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  • 401.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    D2.2 Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for linking geographical, archaeological, historical, and ecological data and information for the case studies2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The second deliverable of WP2 (D2.2) of the HERCULES project contains the outlines of the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for retrieving and linking archaeological, historical, and ecological data and geo-information to support the interdisciplinary study of landscape change. It reports on the current state of the infrastructural facility, as the content (data) and functionality (query, analysis and visualization functions) will be refined further in the process of the modelling conducted in three regional case studies (task 2.3) and inter-regional comparisons within the HERCULES project. The SDI outline defines an innovative SDI conceptualization and architecture, grounded in international SDI literature and the functionality and data needs of interdisciplinary research of the long-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes. Furthermore, it describes how the architecture has been implemented in order to achieve a user-centric facility that meets the demands of the WP2 researchers and their societal partners and that enables the SDI to be linked to the Knowledge Hub developed in WP7. The SDI outline subsequently deals with the following topics and issues: 1. A short description of its main aim and its relationship to the work being done in other WPs of the HERCULES project (Section 1); 2. A detailed description of an innovative methodology for the development of a usercentric SDI (Section 2) 3. An elaboration on the SDI architecture (technical components) implemented to support the researchers of WP2 (Section 3) 4. An elaboration on the SDI content (data) with specific reference to the modelling conducted in WP2 (Section 4)

  • 402.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    D3.2 Compiled timelines of cultural landscape change for the study landscapes2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Work package (WP) 3 aim is to reconstruct and assess the short-term past changes and dynamics of cultural landscapes, using case study approach. As a more detailed analysis can be carried out in smaller spatial scale, Study Municipalities (SM) were distinguished within Study Landscapes (SL). The aim of this deliverable is to present the results of the task of “Compiled timelines of cultural landscape change (CTCLC)” based on land use / land cover (LULC) change analysis of maps and aerial images since mid-19th century from scales 1:10,000 – 1:50,000 digitised and generalised to 1:50,000 level. The variety of available maps, scales and level of detail for each SM in different natural, physical, political, social and cultural environment is enormous and does not justify cross-SM comparisons on LULC level. Still, some individual conclusions for CTCLC for specific SM can be drawn: 1. Estonia: SL – Vooremaa and Kodavere, SM – Alatskivi and Peipsiääre. Constant struggle with amelioration has reduced the area of wetlands remarkably promoting forest in a marginalised area where otherwise the landscape has been quite stable: massive forest with mosaic village landscapes. 2. Greece: SL – Lesvos, SM – Gera. The most remarkable change from 1960 to 2012 has been the decline of agriculture whereas the grassland and shrubs, especially wooded grasslands and shrubs taking over based on mapping categories. Also the forest and built-up areas are increasing as is the road network. Probably the processes of modernisation and tourist influx have had impact on abandoning agriculture, which in turn may negatively affect tourism industry that is in search for traditional olive landscapes. 3. Switzerland: SL – Obersimmental, SM – Lenk. With the glaciers melting away bare natural rock area grows slowly. No agriculture. Built-up area grows slowly. Grassland and shrubs are decreasing and forest increasing, both fragmented. Linear infrastructures have been modernised from main roads, railways to cable cars. It seems to be a rather natural landscape with forest overgrowth. 4. Spain: SL – Sierra de Guadarrama foothills, SM – Colmenar Viejo. 1946 seems to be the crucial year, agriculture was in large amounts substituted with grasslands and shrubs; forest almost clear cut. Built-up area and quarries spread as it is situated NW from Madrid. The landscape is criss-crossed with infrastructures: highways, railways and channels. A peri-urban landscape that is in constant change. 5. Sweden: SL – Uppland, SM – Börje. Changes in the vicinity of Uppsala city do not seem radical at all. Scattered mosaic land use seems to have found its peri-urban equilibrium, if this is a possibility. Typical mature polarisation is slowly under way: more monolithic fields appear and grasslands and shrubs are taking over – perhaps as the urban way of life creeps into the countryside leaving fields aside, or more ecoaware attitudes have emerged. CTCLC based on LULC change analysis is not landscape, thus this outcome will serve as a basis for “objective” background against which comparison of other methods (e.g. oral history interviews (OHI), major events and driving forces (DF) analysis, public participatory GIS (PP-GIS), terrestrial photos etc.) can be done forming Landscape change trajectories (LCT) as case study approach. The mapping exercise results will be uploaded to Knowledge Hub (KH).

  • 403.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    D3.3 Report on driving forces and actors facilitating persistence and change in cultural landscapes2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the goals of Work Package (WP) 3 of HERCULES is to reconstruct and assess the shortterm changes and dynamics of cultural landscapes, using a case study approach. In this deliverable, we aim at describing and understanding how landscapes changed in six HERCULES Study Municipalities (SM) since 1850, i.e. Colmenar Viejo (Spain), Lenk (Switzerland), Börje (Sweden), Plomari & Gera (Greece), Alatskivi & Peipsiääre (Estonia) and Mobdury (Great Britain). Whereas the description is based on the map comparison presented in D3.2, additional sources of information were needed to better understand the so called driving forces of the changes determined. We used secondary literature, statistical information and oral history interviews to assess the local historical context, the changes perceived, but also to determine which actors were influential for the changes observed. Abandonment shows to be the most important process across all SMs included and it was especially dominant in the 20th century. Afforestation, deforestation, expansion of agriculture and intensification of agriculture were also widespread. Whereas afforestation shows an increasing trend, deforestation and expansion of agriculture show a moderate, and intensification of agriculture even a strong decreasing trend. The SMs differ greatly regarding their average rate of change, with the fastest SM (Colmenar Viejo) showing about seven times higher rates of change than the slowest SM (Modbury). However, all SMs depict great temporal variability of change in the course of the study period. Overall, it is interesting to note that the latest periods was in no SM showing the highest rates of change, but even included the least dynamic period in one SM (Lenk). We also evaluate if certain factors seem to be especially suitable to cause change or persistence across the different SMs. Infrastructural developments, (macro-) economic shifts and crises, and increasing population numbers seem to have the potential to trigger massive landscape changes. However, the specific context determines if and how such developments have an impact on the landscape. An economic crises triggering emigration, such as in the case of Lenk 1876 to 1914, might well lead to agricultural abandonment, which however in the case of pastures in harsh alpine environment might not immediately lead to forest expansion. Abandonment due to the conversion of a community structure from (subsistence) farming into commercial and industrial activities might however trigger rapid changes. Such changes can be largely facilitated by infrastructural developments, enabling easy commuting to nearby centers. Our study reflects the diversity and complexity of landscape change processes across Europe. The number of case studies does not allow to draw general conclusions, but enables to formulate further hypotheses for research and feedback to the local communities regarding their specific development.

  • 404.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Små båtyxor och äktaminiatyrer under mellanneolitikum i Svealand2012Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 107, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boat axes are one of the main object categories defining the Battle Axe Culture in Sweden (2800–2100 cal BC). Scholars interpret the axes as purely symbolical objects. During the later part of the period, miniatures occur. Their role has been much discussed. The axes have been interpreted as associated with children's graves or related to deposition sites in the landscape and ascribed symbolism. Yet, little research has been devoted to understanding the first appearance of the miniature boat axes and relating them to other changes in the material culture towards the end of theMiddle Neolithic B.

    This study aims to reviewprevious research into the miniature boat axes and to discuss their role inMiddleNeolithic society. The discussion includes a survey of the axes and an analysis of their physical qualities in order to give the group a stringent and practical definition.

    The results suggest that boat axes of miniature size should be seen as a distinct part of Middle Neolithic B material culture. They differ from the full-sized axes in terms of shape, frequency and function.

  • 405.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    The Creation of Regions: An Alternative Approach to Swedish Middle Neolithic Boundaries and Cultures2012Ingår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 52-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates whether there is an alternative understanding to the presumed coast–inland division that has dominated middle Neolithic research in Sweden. Traditionally, the partition of the landscape is put in relation to two different material cultures said to represent two different ethnic groups: the Pitted Ware Culture and the Boat Axe Culture. An alternative interpretation is presented based on analyses of water catchment areas, naturally formed regions and landscape historicity. The results suggest that the traditional division between the inland and the coast may be questioned since the naturally formed regions include both zones and hence both material groups. For this reason, the difference in the material culture is more likely a consequence of different activities taking place at different locales within a single region, rather than being evidence of various ethnic groups.

  • 406.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Bieling, Claudia
    Bürgi, Matthias
    D3.1 List and documentation of case study landscapesselected for HERCULES2014Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    HERCULES develops insights, tools, technologies and strategies and applies and tests theseat regional case studies that span major environmental and land use history gradientsthroughout Europe. As a project that specifically refers to landscapes, the case studies form acornerstone for HERCULES.This report describes the selection of the HERCULES case studies (in the following termedstudy landscapes, SLs) regarding the criteria considered and the process carried out. As asecond part, it contains an overview of all SLs and provides a detailed profile for each area,including cartographic information.Attending to the criteria defined in the HERCULES Description of Work, a five step-processwas carried out to identify the SLs. This encompassed 1) an open call for proposals of SLcandidates among the HERCULES projects partners, 2) the evaluation of the suitability ofproposed SLs by the leaders of those WPs that are active at the SL scale, 3) a decision on theSLs taken by the responsible WP 3 team and the project coordinator, 4) an adjustment processin order to achieve a maximum overlap of the activities of different WPs in the SLs, and 5)the selection of specific focus areas/study municipalities (SMs) within the larger SLs, to bereferred to e.g. for more detailed map analyses or closer stakeholder interaction.This process resulted in the identification of nine SLs: 1) Vooremaa and Kodavere (Estonia),2) Lesvos (Greece), 3) Obersimmental (Switzerland), 4) Grand Parc de Miribel Jonage,Rhône-Alpes area (France), 5) Sierra de Guadarrama foothills (Spain), 6) Parque NaturelRegional d’Armorique (France), 7) South West Devon (United Kingdom), 8) Dutch riverdelta Rhine-Meuse (Netherlands), and 9) Uppland (Sweden). These SLs span a variety ofdifferent characteristics (e.g. the major biogeographical zones of Europe), include bothoutstanding heritage features and everyday landscapes with more hidden historical layers,cover rural and urban areas and are all firmly embedded in the project via a local contactperson who is member of the HERCULES consortium.The case study selection was a joint enterprise to which all HERCULES partners activelycontributed. It involved several typical challenges for Pan-European multi-partner projects,ranging from the homogenisation of material from different languages and administrativesystems to the development of an integrative and well-balanced agreement on the potential ofproposed sites beyond specific personal interests. As such, the successful selection of the SLsproves the capacity of the consortium to work as joint and target-oriented team.

  • 407.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Kolen, Jan
    Crumley, Carole
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Innovative interdiciplinary protocol for understanding landscape dynamics, based on the rpespective of historical ecology, landscape biography and complex system theory.2014Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The first deliverable of Work Package 2 (D 2.1) of the HERCULES project contains theoutlines of a protocol for studying the long-term changes in cultural landscapes. It is intendedas a first design of such a protocol, as it has to be tested and refined further in the process ofconducting three regional case studies and inter-regional comparisons within the HERCULESproject. The protocol defines an innovative methodological procedure for understanding thelong-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes, drawing on recent insightsfrom geography, landscape archaeology, (historical) ecology, anthropology and informationscience. The procedure will be informed by the definitions and the conceptual frameworkdeveloped in HERCULES work package 1.The protocol text subsequently deals with the following topics and issues:1. A short description of its main aim and its relationship to the work being done in otherwork packages of the HERCULES project (Section 1);2. An overview of the major concepts and approaches in archaeological and historicallandscape research in both North America and Europe and the major issues raised inlandscape history over the past decades (Section 2). This also defines the necessity ofdeveloping an integrated approach to long-term changes in cultural landscapes(Section 3);3. A set of premises for understanding long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section4), as well as a number of operational principles for translating these premises toconcrete starting points, procedures, methods and techniques in individual orcomparative landscape projects (section 5). These premises and operational principlesare based on the methodological buildings blocks of the protocol: historical ecology,landscape biography and complex systems theory.4. Starting points for integrating landscape history with the current theory and practice ofgeodesign (Section 6);5. Design of an infrastructural facility for retrieving and linking archaeological,historical and ecological data and geo-information (SDI) to support theinterdisciplinary study of landscape change (Section 7).6. An exploration of concepts and techniques in dynamic modeling that can help betterand more consistently understand the long-term processes that have been operating (orstill are) in cultural landscapes, including outlines and examples of a comparative casestudy approach (Section 8).

  • 408.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi. SSEESS KvA.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi.
    Landscapes of Mortuary Practices2015Ingår i: Ancient Death Ways: Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices, Uppsala, May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo-Stjerna, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, s. 143-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 409.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    LANDSCAPES OF MORTUARY PRACTICES2015Ingår i: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16–17 May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo Stjerna, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2015, s. 143-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Free Fulltext in the main post, Ancient Death Ways

    This paper focuses on the question of how a landscape perspective can contribute to the understanding of mortuary practices. By applying basic GIS methodology, we argue that it is possible to add additional dimensions to an understanding of the management of burials. The starting point is that the selection of locations and spatial relations of burials should be considered an expression of the norms and values that were important for the society that created the burials and organised the landscape. To illustrate this we use two case studies: The Passage Graves of Karleby, Falbygden and the Pitted Ware burials in Eastern Middle Sweden, Lake Hjälmaren.

  • 410.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    HERCULES - Sustainable futures for Europe’s HERitage in CULtural landscapES: Tools for understanding, managing, and protecting landscape functions and values: D2.3 Dynamic models for analyzing long-term landscape change2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Package 2.3 of the HERCULES project brings together a protocol for studying the long-term changes in cultural landscapes and spatial dynamic modelling frameworks and tools. Additionally it presents the possibilities of applying web GIS tools, which are available through HERCULES´s Knowledge Hub (WP7) to publish and share the research results with various actors having different disciplinary backgrounds. The protocol defines an innovative methodological procedure for understanding the long-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes, drawing on recent insights from geography, landscape archaeology, (historical) ecology, anthropology and information science. The protocol subsequently deals with the following topics and issues:  An overview of the major concepts and approaches in archaeological and historical landscape research in both North America and Europe and the major issues raised in landscape history over the past decades (Section 2.1). This also defines the necessity of developing an integrated approach to long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section 2.2); A set of premises for understanding long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section 2.3), as well as a number of operational principles for translating these premises to concrete starting points, procedures, methods and techniques in individual or comparative landscape projects (Section 2.4). These premises and operational principles are based on the methodological buildings blocks of the protocol: historical ecology, landscape biography and complex systems theory. Based on the protocol two spatial dynamic modelling frameworks are presented and applied in two carefully selected case study areas (i.e. the Dutch Lower Rhine region and the Swedish Uppland region). The modelling frameworks present innovative methods that allow analyzing past spatial dynamics. The presented modelling frameworks demonstrate the high potential of spatial dynamic modelling framework to better understand past landscape processes. However, it also shows that it is highly complicated to simulate these spatial dynamics. The main problems are the quality and detail of available data, and the uncertainties in assumptions made. Interpreting and using the modelling results must therefore be approached with care and requires additional research. Additionally this deliverable shows the potential of HERCULES’s Knowledge Hub. It shows how the results of one of the modelling frameworks can be interactively presented using advance web mapping technologies (i.e. story telling GIS tools). This does not only allow the research results to be published in a scientific transparent way, it also offers tooling to bridge the gap between academic spatial modelling experts, heritage landscape experts and nonscientific stakeholders.

  • 411. Vretemark, Maria
    et al.
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Skeletal Manipulations of Dogs at the Bronze Age Site of Százhalombatta-Földvár in Hungary2010Ingår i: Anthropological approaches to zooarchaeology: complexity, colonialism, and animal transformations / [ed] D. Campana, P. Crabtree, S. D. deFrance, J. Lev-Tov and A. Choyke, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 412.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Analyser och tolkningar av begravningspraktiker hos mellanneolitisk gropkeramisk kultur på Gotland: med Ajvidelokalen i fokus2017Ingår i: Arkeologi på Gotland 2: Tillbakablickar och nya forskningsrön / [ed] Paul Wallin och Helene Martinsson-Wallin, Visby: Uppsala universitet, 2017, s. 117-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 413.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Gothemshammar - a Late Bronze Age coastal rampart on Gotland2018Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 65-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a project aiming to use survey and excavation of the Gothemshammar rampart in a digital reconstruction to understand the site in its original landscape setting. Excavations uncovered internal construction details and dateable materials from domestic animals and charcoal. Fifteen AMS dates indicate that the rampart was built and used in the Late Bronze Age, c. 950-700 cal AD.

    Its northern end is situated at a steep scarp towards the current sea shore, and the southern end is in an open slightly sloping terrain, currently about a kilometre from the sea. LiDAR data and an up-to-date shoreline displacement model indicate that the seashore was about so m higher when the rampart was built and used than it is today. The landscape reconstruction shows that the rampart originally cut off a headland on an islet that was strategically located at the mouth of an inland water system.

    To further understand the site's Bronze Age context we made a spatial analysis of features tied to the same time frame, including other monumental structures (stone ships, burial cairns, other ramparts/enclosures) and metalwork hoards. It became evident that all kinds of monuments were mainly located close to the sea shore on capes and islets. We could also see that the monuments, especially the stone ships, were mostly on the north shore of the ancient waterway and that its entry/exit where Gothemshammar is situated served as an important control point for travel into Gotland as well as overseas.

  • 414.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Sjöstrand, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Jansson, Jenny (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Uvelius, Anton (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning vid Licksarve 2:1, Raä Tofta 27:1, Gotland2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stensättningen belägen på ägan Licksarve 2:1 (Tofta 271) tolkades år 1910 som en dös, men under 1920-talet (Hansson 1927) omtolkades den till att vara en förstörd skeppssättning. Under senare tid har diskussionen om konstruktionens ursprungsfunktion åter aktualiserats, eftersom Gotlands hittills enda säkerställda dös belägen i Ansarve har 14C dateraterats till ca 3300-2800 f.Kr. Eftersom konstruktionen i Licksarve ligger endast ca 2 kmfrån Ansarve kan det vara på sin plats att undersöka om även denna stensättning skulle kunna få en liknande datering och om den åter bör omvärderas och faktiskt är en dös (Wallin &Wehlin 2010: 31, Wallin 2018: 1). Utgrävningen av stensättningen under våren 2018 utfördes med hjälp av mastersstudenter på Uppsala universitet, Campus Gotland.

  • 415.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Samiska lämningar utanför dagens renskötselområde2018Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 250-252Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 416.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Teglind, Rebecka
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Rättsmedicin Stockholm.
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Thorell, Erik
    Dalarnas museum.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Dalarnas museum.
    Avrättningar och centralmakt i Stora Tuna i Dalarna under den tidiga medeltiden: Nya analyser av benen från Kyrkskolan2018Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 196-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When construction started on a new school at Stora Tuna, Dalecarlia, almost 100years ago, skeletal remains of sixteen people were found. Several had been executedand some showed clear traces of decapitation. The newspapers immediately linkedthis remarkable find to political opponents executed at the site by King Gustav I in1528. This story stuck. In 2016 the local historical society transferred the bones tothe Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. In this connection, new analyses werecarried out whose results tell a completely different story: of power and centralisedorganisation hundreds of years before King Gustav’s day.

  • 417.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    et al.
    Dalarnas Museum, Box 22, SE-79121 Falun, Sweden.
    Teglind, Rebecka
    Rattsmedicinalverket, Rattsmed Stockholm, Box 1284, SE-17125 Solna, Sweden.
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Thorell, Erik
    Dalarnas Museum, Box 22, SE-79121 Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Dalarnas Museum, Box 22, SE-79121 Falun, Sweden.
    Executions and centralised organisation at Stora Tuna in Dalecarlia during post-Viking times: New analyses of human remains from the Kyrkskolan site2018Ingår i: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 196-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When construction started on a new school at Stora Tuna, Dalecarlia, almost 100 years ago, skeletal remains of sixteen people were found. Several had been executed and some showed clear traces of decapitation. The newspapers immediately linked this remarkable find to political opponents executed at the site by King Gustav I in 1528. This story stuck. In 2016 the local historical society transferred the bones to the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm. In this connection, new analyses were carried out whose results tell a completely different story: of power and centralised organisation hundreds of years before King Gustav's day.

  • 418. Werdelin, Lars
    et al.
    Myrdal, Janken
    Sten, Sabine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Patterns of stature variation in Medieval Sweden2000Ingår i: Hikuin, ISSN 0105-8118, nr 27, s. 293-306Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 419.
    Westerberg, Felicia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Placera ut de döda: En arkeologisk analys av kroppsposition och begravningsritual inom gropkeramisk kultur på Gotland2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I analyze body position and orientation based on material from nine grave fields belonging to the Pitted ware culture (3300-2400 BC) on Gotland, Sweden. The archeological sites consist of Ajvide, Fridtorp, Grausne, Gullrum, Hemmor, Ire, Visby, Västerbjers and Västerbys. The aim of the thesis is to generate information, through the use of Correspondence Analysis, about the individuals and similarities and differences in an attempt to discern possible structures in ritual practice. The subject of the thesis is discussed with a focus on ritual based on Pierre Bourdieu's (1977) theories relating to practice and habitus.

    The analysis shows that specific body positions were preferred, which expressed minor variations between the archaeological sites. At the same time, it was possible to discern specific practices that were more frequent in certain areas. The dead were most often arranged either in a supine position or on their sides with knees straight or flexed, in a crouched position. The placement of the body in flexed position expressed a distinct differentiation linked to the degree of contraction of the knee- and hip joint, which show that there existed guidelines or standards in the practice of body position. The result also indicated age and gender differentiations expressed through skeletal position and orientation, which were expressed differently within some of the populations. The study has identified both regional and local patterns in ritual practice in relation to body position and orientation. Possible interpretations relating to similarities and differences in the material are further discussed in the thesis in order to identify a ritual context.

  • 420.
    Widell, Beatrice
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Hinba in Ultimum Terrae: A Landscape Analysis of the Lost Monastery of St Columba2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the unknown location of Hinba, the satellite monastery of Iona, founded by the Irish Saint Columba in the sixth century AD in western Scotland. The monastery is mentioned in the hagiography, Vita Columbae, written approximately one hundred years after Columba’s death, by the abbot Adomnán. In this thesis, it is argued that Hinba’s location can be traced more comprehensively by establishing Adomnán’s mental location of it and by studying its reflection in the physical landscape. This hypothesis is explored by constructing two types of maps: the first is my interpretation of Adomnán’s cognitive map with the places and spaces in VC and the other type of map displays the “real” landscape with the archaeological evidence of potential monasteries and also the topography of the area. At a later stage, these maps are integrated which shows primarily that the landscape concept of insula, that Hinba is constantly called, might have a dual meaning in the text. One interpretation is thus a complex allegorical meaning instead of an island. This suggests that Hinba’s location might have been in the mainland which contradicts earlier attempts that have located the monastery upon Hebridean islands. The analysis proposes instead that insula was an experienced place for Adomnán, characterised by isolation, closeness to water, sacredness, for instance by supernatural events, and enclosed by some kind of boundary – an experiential insula. These characteristics are subsequently explored by a phenomenological analysis of the mainland monastic site Kilmaha, resulting in that the site could possibly have been Hinba. It can also be concluded that the landscape setting of monasteries is more complex than earlier presumed; the locus incorporated perceptions of the entire landscape. It involved the spaces surrounding the place, such as water, that was perceived as an ordeal of faith by Adomnán when travelling to and from Iona.

  • 421.
    Wihlborg, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Valkyriornas identitetskris: Hårbyfigurinen och (om)tolkandet av genusambivalenta föremål2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year of 2012 a unique three dimensional figurine was found in Hårby, Denmark depicting what seems to be a woman holding a sword and a shield. Immediately it was defined as a Valkyrie, a female servant of the Viking god Odin. However, this is most likely a simplified interpretation since most female figurines from the Viking age is interpreted in this way. This thesis questions this interpretation, creating an identity crisis for the Valkyries due to their interpretation no longer being obvious and simple. Instead this thesis recognizes the gender ambiguous features of the Hårbyfigurine and tries to determine what it can tell about the perception of gender during the Viking Age. The purpose of this thesis is thus to present how gender theory, queer theory and a comparative method can be used to interpret a gender ambiguous object from the Viking Age. This is done based on the Hårbyfigurine and its different attributes and concludes that the arguments against that female figurines from the Viking Age depicts Valkyries are more numerous than the arguments that support this identification. Alternative interpretations for the figurine is therefore suggested. The thesis also shows that the interpretations gender theory, queer theory and comparative method can produce differs in its complexity and in how they handle the gender ambiguous qualities of the Hårbyfigurine. The conclusion drawn from this is that gender ambiguous objects cannot be interpreted in one single way but must be tackled with a variety of theories and methods to be able to tell something about the worldview of the people who lived in the Viking Age. The term gender ambiguous is also re-evaluated throughout the thesis and turns out to be an interpretation applied to objects based on a modern way of defining gender and sex and is not a trait of the object itself. This means that gender is not defined in the same way today as it was in the Viking Age. Gender is thus strongly connected to the ruling culture and not stable, but ever changing.

  • 422.
    Winter, Jan-Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Falken från öst eller korpen från väst?: En analys av bronserade nycklar med fågelmotiv från Kyrksundet i sydvästra Finland2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains an analysis of the bronzed keys with bird motifs that were discovered during archaeological investigations between the years 1991 and 1997 at Kyrksundet, in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Bronzed keys with bird motifs have never been found in Finland before, but similar keys have been found both in Birka and on Gotland, Sweden.

    The aim with this paper is firstly to analyse and compare the keys from Kyrksundet, Birka and Gotland, and their find contexts. Secondly, together with the results from the analysis, the following questions will be discussed; What is the meaning behind the bird motif, why can these keys be found at Kyrksundet, and who were the people that had these keys in their possession during the Viking Age. The symbolic aspect of the keys is a strong theme in this discussion, because the underlaying theory in this paper is that the keys most likely had both a worldly and a cosmological meaning.

    Earlier archaeological investigations mainly have associated these keys with the Nordic peoples and their eastern connections during the Viking Age. Reason behind this association is that the birds on the motif have been interpreted as falcons and the falcon has a relatively strong connection to the Rurik dynasty that ruled in Novgorod and Kiev. Whether the bird is a falcon or not, is however a question that will be discussed in this paper. The analysis performed in this paper, shows that the bird motif on the keys shares more similarities with a raven motif that was used on the British Isles than with the falcon motif that was used in Novgorod and Kiev. This paper will therefore include a suggestion for another perspective, where the keys might be connected to the Nordic peoples and their western connections.

  • 423.
    Wulff Krabbenhöft, Rikke
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Symbols in Clay: A Study of Early Bronze IV Potter's Marks from the Amman-Zarqa Region in Transjordan2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work examines the taxonomy and function of potters’ marks applied to pottery in the Amman-Zarqa region during the last phase of the Early Bronze Age, the so-called EB IV ca. 2350/2300–2000 BC. The study is anchored in a small data set gathered from 12 archaeological sites, in which 24 different mark types have been identified. These mark types - together with their associated vessel classes, circumstances of deposition, and geographical distribution - comprise the background against which previous suggestions regarding potters’ marks are evaluated. Evidence from ethno-archaeological sources concerning traditional potters’ rationales for marking vessels today is also included as part of the interpretive framework. The mode and scale of production is discussed on the basis of the ceramic evidence, the size and character of settlements located within the region, and the socio-economic setting of the EB IV period in general.

  • 424.
    YANG, XIPENG
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Haze in Beijing (2008-2018) Control Measures, Thinking and Living in Haze2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the formation of haze by taking the case of severer haze in Beijing in the winter of 2015, which was caused by the collective effect of human activities, topography and meteorological. Among these causes, anthropogenic emissions contributed most, such as coal-fired emissions and vehicle emissions. The haze not only brings direct harm to health, but also slowly changes the way people live in the haze. Beijing has issued the Clean Air Action Plan to mitigate haze. Additionally, a series of stringent control measures were adopted during Beijing Olympics and APEC summit. These measures, such as vehicle emissions reduction and coal-free programme effectively reduced the PM concentration but failed to reduce GHG emissions. Hence, the causes for the lack of sustainability of air pollution control measures are included in thesis.

  • 425.
    Ytterman, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Grundämnes-distribuering och bendensitet: En XRF-undersökning av vikingatida och medeltida lårben från fyra arkeologiska lokaler2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay focuses on developing non-destructive methods to investigate the relationship between elemental distribution and bone porosity in archaeological bone. The skeletal material, which was analyzed, came from the archaeological sites of Skara (county of Västergötland), Varnhem (county of Västergötland), Sigtuna (county of Uppland) and Kopparsvik (county of Gotland). The essay is based on the results of a previous project, Osteoporosis och osteoarthritis, då och nu (Sten 2012). That project aimed at establishing whether medieval people, buried on the above mentioned archaeological sites, were suffersing from osteoporosis and/or osteoarthritis. This knowledge might help the medical research of today to solve the problem of possibly preventing those bone diseases. The method used was DXA-scanning, which was developed for examine osteoporosis in bone from living people. The result showed that the skeletons from the Skara site had an increased bone mineral density (BMD) compared to the skeletons from the other three sites.

    This essay investigates why these skeletal remains have a higher BMD and how this affects the results of methods like DXA. In this bachelor project various X-ray instruments were used to analyze the BMD of the skeletal remains. The X-ray pictures were then modified to exhibit high and low density areas in the bone. The elemental distribution of the surface area of the neck of the femur was examined with a μXRF-spectrometer. As a complement to the μXRF-spectrometer a SEM (scanning electron microscope) was used to analyze the elemental distribution of a cross section of the femur neck. Soil samples were collected from Skara and Varnhem and analyzed by using μXRF-spectrometry to find out if there was a correlation between the elemental content of the bone and surrounding soil. The skeletal remains from Skara exhibited increased values of iron and manganese combined with higher bone density. The soil from Skara showed a high level of particularly iron. This could be the reason for the increased BMD of the individuals from Skara when using the DXA-analysis. It is likely that, in each archaeological site, iron and manganese ions have diffused from both ground water and soil into the bones and thus increased the BMD. This is especially notified of the skeletal remains of Skara.

  • 426.
    Öhrström, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Gudinna, kvinna eller prästinna: vad visar de kvinnliga hällristningarna i Bohuslän2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanum, is situated in the north part of Bohuslän in Sweden and is the most famouse area of Rock Art of the world. It´s now a World Heritige since 1994. More than 100 000 images are carved on the rocks near by the sea. Archaeologists believe that carved feet and cupmarks can date from mesoliticom and neoliticum. During bronze age the sealevel was 15-20 meters higher. Carvings of humans can date from the beginning of bronze age around 1800, period I, but during late bronze age 1000-300 bc, period III-V, motives of humans became more common. Of all the 4154 carvings of human figures, only a few of them, aboute 45 figures, can be identifide as woman.  This study will try to answere why there are so few carvings of woman, what the carvings of female figures shows on the rocks and in what context are the they carved? Is the female figures an image of a godess, a woman or a priestess? Can the carvings tell us something aboute the womans life during the the bronze age?

    Key words: axes, menstruation, birthing, boats, Bohuslän, bronze age, cairns, carvings, fertilitycult, rock art, sealevel, weddings, godess, women, priestess, neoliticum, mesoliticum.                             

    Nyckelord: yxor, förlossning, menstruation, båtar, Bohuslän, bronsålder, rösen, ristningar, fruktbarhetskult, stenkonst, havsnivån, bröllop, gudinna, kvinna, prästinna, neolitikum, mesolitikum.

  • 427.
    Östrand, Anne
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Publik arkeologi från ett publikt perspektiv2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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