdepåerna från dem som innehåller guld och även andra metaller och material har antytts av flera men distinktionen har än så länge inte haft några konsekvenser för förståelsen av depåerna generellt. Syftet med detta bidrag är att lyfta fram en grupp vikingatida depåfynd, som särskiljer sig från silverdepåerna genom en standardiserad uppsättning av objekt som tillhör den kvinnliga sfären.

  • 438.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Monetarität und Monetarisierung: Verschiedene Stellungnahmen zur Einführung und Ausübung einer Münzgeldwirtschaft im Deutschen Reich und elbslawischen Raum während des 11. Jahrhunderts2004Ingår i: The European Frontier: Clashes and Compromises in the Middle Ages / [ed] Staecker, Jörn, Lund: Almqvist & Wiksell, 2004, s. 221-232Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 439.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Myntfynd och den vikingatida silverhandeln1995Ingår i: Myntningen i Sverige 995-1995 / [ed] Kenneth Jonsson, Ulf Nordlind, Ian Wiséhn, Stockholm: Svenska numismatiska föreningen , 1995, s. 27-42Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 440.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    På jakt efter människorna bakom mynten: Tolkningsmöjligheter inom det numismatiska och historisk-arkeologiska forskningsfältet2005Ingår i: Meta: Medeltidsarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7903, nr 3, s. 37-52Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Coins and coin finds can be used to initiate interdisciplinary dialogues especially between numismatics and archeology. One fruitful way to accomplish this is to regard coins both as texts and material culture. Coins comprise textual qualities which in certain respects remind of the written sources. From this angle coins can be associated with their original monetary context. On the other hand, coins are also material objects reappearing in different contexts carrying with them earlier monetary ideas and concepts. Coin finds also reveal the ongoing strife between coin issuers trying to establish their authority and coin users who react on the legislation of coin use imposed on them. Coins embody the dynamic concepts of medieval particularism and the quest for control and sovereignty over land and people. Rather than regarding the establishment of coins as a general means of payment as a straightforward and continuous process, coin use during the Middle Ages is to be understood as chaotic and discontinuous.

  • 441.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Recension av Søren M. Sindbæk: Ruter og rutinisering. Vikingetidens fjernhandel i Nordeuropa. Multivers Academic. Köpenhamn 20052006Ingår i: Primitive tider, ISSN 1501-0430, Vol. 9, s. 97-99Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 442.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Sachsenpfennig i Grisebjerggårdfyndet (tpq 942/3): en ny pusselbit i den tyska mynthistorien2008Ingår i: Nordisk Numismatisk Unions medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, nr 2, s. 15-20Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 443.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Silver-handling traditions during the Viking Age: Some observations and thoughts on the phenomenon of pecking and bending2006Ingår i: Coinage and History in the North Sea World, c. AD 500-1250: Essays in honour of Marion Archibald / [ed] Barrie Cook and Gareth Williams, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006, s. 448-465Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of secondary treatment of coins of the Viking Age has engendered great interest in numismatic and archeological research. Techniques such as notches and nicks can be connected to the Early Viking Age and the importation of dirham silver in the ninth and tenth centuries. Pecking and bending are phenomena which generally with some exceptions are observed in hoards from the Late Viking Age which mostly contain penny silver from Western Europe. Secondary treatment became likely as a regular practice among those groups who handled, and thus valued, weighed and tested, silver as bullion. In this article some aspects of silver-handling which developed in Scandinavia during

    the Viking Age are discussed. Secondary treatment should not be seen only as evidence of economic habits, but also be put into a broader cultural-historical context, one which underlines the significance of social, symbolic and cognitive aspects and the changing meanings of silver in Viking-Age society. Research on secondary treatment has facilitated not only new methodological advances in analyzing and characterizing the composition of coin- and hack silver hoards from the Viking period, but has also promoted an interdisciplinary dialogue between numismatics and archaeology.

  • 444.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    The Slavs Yesterday and Today: Different Perspectives on Slavic Ethnicity in German Archaeology1998Ingår i: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 6, s. 99-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the numerous images of the Slavic tribes between the Elbe and the Oder in archaeological interpretations. The position taken by East German archaeologists was to integrate the Slavs explicitly into the theoretical constructions of historical-materialism; in the ideological struggle between East and West the Slavs, as victims of medieval feudal developments politically supported the picture of a common socialist identity and history. In contrast West German arcgaeologists on the basis of rigid source criticism placed the Slavs behind the scens of the historical Stage.

  • 445.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Vad säger egentligen pecks och böjningar?: tankar kring metodiska och teoretiska frågor angående sekundära individuella data och silverhanteringen under vikingatiden2003Ingår i: Nordisk Numismatisk Unions Medlemsblad, ISSN 0025-8539, nr 1-2, s. 3-12Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 446.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Varuutbyte i vikingatid och tidig medeltid: Några reflektioner kring hur antropologiska idéer påverkar arkeologiska tolkningar2005Ingår i: Stein som handelsvare / [ed] Borgen, Finn, Hyllestad, 2005, s. 50-62Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 447.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Vikingatida mynt- och silverfynd ur arkeologiskt-numismatiskt tolkningsperspektiv1996Ingår i: Aktuell arkeologi V / [ed] Bratt, P. & Renck, Anna Maria, Stockholm: Arkeologiska institutionen , 1996, s. 63-76Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 448.
    Kilger, Christoph
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Wholeness and Holiness: Counting, Weighing and Valuing Silver in the Early Viking Period2008Ingår i: Means of Exchange: Dealing with Silver in the Viking Age / [ed] Dagfinn Skre, Århus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2008, s. 253-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the use of silver as a medium of payment in the Early Viking Period. Kaupang has yielded comprehensive evidence of craft activity and long-distance trade crossing economic, political and ethnic boundaries. The working hypothesis of this chapter is that exchange across such borders was undertaken outside a socially binding “sphere”, a situation that was made possible by the existence of different forms of market trade. It is argued that there had existed standardised media of value, or “cash/money” in Kaupang, which made calculations and payment for goods possible. Such were the circumstances from when Kaupang was founded at the beginning of the 9th century to the abandonment of the town sometime in the middle of the 10th.

    The use of “money” at Kaupang is approached from two angles. For “money” to be acceptable as an item of value depends on the one hand upon unshakable reference points that are rooted in an imaginary conceptual world. The value of “money” was guaranteed in terms of inalienable possessions which stabilized and at the same time initiated exchange relationships. On the other hand, money as a medium of exchange relates to a scale of calculation which legitimates and defines its exchange-value. This scale makes it possible to compare goods and put a price upon them.

    In this study, it is argued that in the Viking Period there were three different principles of value and payment that were materially embodied in the outer form and weight of the silver object. These were coins, rings/ingots, and fragmented silver respectively. Both coins and rings/ingots were used and valued as complete objects. The wholeness of the object was essential for the concepts of value to exist. The meaning of the coin as an object of value was rooted in a world of Antique-Christian concepts, and its status as a unit of reckoning was guaranteed through seedcorn calculation. The value of the rings and ingots was rooted in the concept of the god Odin’s eternal and stable gold ring, and their character as calculable objects guaranteed through aurar-calculation: i.e. a given number of coins per eyrir (Norw.: øre; “ounce”). Hacksilver, by contrast, has no body, and its meaning as a form of currency was indissolubly dependent upon the use of standardized weights which sanctioned the economic value of this amorphous silver. The status of hacksilver as a calculable substance of value was guaranteed through ertog calculation.

  • 449.
    Kilian, Ralf
    et al.
    Fraunhofer IBP.
    Vyhlídal, TomášCzech Technical University in Prague.Broström, TorHögskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Developments in Climate Control of Historic Buildings: Proceedings from the international conference "Climitization of Historic Buildings, State of the Art"2011Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 450.
    Kindesjö, Christoffer
    Högskolan på Gotland, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Giftermål och geografisk mobilitet: en studie över Västra Eneby socken under 1800- talet2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialisation, modernisation and urbanisation are common words used to describe an evolving community. General patterns are often linked to the meaning of the above words but can these patterns be applied to individual parishes on the agricultural countryside?

    The purpose of this study is to seek moving patterns and how they change during the 19th century in the parish of Västra Eneby, municipal of Kinda, Östergötland. The main thesis is that the study will show an increasing intensity of translocations over the parish border towards the end of the 19th century.

    The study is based on material from Västra Eneby’s church archives to establish statistical data beginning with 1809 and with a sample rate of 10 years, ending with 1909. The study consists of two main parts that links together in the results. Firstly all the marriages that took place are registered, with names and place of living etc. Then all the general movements across the parish border are registered and cross referenced with the marriages to search for matching entries. This gives a general idea of the moving patterns during the 19th century, both general and those in combination with the marriage.

    The results show an increasing amount of movements over the parish border closer to the 20th century. However there is no clear difference between sexes that follow through the whole duration of the time of the study.

    The movements linked to the marriages also increased in the end of the years in the study. Here a much larger share of women than men moved, although this share decreases towards the end of the time of the study.

    The study shows that earlier research from other parts of the country and world can be applied to the parish of Västra Eneby, although the differences between sexes are not that significant as other studies have shown.

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