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  • 51.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Preparing for peace in Jerusalem1989Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rethinking Justice and Fairness: The Case of Acid Rain Emission Reductions1995In: Review of International Studies, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 119-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Securing the Peace of Jerusalem: On the Politics of Unifying and Dividing1997In: Review of International Studies, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 117-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Strategic Geography and the Changing Middle East (book review)1998Other (Other scientific)
  • 55.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Conflict Over Jerusalem: Some Palestinian Responses to Concepts of Dispute Resolution2004Book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 56.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Global Security Challenge to Negotiation: Toward the New Agenda1995In: American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 921-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the mismatch between conventional notions of negotiation and the types of approaches likely to help reduce global security threats. A serious way in which global security problems challenge traditional negotiation analysis concerns questions of justice and fairness, which underlie the major issues discussed in other contributions to this volume. Confronting these questions is imperative for both practical and ethical reasons. I argue that analyses of justice and fairness in terms of outcomes only are flawed both intellectually and practically. This is especially the case of global security problems which involve heterogeneous and asymmetrical parties, unpredictability, and a long time frame. The future research agenda must begin by examining the structure of negotiations, including the identity and representation of parties. The structure has hitherto been taken to be an objective reference on basis of which the nature of just and fair procedures, concessions, and solutions can be judged. The l992 Rio Summit and the UNCED process are among many cases which highlight the particular importance of developing external criteria to determine the standing of non-state actors and to guide reforms in existing negotiation forums and practices. This would be a significant way forward to enhance the effectiveness and perceived legitimacy of global security negotiations.

  • 57.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Many Faces of Justice in International Negotiations2015In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a wide range of roles and effects that justice can have in negotiations at the international level. It can be a source of conflict and trigger for negotiation, a referent guiding negotiations, a subject of negotiation, a tool to reach effective agreements, and a tactical tool. Justice can assume any or several of these roles in any one negotiation. This article looks at justice as a lens through which to understand what drives negotiation processes and explains different results in the international arena.

  • 58.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Freds- och konfliktforskning.
    The politics of terrorism: A contemporary survey1991In: The Politics of Terrorism: Terror as a State and Revolutionary Strategy, Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. , 1991, p. 53 (kapitlet)-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Politics of Terrorism: A contemporary survey1989In: The Politics of Terrorism: Terror as a State and Revolutionary Strategy, Johns Hopkins University Press (Washington, D.C.) , 1989, p. pp. 183-234Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 60.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The role of fairness in negotiation2006In: Negotiation: Process for Problem-Solving, Aspen Publishers , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The role of fairness in negotiation2004In: Dispute Resolution: Beyond the Adversarial Model, Aspen Publishers (Law & Business) , 2004Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Freds- och konfliktforskning.
    The role of fairness in negotiation1993In: Negotiation Journal, ISSN 0748-4526, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 223-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Role of Fairness in Negotiation2001In: Understanding Negotiation, 2001Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. freds- och konfliktforskning.
    The role of the United Nations and the United States in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Palestine problem2003In: Paper presented at international conference on “The End of Multilateralism?”, held at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 19-20 September 2003., 2003Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 65.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    To Rule Jerusalem (book review)1996Other (Other scientific)
  • 66.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Using negotiation to promote legitimacy: An assessment of proposals for reforming the WTO2007In: Research paper presented at the 10th Anniversary Conference, 'Pathways to Legitimacy? The Future of Global and Regional Governance', panel on 'The WTO and Legitimacy'. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR), University of Warwick, UK, 17-19 September 2007., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How, if at all, can negotiations be conducted to promote the legitimacy of much criticized international institutions, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO)? Can negotiation procedures be designed so as to strengthen the legitimacy of, say, the WTO as an institution and the agreements it concludes?

    Two matters are widely recognized at this stage. First, a major problem facing the WTO is one of legitimacy and a chief reason for this is its decision-making, and especially negotiation, procedures. Those used informally in ad hoc ways are particularly controversial. Secondly, these negotiation procedures, as distinct from disagreements over substantive issues, have contributed significantly to recent setbacks in WTO talks. A number of experts, including current or former WTO associates, point specifically to lack of transparency and insufficient representation of parties in negotiations as key contributors to the erosion of legitimacy, which must be tackled if the organization is to be able to operate effectively. Much quoted is the WTO’s Director-General, Pascal Lamy, for calling the organization “medieval” in its decision-making methods following the failures of the Ministerial Conferences in Seattle and Cancún, and pointing to the need for a stronger rules-based trading system: “The procedures and rules of this organisation have not supported the weight of the task....The decision-making needs to be revamped.”

    This paper brings together and reviews a variety of proposals, formal and informal, made for reforming the WTO’s negotiation procedures. It then develops an approach to procedural justice based on four main principles, which can be used to identify (recognize) the legitimacy or justice content in these proposals and to categorize and assess them accordingly. Drawing on the wealth of ideas which emerge from this analysis, it concludes by pointing to particularly promising elements of reform.

    In so doing, the paper brings research literatures on justice and negotiation to bear on current debates over the legitimacy deficit in international institutions and global governance, using the WTO as a significant case. On the more practical side, it seeks to help concretizing what more legitimate negotiation procedures may mean and require, and how their “legitimacy content” may be assessed and indeed increased. Procedural justice is here the focus and taken to be very important, but obviously the problems of the WTO – including that of legitimacy – are also about other and, to date, better known and publicized issues.

  • 67.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Using negotiation to promote legitimacy: an assessment of proposals for reforming the WTO2008In: International Affairs, ISSN 0020-5850, E-ISSN 1468-2346, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 757-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can negotiations be conducted to promote the legitimacy of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO)? Can negotiation procedures be designed so as to strengthen the WTO as an institution and the agreements it concludes? One reason for which the legitimacy of the organization is being questioned is its decision-making-especially negotiation-procedures. These have contributed significantly to recent setbacks in WTO talks. Yet proposals for procedural reform have not been subject to much discussion or review, in particular with no regard to content which may boost legitimacy. Justice and other values associated with legitimacy have generally not been addressed by trade experts, and conceptual tools for identifying what practical form their inclusion could take are lacking. This article reviews a variety of proposals, formal and informal, for reforming the WTO's negotiation procedures. It develops an approach to procedural justice which is used to identify the justice content in these proposals, based on four main principles. Drawing on this analysis, the article concludes by highlighting promising elements of reform. In so doing, it brings research literature on justice and negotiation to bear on current debates over the legitimacy deficit in international institutions, using the WTO as a significant case. More practically, the article helps to identify what more legitimate negotiation procedures may mean and require, and how their justice content may be assessed and increased.

  • 68.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    When the weak confront the strong: Justice, fairness and power in the Israel-PLO interim talks1999In: International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice, ISSN 1382-340X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 327-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most international negotiations involve asymmetrical parties, and raise issues of justice and fairness at different stages. This article is an empirical analysis of the role played by ethical conceptions and stark power inequalities in the Israel-PLO interim talks from 1993 to 1997. It focuses on the negotiations over water resources and economic relations. Israel's superior bargaining strength ensured that the country's security interests and notions of fairness influenced the process substantially. However, the negotiations cannot be understood merely in terms of the distribution of power between the two sides. The costs of failing to reach an agreement meant that Israeli negotiators had to concede to certain Palestinian demands and conceptions of fairness. The serious charges of injustice and unfairness have emerged in the implementation phase, owing more to developments on the ground than dissatisfaction with the terms of the interim agreements per se.

    This case challenges two dominant approaches to justice and fairness in negotiation: the idea that parties define negotiated agreements as just irrespective of their power relations, and the notion that there can be no role for ethical considerations when the weak must confront the strong. It demonstrates moreover that conceptions of justice and fairness can serve as both external referents which guide the negotiations, and be subject to bargaining themselves.

  • 69.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Why Do International Negotiations Fail? Strategic causes2005In: Why International Negotiations Fail, Processes of International Negotiation Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Osterrike, 8-9 juli 2005., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Bargaining over Weapons: Justice and Effectiveness in Arms Control Negotiations2014In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 426-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between justice and effectiveness in bilateral and multilateral arms control negotiations. A set of hypotheses, derived from earlier research about the impacts of procedural and distributive justice on negotiation outcomes is evaluated. The sample consists of twenty cases, ten bilateral and ten multilateral. The results of statistical analyses show strong effects of procedural justice on the effectiveness of bilateral, but not multilateral, negotiations. Further analyses indicate that the effects are largely accounted for by half of the bilateral cases. Case-by-case analyses reveal some of the conditions that explain the correlation between pj principles and effective outcomes. Distributive justice correlated with more substantial agreements in the multilateral cases. Reasons for the limited effects of procedural justice on multilateral outcomes are discussed. The article concludes with more general implications and suggestions for further research.

  • 71.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala University. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    Distributive Justice and the Durability of Negotiated Agreements2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between principles of justice and the durability of negotiated agreements. Focusing primarily on peace agreements negotiated during the early 1990s, the study provides evidence for a relationship.

    Sixteen peace agreements were coded for the centrality of each of four principles of distributive justice – equality, proportionality, compensation, and need. The agreements were also judged on scales of durability and implementation over a five-year post-settlement period. Two other variables included in the analysis were the difficulty of the conflict environment and the willingness of international actors to be involved in the conflict. A modest correlation between justice and durability raised questions about the relationship. Further analyses showed that this correlation was accounted for by three anomalous cases, Rwanda, Somalia, and El Salvador.

    A closer look at these cases led to a refinement of the coding decisions. The re-calculated correlations showed a stronger relationship between justice and durability, even when the effects of difficulty were controlled. Further support for a relationship was obtained from a focused comparison of selected cases matched on difficulty (Bosnia and Cambodia [high difficulty]; Guatemala and El Salvador [low difficulty]). The results suggest that when many principles of justice are included in an agreement, the negative effects of difficult conflict environments are reduced. When only a few principles are included, the negative effects of difficulty are heightened. Implications of these findings are discussed along with a number of ideas for further research.

  • 72.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Distributive justice and the durability of peace agreements2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Distributive justice and the durability of peace agreements2011In: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 1137-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between principles of distributive justice (DJ) and the durability of negotiated agreements. Sixteen peace agreements negotiated during the early 1990s were coded for the centrality of each of four principles of DJ – equality, proportionality, compensation, and need – to the core terms of the agreement. The agreements were also assessed on scales of implementation and durability over a five-year period. Another variable included in the analysis was the difficulty of the conflict environment. These data were used to evaluate three sets of hypotheses: the relationship between DJ and durability, the role of the conflict environment, and types of DJ principles. The results obtained from both statistical and focused-comparison analyses indicate that DJ moderates the relationship between conflict environments and outcomes: when principles of justice are central to an agreement, the negative effects of difficult conflict environments are reduced; when principles are not central, the negative effects of difficulty are heightened. These relationships are accounted for primarily by one of the four DJ principles – equality. Implications of these findings are discussed along with a number of ideas for further research.

  • 74.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Equality matters: Negotiating an end to civil wars2012In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 155-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores relationships between procedural justice (PJ) in the negotiation process, distributive justice (DJ) in the terms of negotiated agreements, and their durability in cases of civil war. Adherence to PJ principles was found to correlate strongly with agreements based specifically on the DJ principle of equality. Agreements were also found to be more durable when based on equality, but not when based on other DJ principles. The equality principle accounted for the relationship between PJ and durability irrespective of differences between the parties in power. Further examination suggested that two types of equality in particular-equal treatment and equal shares-were associated with forward-looking agreements and high durability. The findings suggest that durability is served by including equality in the terms of agreements, and that PJ helps (but does not guarantee) achieving such agreements.

  • 75.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Explaining the Durability of Peace Agreements2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University.
    Justice and effectiveness in international negotiations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University Fairfax USA; Macquarie University Sydney Australia; University of Queensland Brisbane Australia.
    Negotiating effectively: Justice in international environmental negotiations2017In: Group Decision and Negotiation, ISSN 0926-2644, E-ISSN 1572-9907, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are negotiators who rely on justice principles in the process of bargain- ing and drafting agreements more—or rather less—effective than others? This article examines whether adherence to principles of procedural and distributive justice in negotiations contributes to more effective results, with a focus on international envi- ronmental negotiations. Effectiveness is defined in terms of the extent of agreement (among parties and on issues), time to reach agreement, and comprehensiveness of the agreement. A set of hypotheses is evaluated on a selection of bilateral and mul- tilateral cases of environmental negotiations, using statistical methods. The analyses reveal that adherence to principles of procedural justice contributes to more effective results in multilateral environmental negotiations. These principles are found to hin- der effectiveness in the bilateral cases. On the other hand, adherence to principles of distributive justice is only moderately related to effectiveness in both the bilateral and multilateral cases. 

  • 78.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Procedures matter:  Justice and effectiveness in international trade negotiations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Procedures matter: Justice and effectiveness in international trade negotiations2014In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1014-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International negotiators have faced repeated stalemates in a number of significant areas. Justice issues are at the heart of the matter in many cases, as vividly illustrated by trade negotiations, particularly at the multilateral level. Yet, issues of justice have received limited attention in research on trade negotiation. This article asks: do trade negotiators who take justice principles into account arrive at more effective agreements? Specifically, it explores relationships between two types of justice during the negotiation process — procedural and distributive justice — and the effectiveness of outcomes (agreements) in 22 cases of bilateral and multilateral international trade negotiation. It evaluates the impacts of these types of justice on negotiation effectiveness. The results from analyses clearly demonstrate that procedural justice plays a central role in contributing to effective outcomes in both bilateral and multilateral trade cases. The correlations between procedural justice and effectiveness are very strong, and significantly stronger than between distributive justice and effectiveness. Moreover, distributive justice impacts upon effectiveness only when procedural justice principles are observed. These findings contribute knowledge about factors that enhance effective outcomes in international negotiations. They extend earlier work on justice in peace agreements and fill a gap in the research literature. They also provide advice for negotiators, and add important questions to the future research agenda.

  • 80.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    The Role of Equality in Negotiation and Sustainable Peace2012In: Psychological Components of a Sustainable Peace / [ed] Peter Coleman, Morton Deutsch, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 131-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    The Role of Justice in Negotiation2010In: Handbook of Group Decision and Negotiation / [ed] D. Marc Kilgour and Colin Eden, Springer Publishers , 2010, p. 109-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the role of justice in negotiation between rival parties and the durability of peace agreements. It draws on research about group negotiation processes and agreements to end civil wars, mostly during the early 1990s. Hypothesized relationships between the presence and importance of distributive justice (DJ) in the agreements, and their durability, were first explored with multiple methods (see also the chapter by Koeszegi and Vetschera, this volume). The difficulty of the conflict environment was shown to have the strongest impact on durability. However, the DJ principle of equality was found to reduce the negative impact of difficult environments. An emphasis on equality was also associated with more forward-looking agreements, which were found to be more durable than those that were backward looking. (See also the chapters by Nurmi, Klamber, Kilgour and Hipel, Turel, and Yuan, this volume for modeling approaches to issues of justice and fairness.) Next, the presence and importance of procedural justice (PJ) were examined in the negotiation processes that led to the signing of the peace agreements. Significantly more durable agreements occurred when a process based on PJ led to agreements that emphasized equality. This focus on process is similar to the analyses conducted by the authors chapters (See also the chapter by Koeszegi and Vetschera, Kersten and Lai, this volume). A close examination of how the equality principle was applied revealed that agreements based on provisions of equal treatment and/or equal shares were particularly durable. The chapter concludes with a discussion of tactics used by third parties to produce durable agreements, and lessons for policy.

  • 82.
    Albin, Cecilia et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Multilateral Trade Regime: Which Way Forward? The Report of the First Warwick Commission2007Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This Report examines how the multilateral trade regime can better serve the global community. It does so by asking if the sustained and uneven transformation of the global economy, with the associated rise of new powers, heightened aspirations, and considerable pockets of societal discontent, require a reconsideration of the principles and practices that currently guide the multilateral trade regime, the core of which is the World Trade Organization (WTO).

    Having considered this question, the Warwick Commission sees five challenges facing the multilateral trade regime – challenges that can be addressed more effectively than at present if the steps proposed here are taken. Our approach is guided as much by the practical realities of the contemporary trading regime as it is informed by analyses of long-term trends and national and regional circumstances.

    We recognise – and indeed owe a debt to – prior reports on the multilateral trade regime.The Warwick Commission Report is entirely independent and its only institutional link is with the University of Warwick. We believe our Report offers fresh perspectives on the future trajectory of a critical element of global governance – the management of global trade relations. We do not claim originality for all our recommendations. Where we have not been original it is because we are convinced that some old ideas are badly in need of resurrection in the face of current challenges confronting the multilateral trade regime. Moreover, not all our recommendations carry equal weight in terms of their impact on the system, were they to be adopted.

    Five challenges must be met if the multilateral trade regime is to succeed in the early 21st century. These challenges are distinct yet often related, and we do not seek to prioritise them. Taken together, they arise from several sources: national political dynamics, global economic developments and inter-state diplomacy. The five core challenges we identify are as follows:

    The first challenge is to counter growing opposition to further multilateral trade liberalisation in industrialised countries. This tendency threatens to render further reciprocal opening of markets unduly limited and to weaken a valuable instrument of international economic cooperation.

    That the bipolar global trade regime dominated primarily by the United States and Western Europe has given way to a multipolar alternative is now an established fact. The second challenge is to ensure that this evolving configuration does not lapse into longer term stalemate or worse, disengagement.

    In this changing environment, the third challenge is to forge a broad-based agreement among the membership about the WTO’s objectives and functions, which in turn will effectively define the “boundaries” of the WTO.

    The fourth challenge is to ensure that the WTO’s many agreements and procedures result in benefits for its weakest Members. This requires that the membership addresses the relationships between current trade rules and fairness, justice, and development.

    The fifth challenge relates to the proliferation of preferential trading agreements and what steps can be taken to ensure that the considerable momentum behind these initiatives can be eventually channelled to advance the long-standing principles of non-discrimination and transparency in international commerce.

    An integrated, comprehensive and systemic response is called for; key elements of which are discussed in the Report. A recurring theme in a number of our recommendations is the need for stakeholders in the trading system to permit themselves the time and space to take a step back from negotiating, litigating and running the daily business of trade policy in order to reflect on how they would like to see the trade regime evolve over the next few years. An inter-governmental ‘reflection exercise’ of this nature would seek to identify diverse needs and common interests, and to inject greater legitimacy, order and dynamism into the multilateral trade regime. Reflection and dynamism are not contradictory terms. An inter-governmental reflection exercise, we believe, would be best instigated sooner rather than later.

  • 83.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hall, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Swanström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    International Negotiation: Theories and Practices2009In: Peace, Justice, and Security Studies: A Curriculum Guide / [ed] Timothy A. McElwee, B. Welling Hall, Joseph Liechty, and Julie Garber, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher , 2009, 7, p. 321-327Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Jarblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Sustained Dialogue Approach: Harold H. Saunders2012In: Ways Out of War: Peacemakers in the Middle East and Balkans / [ed] Mona Fixdal, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 53-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Martinez, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Preparing the table for success - or failure?: Agenda management in the WTO2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Freds- och konfliktforskning (endast Cecilia Albin).
    Saunders, Harold H.
    Sinai II: The Politics of International Mediation, 1974-19751993Book (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Siniora, Hanna
    Amirav, Moshe
    Jerusalem: An Undivided City as Dual Capital1992Other (Other scientific)
  • 88.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Young, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Setting the Table for Success - or Failure?: Agenda Management in the WTO2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 37-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the agenda management process influence the effectiveness of multilateral trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How can the all-important agenda be shaped so as to enhance the prospects of an agreement being reached? How the agenda is managed directly affects the negotiation process which follows and the eventual outcome. Yet researchers have paid little attention to the particular dynamics and challenges of agenda management in large-scale multilateral negotiations, and actual practice points to several weaknesses. This article proposes that the complexity of the agenda in multilateral talks needs to be managed and reduced in procedurally just ways if a successful outcome (agreement) is to result. It develops an analytical framework of agenda management in multilateral negotiations and conducts a structured focused comparison to explain the differences in outcomes of two rounds of WTO negotiations: the failure of the 2003 Cancún Ministerial Conference and the success of the 2004 Geneva negotiations in reaching an agreement. The findings support the proposition that a successful outcome depends in part on reducing agenda complexity and that this needs to be achieved in procedurally acceptable (if not just) ways.

  • 89.
    Alhström, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Amer, Ramses
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Hagelin, Björn
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Heldt, Birger
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Karin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nordquist, Kjell-Åke
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wiberg, Håkan
    States in Armed Conflict 19891990Report (Other scientific)
  • 90.
    Ali, Amr
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Pro-Government Interventions and Civil Wars: Examining Legitimacy-focused Pro-Government Interventions in Asymmetric Civil Wars2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    External unilateral intervention in civil wars has been always a subject of interest in international relations, especially during the Cold War and after the Bosnian civil war. Unilateral interventions have come to the surface again with recent examples in Syria, Yemen, Ukraine, and Libya. This research examines the relation between pro-government intervention and governmental victory in civil wars. Previous studies of external interventions in civil wars point to the limited effect of external intervention in promoting governmental victory. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the conditions that lead pro-government interventions to bring about victory for the government in civil wars. Borrowing from the recent literature on both counterinsurgency and the limitation of military power in civil wars, this thesis provides a new theoretical framework in which it connects governmental victory in asymmetric wars with an increase it its legitimacy. I argue that if the third-party helps the government increases its legitimacy, governmental victory could be materialized. I constructed a structured focused comparison on the Omani Civil War (Dhofar War) in which I compared between “before and after” the introduction of legitimacy-focused pro-government intervention. The result of the study is inconclusive, but still points towards the relevancy of the causal mechanism connecting between legitimacy-focused pro-government intervention and governmental victory.

  • 91.
    Al-Kadhi, Avan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Survival of the Supported: An Analysis of Secondary Support and the Duration of Intrastate Armed Conflicts2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explain how the involvement of secondary parties affect the duration of intrastate armedconflicts. It argues that the acquisition of secondary support in favor of rebel groups is likely to lead to an extended duration of intrastate armed conflict. By granting a relatively weaker rebel group secondary support, a secondary party ought to directly alter the balance of power and capabilities in benefit for the rebels. The secondary party could thereby be able to level the balance of capabilities between a government and a rebel group, creating a situation in which the, at first, stronger government now have to face a rebel group capable of surviving longer. Using a structured focused comparison on two cases, the results find secondary support in the form of funding or economic support given to relatively weak rebels to be an important influence on extending the duration of intrastate armed conflicts. Nonetheless, further research might have to be made in order to fully understand the even more detailed mechanisms behind the strong influences of economic secondary support on conflict duration.

  • 92.
    Al-Kadhi, Avan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Price of Prosperity: Investigating Oil Dependence, Ethnic Group Characteristics, and Civil Armed Conflict2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explain why some groups experience civil armed conflict over oil whilst others do not. Given the context argued by previous research which asserts that State oil-dependence significantly increases the risk for civil armed conflict onset, I hypothesize that group actors are likely to experience civil armed conflict over oil when they possess strong group organizational capabilities. I argue this because group actors who do not possess the military resources to go to war would rationally not do it considering the relatively low chance of success of resource-less war-waging. While State oil-dependence theoretically provides group actors with reasons and opportunities to fight by generating greed and grievances, greed and grievances alone are not able to provide the fighting capacity needed for a group to initiate civil war over oil. This implies a need for the group actor to be well-organized in order to have the capabilities to go to war over oil. This study employs a structured focused comparison of four empirical cases, and finds that group actors are likely to experience civil armed conflict over oil when they possess high levels of ethnic homogeneity and pre-existing organizational history.

  • 93.
    Allansson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Baumann, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Taub, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The first year of the Arab Spring2012In: SIPRI Yearbook 2012: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 45-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2011 uprisings in the Arab world came as a surprise to most observers. While successive Arab Human Development Reports had identified lingering problems affecting the Arab regimes—including inequality, lack of economic development, low levels of participation in policy formation and the marginalization of women—few experts expected either the series of mass revolts that were carried out with such persistence and with such a global impact or the increasing use of violence to suppress them.

  • 94.
    Allansson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Themnér, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Organized violence, 1989-20162017In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 574-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dramatic increase in the number of fatalities in organized violence, seen between 2011 and 2014, did not continue in 2015 and 2016. Rather, the notation of some 131,000 fatalities in 2014 was followed by a steep decline, with just below 119,000 in 2015 and a little over 102,000 fatalities in 2016. Despite the decrease, the number was the fifth highest during the entire 1989-2016 period. Most of the fatalities - over 87,000 - were incurred in state-based conflicts, the main driver behind the trend. Just as the number of fatalities, the number of state-based conflicts, albeit remaining on a high level, continued to decrease in 2016, going from 52 to 49, with 12 of them reaching the level of war, with at least 1,000 battle-related deaths. Also the non-state conflicts dropped in number in 2016, from 73 to 60. This was followed by a decrease in the number of fatalities, and only one conflict caused more than 1,000 deaths. Twenty-one actors were registered in one-sided violence, down by five from 2015. A number this low has only been recorded twice before; in both 2009 and 2010, 21 one-sided actors were listed in UCDP data. The number of fatalities also decreased, going from almost 9,800 to a little over 6,000.

  • 95.
    Allansson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sollenberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Themnér, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Armed conflict in the wake of the Arab Spring2013In: SIPRI Yearbook: armaments, disarmament and international security. 2013, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Altebo, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Political Ideas and Behaviour of Armed Groups: A comparative analysis of armed groups’ ideology and repertoires of sexual violence during the conflict in Darfur 2003-20062017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to study under what conditions armed groups practice different repertoires of sexual violence, by studying ideology’s influence on behaviour. This will be explored through a structured focused comparison of three armed groups active in the conflict in Darfur 2003-2006, the Janjaweed, Sudan’s Liberation Army/Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement. The theory suggest that a strong implemented ideology will lead to control over behaviour and values, hence sexual violence will be practice in line with organizational objectives and ideas, either instrumental or not practiced at all. Consequently, a weak ideological framework will lead to variation in socialization processes and an opportunistic repertoire.  The findings correlate as expected by the hypothesis, while data constraints call for caution. The results suggests a broadening of the theoretical framework as well as further studies on the suggested causal mechanism, combatant socialization, to examine how, and under what circumstances, behaviours are spread as a social practice among combatants.

  • 97.
    Alvarado Cobar, Jose Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Unequal and Violent: Post-conflict Contexts for Women: A study on the consequences of fragmentation of the women's movement during peace processes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has not fully addressed the causal processes embedded in participation of women’s groups in peace processes, and the potential outcomes achieved by their participation. This thesis seeks to contribute to this topic by analyzing the research question under what conditions do peace processes contribute to unequal and dangerous societies for women? And the theorized relationship is that ‘the presence of fragmentation of the women’s movement during peace negotiations tends to result in higher prevalence of inequality and violence against women in post-conflict societies’, because fragmentation will contribute to upholding patriarchal norms that facilitate violence towards women through portraying men as top-dogs and women as under-dogs. Structured Focused Comparison is the method used, and questionnaires are developed for fragmentation and post-conflict inequality and violence against women. Two cases are studied and compared: Guatemala and Chiapas in Mexico. The findings show very little support for the hypothesis, although the results are inconclusive.

  • 98.
    Amer, Rames
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Cambodia and its Vietnamese Minority, Foreign Relations, Nationalism, Domestic Politics and Minority Rights1999In: International Workshop on Southeast Asian Studies, No. 14 on "Nationalism and Particularism in Present-day South-East Asia", Leiden, 1999Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 99.
    Amer, Rames
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Expanding ASEAN as Constructive Engagement and Constructive Engagement1998In: Second International Conference of the European Association of South-East ASian Studies (EUROSEAS), Hamburg, 1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 100.
    Amer, Rames
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Expanding ASEAN's Conflict Management Framework in Southeast Asia: The Border Dispute Dimension1998In: International Conference on "Southeast Asia in the 20th Century", Diliman, Quezon City, 1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
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