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  • 51.
    Coello, Zairis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Halldin, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rivera, Mario
    Unah, Tegucigalpa.
    Basic requirements for water management of Tegucigalpa2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52. Dahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Wilson, David I.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    A combined suspended particle and phosphorus water quality model: Application to Lake Vänern.2006In: Ecological Modelling, Vol. 190, p. 55-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53. De Bruin, Henk
    et al.
    Meijninger, Will
    Smedman, Ann-Sofi
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Test of a displaced-bea, small aperture scientillometer.The WINTEX data set, a comparison with a hot-film system2002In: Bound.-Layer Meteorol., Vol. 105, no 1, p. 129-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54. Dean, D.W.
    et al.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Turner, A.
    Russel, T.F.
    Stochastic approach for modelling DNAPL migration in heterogeneous aquifers: model development and experimental data generation2004In: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting: December 13 - 17, 2004, San Francisco, California, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55. Diosana, Joseph A.L.
    et al.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vatten (LUVA).
    Strategies on reducing mercury use and exposure in small-scale gold mining -- experiences from Mt Diwata, the Philippines.2006In: Abstracts of Eighth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, 2006, p. 574-Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of gold 1983 in the unpopulated Mt Diwata, the Philippines, resulted in that the mountain within a few years became populated with up to 200 000 persons, making their living from gold extraction. The methods used, amalgamation with mercury and cyanide leaching with rudimentary equipment, result in large emissions of mercury and cyanide and related deterioration of environment and health. Our objective is to relate

    observations made in 2005 in relation to mercury supply and use in Mt Diwata and propose possible actions to reduce the deterioration of health and environment. There are no reliable records on Hg actually used or emitted in Mt Diwata. In 2004, the

    Environmental Management Bureau in Davao City certified 367 tonnes Hg for the enduse of mining in Mt Diwata. The quantities actually used were much smaller, but not registered. Sales from authorized Hg dealers in neighboring cities and smuggled Hg, notably via Indonesia, complicates the inventory. Based on documents, interviews, package labels, and quantities of gold extracted, the following observations were made.

    The consumption of Hg for gold mining has decreased by up to 50% since 2003 as a result of the increased Hg price. Still, more than 10 t Hg is annually used for gold mining in Mt Diwata. A significant fraction of this originates from the EU, notably the Spanish state company MAYASA. The continued use of Hg is not technically or economicly motivated, because amalgamation recovers only a minor part of the gold available, resulting in subsequent cyanide treatment of the ore. Moreover, the cyanide leaching is less efficient on amalgamated ores. Magnetic sluices could replace Hg for partial recovery of gold before submission of the ore to an environmentally adapted cyanidation process. Economic means in form of credits are necessary to permit investment in safer cyanidation equipment. Information is needed to the miners about safer extraction methods and a general use of retorts could reduce but not eliminate hazardous mercury exposure. Restricting the present Hg supplies from Spain and other countries of the EU and from the USA would intensify the transition to Hg free gold mining methods.

  • 56. Dirmeyer, P.
    et al.
    Feddes, R.A.
    Hall, F.G.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära.
    Hoff, H.
    Houser, P.
    Hutjes, R.W.A.
    Jenne, R.
    Leese, J.
    Kittel, T.
    Meeson, W.M.
    Olson, R.J.
    Phillips, T.
    Pitman, A.J.
    Takahashi, K.
    Verdin, K.
    The value of land surface data consolidation. Existing degrees of consolidation.2004In: Vegetation, Water, Humans and Climate. A New Perspective on an Interactive System.: A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle., Springer Verlag: Berlin-New York , 2004, p. 355-369Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57. Dirmeyer, P.
    et al.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Hoff, H.
    Hutjes, R.W.A.
    Jenne, R.
    Kabat, P.
    Leese, J.
    Olson, R.J.
    Polcher, J.
    The value of land surface data consolidation. Achieving full consolidation.2004In: Vegetation, Water, Humans and Climate. A New Perspective on an Interactive System.: A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle., Springer Verlag: Berlin-New York , 2004, p. 370-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 58. Du, J.
    et al.
    Xie, H.
    Hu, Y.
    Xu, Y. P.
    Zhou, Y. K.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Storm runoff simulation based on the spatially distributed runoff curve number and time variant routing methods2007In: Methodology in Hydrology: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Methodology in Hydrology held in Nanjing, China, October–November 2005 / [ed] Liliang Ren, Wallingford, England: IAHS , 2007, p. 186-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a GIS-based, simple and easily performed modelling approach was proposed to simulate storm runoff response processes with consideration of spatial and temporal variability of runoff generation and flow routing through the hillslope and river network. The watershed was discretized into grid cells, and the river network was delineated from the DEM by use of GIS. In the modelling approach, the US Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method in its differential form was used to calculate surface runoff (or excess rainfall) for each grid cell. The surface runoff was then routed to the watershed outlet using an improved spatially distributed travel time method. The approach was applied to simulate eight storm runoff events in the Jiaokou Reservoir watershed, a sub-basin of the Yongjiang River basin in southeast China. The results showed that the proposed approach predicted the runoff processes with an average efficiency of 0.94.

  • 59. Du, Jinkang
    et al.
    Xie, Shunpeng
    Xu, Youpeng.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Singh, Vijay P
    Development and testing of a simple physically-based distributed rainfall-runoff model for storm runoff simulation in humid forested basins2007In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 336, no 3-4, p. 334-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to predict storm runoff from humid forested catchments. The model is physically based and takes into account the saturation excess overland flow mechanism and preferential subsurface flow. The watershed is discretized into a number of square grids, which then are classified into overland flow and channel flow elements based on water flow properties. On the overland elements, Infiltration, overland flow and lateral subsurface flow are estimated, while on channel flow elements river flow routing is performed. Lateral subsurface flow is calculated using Darcy’s law and the continuity equation, whereas overland flow and channel flow are modeled using a one dimensional kinematic wave approximation to the St. Venant equations. The model governing equations are solved by an implicit finite difference scheme. While using process-based equations and physically meaningful parameters, the model still maintains a relatively simple structure. Most of the model parameters can be derived from digital elevation models (DEMs), digital soil and land use data, and the remainder of the parameters that are comparatively sensitive can be determined by model calibration. The model is tested using nine storm events in the Jiaokou watershed, a sub-basin of Yongjiang River in Zhejiang Province, China. Of these storms, one storm is used for calibrating the model parameters and the remaining eight storms are used to verify the model. When judged by the model efficiency coefficient (R2), volume conversation index (VCI), absolute error of the time to peak (ΔT), and relative error of the peak flow rate (δPmax), acceptable results are achieved. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is sensitive to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), Manning’s roughness coefficients (n) and the initial soil moisture content.

  • 60. Döscher, Ralf
    et al.
    Willen, Ulrika
    Jones, Colin
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Meier, H.E.M
    Hansson, Ulf
    Graham, L.P.
    The development of the coupled regional ocean-atmosphere model RCAO2002In: Boreal Environment Research, no 7, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61. Engeland, K.
    et al.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gottschalk, L.
    Assessing uncertainties in a conceptual water balance model using Bayesian methodology2005In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Esau, Igor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    The Coriolis effect on coherent structures in planetary boundary layers2003In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 4, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherent structures are often visible in atmospheric boundary layers as convective clouds and irregular fog. Large eddy simulations (LES) provide data to study the coherent structures by means of multivariate methods of statistical analysis. One of such methods is a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). A POD can isolate most energetic three-dimensional structures in turbulent boundary layers. Coherent structures in planetary boundary layers (PBLs) were found to be inherently different from those in laboratory boundary layers without background rotation. This study attributes the differences to an interaction between the vorticity of coherent structures and the constant background vorticity of the planet rotation. LES of neutrally stratified PBLs clearly show the Coriolis force effect. The Coriolis effect supports vortices with vorticity parallel to the planetary vorticity. Simultaneously, the Coriolis effect destroys vortices with vorticity counter-parallel to the planetary vorticity. Convective PBLs show an interplay of vorticities of shear- and buoyancy-induced coherent structures. The Coriolis effect is less important in convective PBLs in comparison with neutral PBLs. The horizontal and vertical components of the Coriolis force act in essentially different ways. The vertical component mainly damps the coherent structures. It also turns the structures relative to the geostrophic wind. The horizontal component mainly makes the structures asymmetrical.

  • 63.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Experimental investigation of NAPL migration and source zone formation in saturated heterogeneous media2005In: Hydrology Days, March 7 – 9, 2005, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract
  • 64.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    NAPL migration and source zone formation in layered heterogeneous media2005In: Workshop on: Upscaling Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: July 11 – 13, 2005, Zeist, The Netherlands, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 65.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Modeling of NAPL source zone formation in stochastically heterogeneous layered media – a comparison with experimental results.2006In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2006.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, May 1-17, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 66.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Multi-constituent modelling of a gasoline spill using the T2VOC numerical simulator2003In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2003: May 12–14, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 67. Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Modeling NAPL migration in heterogeneous media: Effects of hysteresis and fluid immobility in constitutive relations2007In: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Multiscale Nonlinear Systems: June 25-29, 2007. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 68. Faulkner, H.
    et al.
    Parker, D.
    Green, C.
    Beven, Keith J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Developing a translational discourse to communicate uncertainty in flood risk between science and the practitioner2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 692-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The language and tools of risk and uncertainty estimation in flood risk management (FRM) are rarely optimized for the extant communication challenge. This paper develops the rationale for a pragmatic semiotics of risk communication between scientists developing flood models and forecasts and those professional groups who are the receptors for flood risk estimates and warnings in the UK. The current barriers to effective communication and the constraints involved in the formation of a communication language are explored, focusing on the role of the professional's agenda or “mission” in creating or reducing those constraints. The tools available for the development of this discourse, for both flood warnings in real time and generalized FRM communications, are outlined. It is argued that the contested ownership of the articulation of uncertainties embedded in flood risk communications could be reduced by the development of a formally structured translational discourse between science and professionals in FRM, through which process “codes of practice” for uncertainty estimation in different application areas can be developed. Ways in which this might take place in an institutional context are considered.

  • 69. Fiedorczuk, Jan
    et al.
    Bratlund, Bodil
    Kolstrup, Else
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Schild, Romuald
    Late Magdalenian feminine flint plaquettes from Poland2007In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 81, no 311, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remains of a hunting site dated to 15000 years ago, captured in an ice wedge, included woolly rhinoceros, horse and arctic fox. Also present were 30 flint plaquettes with curvy feminine outlines. The authors show that these unworn flint profiles can be assigned to a canon of Magdalenian art that extends over much of northern Europe.

  • 70. Frogner Kockum, Paul
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gislason, S.R.
    A diverse ecosystem response to volcanic aerosols2006In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 231, no 1-2, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpectedly high aluminium concentrations beside fluoride and essential elements are released from metal salts adsorbed to volcanic ash. Through simulation of the mixing of pristine volcanic ash leachate with fresh water and seawater using PHREEQC, we found an increased potential toxicity in fresh waters through the combination of high aluminium and fluoride concentrations. Owing to the mixing of acid ash leachate with fresh water, aluminofluoride complexes (AlFx+ 3−x) persist in aqueous systems with low turnover rates, and could be toxic to both plants and animals. In contrast, due to the well-buffered and relatively high pH in seawater, the speciation of the ash leachate/seawater mixture shows that complexes of fluoride and aluminium (i.e. AlFx+ 3−x) will not dominate in a well-mixed marine system; instead, Al(OH)x+ 3−x species will occur at greatest concentration. Consequently, compared with fresh water environments, the mixing of ash leachate with seawater indicates reduced toxic effects due to decreased formation of AlFx+ 3−x complexes and the low solubility of Al-hydroxides. In addition, the deposition of volcanic aerosols may enhance biological activity in the marine environment by providing micronutrients as some oceanic phytoplankton species tolerates extreme concentrations of fluoride (F).

  • 71. Frogner, P.C.
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gislason, S.R.
    Al-F toxicity contributes to ecosystem stress and species decline following large–scale volcanism2004In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 68, no 11 Suppl S, p. A147-A147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72. Gallart, F.
    et al.
    Latron, J.
    Llorens, P.
    Beven, Keith J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Using internal catchment information to reduce the uncertainty of discharge and baseflow prediction2007In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 808-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semi-distributed hydrological model TOPMODEL was tested with data from the Can Vila research basin (Vallcebre) in order to verify its adequacy for simulating runoff and the relative contributions from saturated overland flow and groundwater flow. After a test of the overall performance of the model, only data from a wet period were selected for this work. The test was performed using the GLUE method. The model was conditioned on continuous discharge and water table records. Furthermore, point measurements of recession flow simultaneous with water table depth and the extent of saturated areas were used to condition the distributions of the more relevant parameters, using new or updated evaluation measures. A wide range of parameter sets provided acceptable results for flow simulation when the model was conditioned on flow data alone, and the uncertainty of prediction of the contribution from groundwater was extremely large. However, conditioning on water table records and the distribution of parameters obtained from point observations strongly reduced the uncertainty of predictions for both stream flow and groundwater contribution.

  • 73. Gallego, E.
    et al.
    Brittain, J.E.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Sciences.
    Heling, R.
    Hofman, D.
    Monte, L.
    MOIRA: A Computerised Decision Support System for the Management of Radionuclide Contaminated Freshwater Ecosystems.2004In: Radioprotection, ISSN ISSN-0874-7016, Vol. 98, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74. Ganander, Hans
    et al.
    Dahlman, S.
    Ronsten, Göran
    Bergström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Medium term evaluation of meteorological conditions, power performance and loads on the first Swedish offshore wind farm at Bockstigen2001In: EWEA Special Topic Offshore Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 10-12 December 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 75. Gao, G.
    et al.
    Chen, D.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Simelton, E.
    Trend of estimated actual evapotranspiration over China during 1960-20022007In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 112, no D11, p. D11120-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the water balance methodology introduced by Thornthwaite and Mather (1955) is modified to estimate monthly actual evapotranspiration for 686 stations over China during 1960–2002. The modification is done by replacing the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration estimation with the Penman-Monteith method. Temporal trend and spatial distribution of the estimated annual actual evapotranspiration during the past 43 years are analyzed. The results show that (1) the actual evapotranspiration had a decreasing trend in most areas east of 100°E, and there was an increasing trend in the west and the north parts of northeast China; (2) the spatial distribution of the trend for the actual evapotranspiration is similar to that of the potential evapotranspiration in south China, while the trends are opposite in north China; (3) for most parts of China, the change in precipitation played a key role for the change of estimated actual evapotranspiration, while in southeast China, the change of potential evapotranspiration appeared to be the major factor; and (4) in general, the hydrological cycle was intensified in western China, whereas it was weakened from the Yellow River basin northward.

  • 76. Gao, G.
    et al.
    Gong, Lebing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Zhao, S.
    Spatial interpolation of daily precipitation in the Three Gorges area2005In: Precipitation-Induced Geologic Hazard in the Changjiang Three Gorges Area / [ed] Ye D, China Meteorological Press, Beijing, China , 2005, p. 86-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77. Gleisner, Magdalena
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Microbial pyrite oxidation at various oxygen partial pressures2004In: Abstracts of the V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, 2004, p. A146-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78. Gleisner, Magdalena
    et al.
    Herbert, Roger
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vattenlära.
    Pyrite oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen2006In: Chemical geology, Vol. 225, p. 16-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Gong, Lebing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Chen, D.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Chen, Yongqin David
    Sensitivity of the Penman–Monteith reference evapotranspiration to key climatic variables in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) basin2006In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 329, no 3-4, p. 620-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitivity analysis is important in understanding the relative importance of climatic variables to the variation of reference evapotranspiration (ETref). In this study, a non-dimensional relative sensitivity coefficient was employed to predict responses of ETref to perturbations of four climatic variables in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) basin. ETref was estimated with the FAO-56 Penman–Monteith equation. A 41-year historical dataset of daily air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and daily sunshine duration at 150 national meteorological observatory stations was used in the analysis. Results show that the response of ETref can be precisely predicted under perturbation of relative humidity or shortwave radiation by their sensitivity coefficients; the predictive power under perturbations of air temperature and wind speed depended on the magnitude of the perturbation, season and region. The prediction errors were much smaller than the seasonal and regional variation of their sensitivity coefficients. The sensitivity coefficient could also be used to predict the response of ETref to co-perturbation of several variables. The accuracy of the prediction increases from the lower to the upper region. Spatial variations of long-term average monthly and yearly sensitivity coefficients were obtained by interpolation of station estimates. In general, relative humidity was the most sensitive variable, followed by shortwave radiation, air temperature and wind speed. The actual rank of the four climatic variables in terms of their sensitivity varied with season and region. The large spatial variability of the sensitivity coefficients of all the climatic variables in the middle and lower regions of the basin was to a large extent determined by the distinct wind-speed patterns in those two regions.

  • 80.
    Gong, Lebing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Chen, D. L.
    Spatial interpolation and analyses of reference evapotranspiration and its temporal trends in Changjiang (Yangtze River) Catchment, China2005In: Geophysical Research Abstracts 7, 2005, p. 04875-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Grip, Harald
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Rodhe, Allan
    Vattnets väg från regn till bäck2000Book (Other scientific)
  • 82.
    Guerrero, José-Luis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Xu, Chong-yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    A Framework for Rating Curve Analysis2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Guerrero, José-Luis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Westerberg, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Xu, Cong-Yu
    Exploring the hydrological robustness of model-parameter values with alpha shapes2013In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 6700-6715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of parameter values in hydrological models has gradually moved from subjective, trial-and-error methods into objective estimation methods. Translation of nature's complexity to bit operations is an uncertain process as a result of data errors, epistemic gaps, computational deficiencies, and other limitations, and relies on calibration to fit model output to observed data. The robustness of the calibrated parameter values to these types of uncertainties is therefore an important concern. In this study, we investigated how the hydrological robustness of the model-parameter values varied within the geometric structure of the behavioral (well-performing) parameter space with a depth function based on α shapes and an in-depth posterior performance analysis of the simulations in relation to the observed discharge uncertainty. The α shape depth is a nonconvex measure that may provide an accurate and tight delimitation of the geometric structure of the behavioral space for both unimodal and multimodal parameter-value distributions. WASMOD, a parsimonious rainfall-runoff model, was applied to six Honduran and one UK catchment, with differing data quality and hydrological characteristics. Model evaluation was done with two performance measures, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and one based on flow-duration curves. Deep parameter vectors were in general found to be more hydrologically robust than shallow ones in the analyses we performed; model-performance values increased with depth, deviations to the observed data for the high-flow aspects of the hydrograph generally decreased with increasing depth, deep parameter vectors generally transferred in time with maintained high performance values, and the model had a low sensitivity to small changes in the parameter values. The tight delimitation of the behavioral space provided by the α shapes depth function showed a potential to improve the efficiency of calibration techniques that require further exploration. For computational reasons only a three-parameter model could be used, which limited the applicability of this depth measure and the conclusions drawn in this paper, especially concerning hydrological robustness at low flows.

  • 84. Guimarães, Jean R.D.
    et al.
    Mauro, Jane B.N.
    Meili, Markus
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Haglund, Anne-Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Coelho-Souza, S.A.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Simultaneous radioassays of bacterial production and mercury methylation in the periphyton of a tropical and a temperate wetland2006In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory radioassays were made to study mercury (Hg) methylation together with bacterial production in the periphyton of two aquatic macrophytes, the submerged Myriophyllum spicatum, from a constructed wetland in Sweden and the floating Eichhornia crassipes, from a eutrophied tropical lake in Brazil. Time course incubations were made by addition of 203HgCl2 and the methylmercury formed was extracted at pre-defined time intervals. Bacterial production (14C-leucine incorporation) was measured at the same time intervals, with plants removed from parallel incubations made with and without addition of cold HgCl2. For E. crassipes, higher methylmercury production was observed at elevated bacterial production, whereas for M. spicatum, the bacterial production was significantly lower, and Hg methylation was below the detection limit. The combined results confirm the importance of microbial processes for Hg methylation, although other factors are known to influence this process in complex ways. The addition of Hg did not significantly influence bacterial production, while the incubation temperatures used (25 and 35 1C) resulted in different methylation rates.

    Radiotracer techniques for measurements of bacterial production such as 14C-leucine uptake can provide useful insights into the Hg cycle in aquatic environments, and our data suggest that they may be used as a proxy of mercury methylation potentials.

  • 85.
    Guo Larsen, Xiaoli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Smedman, Ann-Sofi
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Comparison of modelled and measured shearing stress over the Baltic Sea.2004In: Global Atmos. Ocean Systems, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 92-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Guo Larsen, Xiaoli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft och vattenlära.
    Smedman, Ann-Sofi
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft och vattenlära.
    Högström, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft och vattenlära.
    Air-sea exchange of sensible heat over the Baltic Sea.2004In: Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 130, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Gyllenhammar, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Environmental consequence analyses of fish farms emissions related to different scales and exemplified by data from the Baltic – a review.2005In: Marine Environmental Research, Vol. 60, p. 211-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Gyllenhammar, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Integrated management of Lake Kyoga natural resources. Final report.2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 89.
    Gyllenhammar, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Långviken - rapport om Långvikens storlek, form och topografiska egenskaper i relation till andra finska vikar.2005Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 90. Güntner, A.
    et al.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Uhlenbrook, S.
    Modeling spatial patterns of saturated areas: An evaluation of different terrain indices.2004In: Water Resources Research, Vol. 40, p. W05114-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91. Hall, F.G.
    et al.
    Betts, A.K.
    Frolking, S.
    Brown, R.
    Chen, J.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Lettenmaier, D.P.
    Schafer, J.
    The boreal climate.2004In: Vegetation, Water, Humans and Climate. A New Perspective on an Interactive System.: A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle., Springer Verlag: Berlin-New York , 2004, p. 119-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Magister eller Master – Varför inte båda?2005In: Nyheter och Debatt, no 2, p. 3-Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 93.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Radiation measurements in integrated terrestrial experiments.2004In: Vegetation, Water, Humans and Climate. A New Perspective on an Interactive System.: A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle., Springer Verlag: Berlin-New York , 2004, p. 231-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Halldin, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Luft- och vattenlära.
    Carlson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Mikrobiologi.
    Svenska språket är hotat inom naturvetenskapen2006In: Tentakel, Vol. 9Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Svensk naturvetenskap och teknik är på väg att förlora modersmålet. Det storskaliga språkbytet leder till försämrad effektivitet och ett demokratiskt underskott. Medvetenheten om problemen måste öka och en fungerande tvåspråkighet etableras.

  • 95.
    Halldin, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Gottschalk, L.
    Gryning, S-E.
    Modelling atmospheric and hydrological processes in the boreal region2005In: Coupled Models for the Hydrological Cycle. Integrating Atmosphere, Biosphere, and Pedosphere, Springer Verlag: Berlin-Heidelberg , 2005, p. 239-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 96. Halonen, Riikka
    et al.
    Hylander, Lars D.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Luft- och vatten (LUVA).
    Controlled trade or poison streams to the developing countries?2006In: Abstracts of Eighth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, 2006, p. 574-Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury circulates around the globe as a product in international trade and because of releases from natural and anthropogenic sources. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic to humans, ecosystems and wildlife, international efforts are being made to reduce its use. Finland is one of the biggest mercury producers in the EU and the biggest one producing virgin mercury. Between 25 and 75 tons mercury as a byproduct from

    metal smelting of zinc and copper ores are annually produced in Finland by Boliden Kokkola Ltd, which belongs to the Swedish New Boliden Group.

    The aim of this FinnWatch study is to bring up problems related to mercury trade and to draw attention to the international trade and development policies. A related aim is to see whether selfcontrol of companies is sufficient or if authority supervision and restrictions are needed. The report is a desk-study, which uses many sources including Global Mercury Assessment of the UNEP and interviews. The FinnWatch study presents mercury production, usage and hazards in general. It focuses especially on Finland's position as a mercury producer and supplier of mercury to small-scale gold mining in the Amazon. Boliden says that it does not want to export mercury outside of Europe. The company says alos that it sells mercury only to suppliers, who resells it only within Europe. However, other sources maintain Finnish mercury has also ended up in developing countries, for example in Brazil, where it can be bought bottled in pharmacies by anyone. It is used without personal protective equipment in small-scale gold mining causing health problems and causes environmental pollution and accidents. The self-control of

    mercury trading companies is proving to be inadequate according to the FinnWatch report. The FinnWatch study shows that Finnish mercury may end up in developing countries - or may not, despite Boliden's recently introduced efforts to control its trade

    and customs. Further research is needed.

  • 97.
    Hansson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Water Flow and Heat Transport in and Below Roads: Model development and applications2004In: Gordon Research Conference. Flow and Transport in Permeable Media: 11 - 16 July 2004, Oxford, England, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Hansson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. Air and Water Science.
    Water Flow and Heat Transport in Porous Materials – with applications to roads2004Report (Other scientific)
  • 99.
    Hansson, Klas
    et al.
    Dep. of Land and Water Resources Eng., Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Water content reflectometer application to construction materials and its relation to time domain reflectometry2006In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 459-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture content measurements using time domain reflectometry (TDR) or water content reflectometry (WCR) are basic in many research areas. The goals of this study were to establish a relation between apparent dielectric number and WCR sensor output, to compare TDR and WCR calibration equations for two coarse road construction materials, and to investigate the influence of sampling volume for horizontally installed sensors. Measurements were performed in fluids of known dielectric number and in two incrementally saturated coarse materials. The effect of sampling volume was evaluated using an electrostatic finite-element model. A two-parameter equation was determined relating the apparent dielectric number to Campbell CS616 ( Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT) WCR output (r(2) > 0.99). A simple calibration can adapt the equation to individual CS616, or similar, sensors. For the finer, coarse material, a three-phase mixing model proved best, while for the coarser material no equation adequately described the measurements. Numerical simulations indicated that limited capillary rise, creating a rapid transition from wet to dry close to saturation, was the explanation, warranting caution when interpreting measurements in nearly saturated coarse materials.

  • 100.
    Hansson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Lundin, Lars-Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Simunek, Jirka
    Modeling water flow patterns in flexible pavements2005In: Soil Mechanics 2005, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies , 2005, no 1936, p. 133-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most road design models do not explicitly account for moisture transport mechanisms in roads, even though it is well known that water content plays an important part in the deterioration of roads. The Swedish National Road Administration aims to improve the current situation by supporting the development of models that eventually can provide a better and more complete description of the road and environment system. The applicability of hydrological theories and methods to the road and environment system was investigated. Particular attention was paid to flow patterns inside the road as affected by capillary barriers and generated by mechanisms of surface runoff, followed by infiltration into cracks, and the embankment. Particle tracking was used to investigate the effect of rain intensity, precipitated amount, or fracture conductivity on the flow patterns. Changes in rain intensity had a small effect on flow patterns, but velocities were higher for larger rain intensities. Both changes in precipitated amount and fracture conductivity controlled the appearance of the flow patterns, but capillary barrier effects were limited. The numerical code used proved to be mostly appropriate in describing the relevant processes.

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