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  • 51.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inequality and Crime: Separating the Effects of Permanent and Transitory Income2008In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 129-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on income inequality and crime have typically used total income or total earnings. However, it is quite likely that it is changes in permanent rather than in transitory income that affects crime rates. The purpose of this paper is therefore to disentangle the two effects by, first, estimating region-specific inequality in permanent and transitory income and, second, estimating crime equations with the two separate income components as explanatory variables. The results indicate that it is important to separate the two effects; while an increase in the inequality in permanent income yields a positive and significant effect on total crimes and three different property crimes, an increase in the inequality in transitory income has no significant effect. Using a traditional, aggregate, measure of income yields insignificant effects on crime.

  • 52.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On the Vote Purchasing Behavior of Incumbent Governments2002In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether there are any tactical motives behind the distribution of grants from central to lower level governments. We use a temporary grant program that is uniquely suitable for testing theories of vote-purchasing behavior of incumbent governments. The temporary grant program differs from traditional intergovernmental grants in several aspects, most importantly in the sovereign decision making power given to the incumbent central government. We find support for the hypothesis that the incumbent government used the grant program under study in order to win votes. In particular, we find strong support for the Lindbeck-Weibull/Dixit-Londregan model in which parties distribute transfers to regions where there are many swing voters. This result is statistically as well as economically significant. We do however not find any support for the model that predicts that the incumbent government transfers money to its own supporters.

  • 53.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On mandatory activation of welfare receivers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare receivers have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. The reform is well suited for investigating effects of such programs for several reasons. First, the reform was not combined with any other policy instruments, like time limits or tax credits, making sure that we will capture effects of mandatory activation policies and nothing else. Second, the reform was initiated at different points of time in different city districts, which ease identification. Third, using data from city districts within a single local labor market we can control for confounding macro economic shocks. Overall, we find that mandatory activation of welfare receivers reduce overall welfare participation and increases employment. We also find that mandatory activation programs appear to work best for young people and for people born in non-Western countries. For disposable income, we do not find a statistically significant effect.

  • 54.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effects of Work Requirements on Welfare Participation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundqvist, Heléne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IFAU.
    Intergovernmental Grants and Bureaucratic Power2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In their role as agenda setters and implementers of political decisions, bureaucrats potentially have the power to influence decisions in their own favor. It is however difficult to empirically test whether bureaucrats actually are involved in such actions. In this paper we suggest and apply a new way of testing the hypothesis that bureaucrats can and do in fact affect policy to their own benefit. Making use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system, we estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on different types of personnel employed by the local governments. On the margin, we find a large, positive effect of grants on the number of bureaucrats in the central administration, but no effects on the number of personnel in other important sectors run

    by the local government (child care, schools and elderly care). These results support the

    view that bureaucrats are able to, and do indeed, affect the allocation of grants within

    municipalities to support own goals.

  • 56.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Aktivering av socialbidragstagare i Sverige2008In: Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, ISSN 0800-6199, E-ISSN 1504-7970, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 277-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Valår och den kommunala politiken2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rattsø, Jørn
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 2320-2335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor. Federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of decentralized governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates.

  • 59.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Tovmo, Per
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.

  • 60. de Graaf-Zijl, Marloes
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Heyma, Arjan
    Stepping stones for the unemployed: the effect of temporary jobs on the duration until (regular) work2011In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 107-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions from unemployment into temporary work are often succeeded by a transition from temporary into regular work. This paper investigates whether temporary work increases the transition rate to regular work. We use longitudinal survey data of individuals to estimate a multi-state duration model, applying the 'timing of events' approach. The data contain multiple spells in labour market states at the individual level. We analyse results using novel graphical representations, which unambiguously show that temporary jobs shorten the unemployment duration, although they do not increase the fraction of unemployed workers having regular work within a few years after entry into unemployment.

  • 61.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Stat, USBE, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Fowler, Philip
    Umea Univ, Dept Stat, USBE, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Inst Study Labor IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Proxy variables and nonparametric identification of causal effects2017In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 150, p. 152-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proxy variables are often used in linear regression models with the aim of removing potential confounding bias. In this paper we formalise proxy variables within the potential outcomes framework, giving conditions under which it can be shown that causal effects are nonparametrically identified. We characterise two types of proxy variables and give concrete examples where the proxy conditions introduced may hold by design.

  • 62. de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Non-parametric inference for the effect of a treatment on survival times with application in the health and social sciences2010In: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, ISSN 0378-3758, E-ISSN 1873-1171, Vol. 140, no 7, p. 2122-2137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we perform inference on the effect of a treatment on survival times in studies where the treatment assignment is not randomized and the assignment time is not known in advance. Two such studies are discussed: a heart transplant program and a study of Swedish unemployed eligible for employment subsidy. We estimate survival functions on a treated and a control group which are made comparable through matching on observed covariates. The inference is performed by conditioning on waiting time to treatment, that is, time between the entrance in the study and treatment. This can be done only when sufficient data are available. In other cases, averaging over waiting times is a possibility, although the classical interpretation of the estimated survival functions is lost unless hazards are not functions of waiting time. To show unbiasedness and to obtain an estimator of the variance, we build on the potential outcome framework, which was introduced by J. Neyman in the context of randomized experiments, and adapted to observational studies by D.B. Rubin. Our approach does not make parametric or distributional assumptions. In particular, we do not assume proportionality of the hazards compared. Small sample performance of the estimator and a derived test of no treatment effect are studied in a Monte Carlo study.

  • 63. Dias, Monica Costa
    et al.
    Ichimura, Hidehiko
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Treatment Evaluation With Selective Participation and Ineligibles2013In: Journal of the American Statistical Association, ISSN 0162-1459, E-ISSN 1537-274X, Vol. 108, no 502, p. 441-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching methods for treatment evaluation based on a conditional independence assumption do not balance selective unobserved differences between treated and nontreated. We derive a simple correction term if there is an instrument that shifts the treatment probability to zero in specific cases. Policies with eligibility restrictions, where treatment is impossible if some variable exceeds a certain value, provide a natural application. In an empirical analysis, we exploit the age eligibility restriction in the Swedish Youth Practice subsidized work program for young unemployed, where compliance is imperfect among the young. Adjusting the matching estimator for selectivity changes the results toward making subsidized work detrimental in moving individuals into employment.

  • 64. Doblhammer, Gabriele
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Fritze, Thomas
    Economic Conditions at the Time of Birth and Cognitive Abilities Late in Life: Evidence from Ten European Countries2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e74915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With ageing populations, it becomes increasingly important to understand the determinants of cognitive ability among the elderly. We apply survey data of 17,070 respondents from ten countries to examine several domains of cognitive functioning at ages 60+, and we link them to the macro-economic deviations in the year of birth. We find that economic conditions at birth significantly influence cognitive functioning late in life in various domains. Recessions negatively influence numeracy, verbal fluency, recall abilities, as well as the score on the omnibus cognitive indicator. The results are robust; controlling for current characteristics does not change effect sizes and significance. We discuss possible causal social and biological pathways.

  • 65.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    SOFI.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Påverkar bostadssegregationen flyktingbarns skolresultat?2009In: Søkelys på arbeidslivet, ISSN 0800-6199, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 379-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nybom, Martin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Rising Return to Non-cognitive Skills*2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the changes in the rewards to cognitive and non-cognitive skill during the time period 1992-2013. Using unique administrative data for Sweden, we document a secular increase in the returns to non-cognitive skill. This increase is particularly pronounced in the private sector, at the upper-end of the wage distribution, and relative to the evolution of the return to cognitive skill. Sorting across occupations responded to changes in the returns to skills. Workers with an abundance of non-cognitive skill were increasingly sorted into abstract and non-routine occupations, for example. Such occupations also saw greater increases in the relative return to non-cognitive skill. This suggests that the optimal skill mixes of jobs have changed over time, that there is sorting on comparative advantage, and that demand-side factors are primarily driving the evolution of the return to non-cognitive skill. Consistent with this, we also show that hikes in offshoring and IT-investments increase the relative reward to non-cognitive skill and the relative intensity of non-cognitive skill usage.

  • 67.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Migration Effects of Welfare Benefit Reform2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for a migration response to the implementation of stricter rules for receiving welfare benefits (means-tested social assistance for individuals who lack sufficient work-related income), in the form of mandatory participation in activation programmes in Stockholm town districts. The results give no indications that activation programmes affect the moving choices of recipients of welfare benefits.

  • 68.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Froelich, Markus
    Wondratschek, Verena
    Sweden's school choice reform and equality of opportunity2014In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 30, no S1, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether the Swedish school choice reform, enacted in 1992, had differential effects for students from different socio-economic backgrounds. We use detailed geographical data on students' and schools' locations to construct measures of the degree of potential choice. This allows us to study the effects of choice opportunities among public schools, whereas previous studies have focused on newly opened private schools. Our results indicate that students from a socio-economically disadvantaged or immigrant background did not benefit less from more school choice than those from more advantaged backgrounds. If anything, students from low-income families benefited slightly more than those from higher-income families. However, the differences between groups of students are very small, as are the overall effects of the reform.

  • 69.
    Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, CESIfo, IFAU, IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;UCLS, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liang, Che-Yuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. IBF, POB 514, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala Univ, UCFS, UCLS, CESifo,IZA, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;IEB, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, CESifo, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Swedish Earned Income Tax Credit: Did It Increase Employment?2016In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 475-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the extensive-margin labor-supply effects of a Swedish earned income tax credit introduced in 2007. The reform was one of the government's flagship reforms to boost employment, but its actual effects have been widely debated. We exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working, which yields two sources of quasi-experimental variation. The identifying variation, however, turns out to be small and potentially endogenous, which means that the question of whether the reform has delivered the hoped-for effects cannot be credibly answered.

  • 70.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Alcohol-Related Morbidity and Mortality Following Involuntary Job Loss: Evidence From Swedish Register Data2014In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between involuntary job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality. Method: Swedish linked employee employer data were used to identify all establishment closures during 1990-1999, as well as the employees who were laid off and a comparison group. These data were merged with information on alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital admissions from the Causes of Death Register and the National Patient Register. The associations between job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality during a follow-up period of 12 years were estimated by propensity score weighting methods. Results: An excess risk of both alcohol-related hospitalization and mortality was found among both displaced men and women. For women, the wholly alcohol-attributable health problems were mainly limited to alcohol use disorders, whereas men also had an increased risk of hospitalization from poisoning and alcohol-induced liver disease and pancreatitis. Conclusions: The findings support previous evidence of increased risks of alcohol-related morbidity/mortality following involuntary job loss, although the estimates presented herein are more conservative. In addition, the findings suggest that alcohol-related problems manifest somewhat differently in men and women.

  • 71.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Assistant and auxiliary nurses in crisis times Earnings, employment, and income effects of female job loss in the Swedish public sector2014In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1159-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the earnings, employment and income effects of job displacement among female assistant and auxiliary nurses - two hard-hit female-dominated occupations - in Sweden during the economic crisis of the 1990s. Design/methodology/approach - Using register data, assistant and auxiliary nurses who were displaced due to mass-layoffs during the crisis years were identified, as well as an appropriate control group. The study population could be followed for a maximum of 13 years. Mean effects were estimated using a propensity score weighted fixed effect estimator. In a supplementary analysis, propensity score weighted quantile effects were estimated. Findings - Job loss among women in the public sector seems to have had similar earnings and employment consequences as previously found for job loss among men in the private sector. However, the social insurance system replaced a majority of the lost earnings. Moreover, a distributional analysis revealed that the income and earnings losses were limited to the lower part of the distributions. Social implications - Budget consolidation measures to restore health to public finances in the aftermath of the Great Recession are likely to have long-lasting adverse consequences for some. Although many of those losing their jobs are likely to quickly regain employment at a comparable earnings level, the unlucky few may bear most of the costs. Originality/value - The author is aware of no previously published research that has investigated either the impact of job displacement in the public sector or the distributional effect of job displacement.

  • 72.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Income after job loss: the role of the family and the welfare state2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 603-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That displaced workers suffer long-lasting earnings losses is a stylized fact, raising the question whether these losses are replaced by other means. For married men, increased labour supply by the wife may be one way. Another possibility is that the public welfare system offsets the same losses. I used a Swedish longitudinal data set containing married couples where the husband was either employed or made redundant in 1987 by an establishment closure. There was no evidence that husbands' job loss positively affected wives' annual earnings. Although husbands' utilization of unemployment insurance increased significantly, government transfers including also sickness insurance, disability insurance and means-tested social benefits, did not fully replace husbands' long-run earnings losses. Hence, displaced workers seem to suffer also from long-lasting losses in family income, which in many respects is a better measure of economic welfare than individual earnings or wages.

  • 73.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lost jobs, broken marriages2012In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1365-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of both husbands' and wives' job displacement on the risk that the marriage ends in divorce. Using Swedish-linked employee-employer data, all married couples in which one of the spouses lost his or her job because of an establishment closure in 1987 or 1988 and a comparison sample were identified. Over a 12-year period, the excess risk of divorce among couples' in which the husband was displaced was 13% and statistically significant. The estimated impact of wives' job displacements was of almost the same size, but not statistically significant.

  • 74.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Living to save taxes2008In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 340-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2004–2005 have affected daily all-cause mortality. Our main result is that mortality decreased by 17% the day before the expected tax repeals began.

  • 75.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Timing of death and the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2003/04 and 2004/05 have affected mortality during the turns of the years. Our first main result is that deceased with estates taxable for legal heirs were 10 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2005, from when the inheritance tax was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2004, compared to deceased without taxable estates for legal heirs. The second main result is that deceased with estates taxable for a married spouse were 12 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2004, from when the inheritance tax between spouses was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2003, compared to deceased without taxable estates for a married spouse.

  • 76.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Timing of death and the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2003/04 and 2004/05 have affected mortality during the turns of the years. Our first main result is that deceased with estates taxable for legal heirs were 10 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2005, from when the inheritance tax was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2004, compared to deceased without taxable estates for legal heirs. The second main result is that deceased with estates taxable for a married spouse were 12 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2004, from when the inheritance tax between spouses was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2003, compared to deceased without taxable estates for a married spouse.

  • 77.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Timing of death and the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax2013In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 45, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax people postponed death to avoid taxes. This is an example of the far-reaching behavioral effects of economic incentives and of unintended consequences of policy changes. Using individual data, including information on taxable estates, we find that deceased with, compared to those without, tax incentives to postpone death were 10 percentage points more likely to die the day after rather than the day before the repeal. An extended analysis suggests that the timing of deaths was affected not only during these two days but during a longer surrounding period.

  • 78.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Storrie, Donald
    Does Job Loss Shorten Life?2009In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 277-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of job loss on overall and cause-specific mortality. Using linked employer-employee data, we identified the workers displaced due to all establishment closures in Sweden in 1987 and 1988. Hence, we have extended the case study approach, which has dominated the plant closure literature. The overall mortality risk among men increased by 44 percent during the first four years following job loss, while there was no impact on either female overall mortality or in the longer run. For both sexes, however, there was an about twofold short-run increase in suicides and alcohol-related mortality.

  • 79.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Storrie, Donald
    Job loss is bad for your health - Swedish evidence on cause-specific hospitalization following involuntary job loss2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 1396-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of job loss on a number of non-fatal health events, which are nonetheless severe enough to require hospital in-patient care. We focus on job loss due only to establishment closures, as this reduces the problem of distinguishing between causation and selection. Using linked employee-employer register data, we identify the job losses due to all establishment closures in Sweden in 1987 or 1988. During a subsequent 12-year period, we find that job loss significantly increases the risk of hospitalization due to alcohol-related conditions, among both men and women, and due to traffic accidents and self-harm, among men only. We find no evidence, however, that job loss increased the risk of severe cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction or stroke.

  • 80.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    En förlorad generation? En ESO-rapport om ungas etablering på arbetsmarknaden: Rapport till Expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi 2015:32015Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vacancy Referrals, Job Search, and the Duration of Unemployment: A Randomized Experiment2012In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 419-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One goal of the Public Employment Service is to facilitate matching between unemployed job-seekers and job vacancies; another goal is to monitor job search so as to bring search efforts among the unemployed in line with search requirements. The referral of job-seekers to vacancies is one instrument used for these purposes. We report results from a randomized Swedish experiment where the outcome of referrals is examined. To what extent do unemployed individuals actually apply for the jobs they are referred to? Does information to job-seekers about increased monitoring affect the probability of applying and the probability of leaving unemployment? The experiment indicates that a relatively large fraction (one-third) of the referrals do not result in job applications. Information about intensified monitoring causes an increase in the probability of job application, especially among young people. However, we find no significant impact on the duration of unemployment.

  • 82.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies. Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Hägglund, Pathric
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Institute of Labor Economics (IZA); Inspektionen för socialförsäkringen (ISF); Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Early Interventions and Disability Insurance: Experience from a Field Experiment2017In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, no 600, p. 363-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of early assessments of an individual's need for vocational rehabilitation in the Swedish sickness insurance system using a field experiment. One of the interventions increases the flow to disability benefits by 20%. The effect is larger for unemployed individuals, who also are covered by the sickness insurance scheme. This result is in line with a theoretical model with moral hazard and asymmetric information in which individuals with low work incentives communicate worse health in response to the assessment for rehabilitation which then increases the hazard to disability benefits.

  • 83.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The medical doctors as gatekeepers in the sickness insurance?2012In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 44, no 28, p. 3615-3625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a randomized experiment, we estimate effects from notification to medical doctors of tighter monitoring of their Medical Certificates (MCs). Both the time prescribed by the doctor certificates for sick leave (prescribed sick leave) and the impact on the length of the actual sickness absence (actual sick leave) is studied. We find no effect on the total number of prescribed sick leave days. However, we do find an increase in both prescribed and actual sick leave with a 25% work inability. We also find that the notification letter causes an increase in actual sick leave (i.e. the number of reimbursed sick days). We discuss a number of potential explanations for this rather surprising result.

  • 84.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Nordblom, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Stefánsson, Arnaldur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Multiple Misbehaving: Loss Averse and Inattentive to Monetary Incentives2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study what determines taxpayers’ deduction behavior when filing tax returns. Preliminary deficits might be viewed as losses assuming zero preliminary balance as reference point. Swedish taxpayers may escape these losses by claiming deductions after receiving information about the preliminary balance. Furthermore, the Swedish income tax system has a substantial kink (20 percentage points) where the central government tax applies. Taxpayers slightly above the governmental tax kink have substantially higher (standard economic) incentives to claim deductions than taxpayers slightly below the kink. Using a regression kink and discontinuity approach with individual fixed effects, we study a panel of 4.1 million Swedish taxpayers in 1999 to 2006. We find strong causal effects of preliminary deficits on the probability of claiming deductions. The initial empirical evidence for a kink in deduction probability at the central government threshold, anticipated by standard economic theory, is weaker but significant. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that the kink at the tax threshold is not likely due to the tax incentives per se. When controlling for the preliminary tax deficit, the kink at the tax threshold disappears. Taxpayers just above the tax kink are namely more likely to run a preliminary tax deficit than those just below it. Hence, the most plausible explanation also for the kink at the tax threshold is therefore loss aversion and not standard economic incentives. The Swedish taxpayers are thus “misbehaving”, in a Thaler (2015) sense, on two separate margins: they are highly loss averse but surprisingly inattentive to standard monetary incentives.

  • 85.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vad är värst - dålig hälsa, utländsk bakgrund eller 55+?2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 14-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    What is the Right Profile for Getting a Job? A Stated Choice Experiment of the Recruitment Process2016In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    What is the right profile for getting a job?: A stated choice experiment of the recruitment process2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the recruitment behavior of Swedish employers using data from a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, the employers are first asked to describe an employee who recently and voluntarily left the firm, and then to choose between two hypothetical applicants to invite to a job interview or to hire as a replacement for their previous employee. The two applicants differ with respect to characteristics such as gender, age, education, experience, ethnicity, religious beliefs, family situation, weight, and health. Our results show that employers discriminate against applicants who are old, non-European, Muslim, Jewish, obese, have several children, or have a history of sickness absence. Expressed in wage terms, this discrimination corresponds to a wage reduction of up to 50 percent. Moreover, increasing the firms’ cost of uncertainty in hiring – through more firm co-payment in the sickness benefit system – may reduce hiring, but does not affect the degree of discrimination. Also, there are only small differences in the degree of discrimination between different types of recruiters and firms. Overall, our results suggest that the discrimination, at least partially, should reflect statistical discrimination.

  • 88.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lagerström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Competition between Employed and Unemployed Job Applicants: Swedish evidence2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 373-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Swedish Applicant Database to empirically investigate whether being unemployed per se reduces the probability of getting contacted by a firm. All searchers looking for a new job are invited to submit their personal details to this database over the Internet. Since we have access to exactly the same information as the firms, we can minimize the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show that an unemployed applicant faces a lower contact probability than an otherwise identical employed applicant, thus supporting the notion that firms view employment status as a signal for productivity.

  • 89.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lagerström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Detecting discrimination in the hiring process: Evidence from an Internet-based search channel2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses data from an Internet-based CV database to investigate how factors which may be used as a basis for discrimination, such as the searchers’ ethnicity, gender, age and employment status, affect the number of contacts they receive from firms. Since we have access to essentially the same information as the firms, we can handle the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity better than most existing studies of discrimination. We find that, even when we control for other differences, searchers who have non-Nordic names, are old or unemployed receive significantly fewer contacts. Moreover, we find that this matters for the hiring outcome: Searchers who receive more contacts have a higher probability of actually getting hired.

  • 90.
    Farbmacher, Helmut
    et al.
    Max Planck Gesell, Munich Ctr Econ Aging, Munich, Germany;Univ Mannheim, Dept Econ, Mannheim, Germany.
    Guber, Raphael
    Max Planck Gesell, Munich Ctr Econ Aging, Munich, Germany.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Increasing the credibility of the twin birth instrument2018In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 457-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin births are an important instrument for the endogenous fertility decision. However, twin births are not exogenous either as dizygotic twinning is correlated with maternal characteristics. Following the medical literature, we assume that monozygotic twins are exogenous, and construct a new instrument, which corrects for the selection although monozygotic twinning is usually unobserved in survey and administrative datasets. Using administrative data from Sweden, we show that the usual twin instrument is related to observed and unobserved determinants of economic outcomes, while our new instrument is not. In our applications we find that the classical twin instrument underestimates the negative effect of fertility on labor income. This finding is in line with the observation that high earners are more likely to delay childbearing and hence have a higher risk to get dizygotic twins.

  • 91. Ferracci, Marc
    et al.
    Jolivet, Gregory
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Evidence of Treatment Spillovers within Markets2014In: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 96, no 5, p. 812-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a method to infer the presence of treatment spillovers within markets where a fraction of agents is treated. We model individual outcomes as functions of the assigned treatment status and the distribution of assigned treatments in a market. We develop a two-step identification and estimation method, focusing first on the treatment distribution among individuals within markets and then on the treatment distribution across markets. We apply our approach to training programs for unemployed individuals in France using rich administrative data. Our results provide evidence of interactions within local labor markets as potential individual outcomes vary with the proportion of treated individuals.

  • 92.
    Forslund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westermark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prices, Productivity, and Wage Bargaining in Open Economies2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 169-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard union bargaining model, unemployment benefits should have big effects on wages, but product-market prices and productivity should play no role in the wage bargain. We formulate an alternative strategic bargaining model, where labour and product-market conditions together determine wages. A wage equation is derived and estimated on aggregate data for four Nordic countries. Wages are found to depend not only on unemployment and the replacement ratio, but also on productivity, international prices and exchange rates. There is evidence of considerable nominal wage rigidity. Exchange rate changes have large and persistent effects on competitiveness.

  • 93.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden; CESifo, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Mismatch of Talent: Evidence on Match Quality, Entry Wages, and Job Mobility2018In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 3303-3338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of mismatch on entry wages, separations, and wage growth using unique data on worker talents. We show that workers are sorted on comparative advantage across jobs within occupations. The starting wages of inexperienced workers are unrelated to mismatch. For experienced workers, on the other hand, mismatch is negatively priced into their starting wages. Separations and wage growth are more strongly related to mismatch among inexperienced workers than among experienced workers. These findings are consistent with models of information updating, where less information is available about the quality of matches involving inexperienced workers.

  • 94.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ockert, Björn
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.;Inst Evaluat Labour Market & Educ Policy IFAU, POB 513, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Oosterbeek, Hessel
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Sch Econ, Roetersstr 11, NL-1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Parental Responses to Public Investments in Children Evidence from a Maximum Class Size Rule2016In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 832-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study differential parental responses to variation in class size induced by a maximum class size rule in Swedish schools. In response to an increase in class size: (1) only high-income parents help their children more with homework; (2) all parents are more likely to move their child to another school; and (3) only low-income children find their teachers harder to follow when taught in a larger class. These findings indicate that public and private investments in children are substitutes, and help explain why the negative effect of class size on achievement in our data is concentrated among low-income children.

  • 95. Fredriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Life-Cycle Effects of Age at School Start2014In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 124, no 579, p. 977-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, children typically start school the year they turn seven. We combine this school entry cutoff with individuals' birthdates to estimate effects of school starting age (SSA) on educational attainment and long-run labour market outcomes. We find that school entry age raises educational attainment and show that postponing tracking until age 16 reduces the effect of SSA on educational attainment. On average, SSA only affects the allocation of labour supply over the life-cycle and leaves prime-age earnings unaffected. But for individuals with low-educated parents, we find that prime-age earnings increase in response to age at school start.

  • 96.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Oosterbeek, Hessel
    Long-Term Effects of Class Size2013In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 128, no 1, p. 249-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and noncognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most important, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated wage effect is large enough to pass a cost-benefit test.

  • 97. Fritze, Thomas
    et al.
    Doblhammer, Gabriele
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?2014In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 119, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households.

  • 98.
    Frölich, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lechner, Michael
    Exploiting Regional Treatment Intensity for the Evaluation of Labor Market Policies2010In: Journal of the American Statistical Association, ISSN 0162-1459, E-ISSN 1537-274X, Vol. 105, no 491, p. 1014-1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of active labor market policies (ALMPs) on subsequent employment and earnings by nonparametric instrumental variable estimators. Very informative administrative Swiss data with detailed regional information are combined with exogenous regional variation in program participation probabilities to generate an instrument within well-defined local labor markets. We find that implementation of an ALMP increased individual employment probabilities by about 15% for unemployed that might be considered "marginal" participants.

  • 99. Gronqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Niknami, Susan
    Income inequality and health: Lessons from a refugee residential assignment program2012In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of income inequality on health for a group of particularly disadvantaged individuals: refugees. Our analysis draws on longitudinal hospitalization records coupled with a settlement policy where Swedish authorities assigned newly arrived refugees to their first area of residence. The policy was implemented in a way that provides a source of plausibly random variation in initial location. The results reveal no statistically significant effect of income inequality on the risk of being hospitalized. This finding holds also for most population subgroups and when separating between different types of diagnoses. Our estimates are precise enough to rule out large effects of income inequality on health.

  • 100.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindqvist, Erik
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Making of a Manager: Evidence from Military Officer Training2016In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 869-898