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  • 51. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Svensson, Johan
    Adler, Sven
    Sandström, Stefan
    Sandström, Per
    Wardle, David
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape propertiesIn: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Helander, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Geographic Disparities in Future Global Food Security: Exploring the Impacts of Population Development and Climate Change2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meeting the food demands of a growing population is one of the currently most critical issues for the world community. Additionally, negative impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected in some densely populated regions of developing economies. In this thesis, I examine spatial patterns of future impacts of population development and climate change on food security and how these impacts correlate with current patterns of food security and poverty. I aim to assess the global spatial patterns of food insecurity, concerning the current situation and future prognosis, to quantify the impact of population development and climate change on food security, and to examine to what extent poverty can explain spatial patterns.

    To identify spatial patterns, I performed a multiple correlation analysis. The aggregated impact estimate of population development and climate change was calculated by adding their respective national predictions. The explanatory power of poverty was evaluated using regression models which contained population development  predictions and current food security as functions of poverty rate. Based on the my results and a literature review I discuss the future geographic disparities of food security and the corresponding consequences for combating hunger.

    My results show that global geographic disparities are likely to increase substantially, mainly because population, and in turn food demand, will increase strongly in sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest decline of resources in relation to population. Impacts of climate change show a similar geographic pattern where foodinsecure regions will be affected the most. I found that poverty is a significant explanatory variable for both population growth and food security. The literature review support causality between variables, which places poverty at the core of food security issues. Poverty causes both a barrier to access food markets and population growth,which ultimately decrease food availability. In order to reach zero hunger for the coming generations, there is an urgent need to redistribute resources, change direction in agriculture practices and implement extensive political measures that carefully consider both local and global contexts.

  • 53.
    Henke, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    IEA and Oil: Track record analysis and assessment of oil supply scenarios in WEO 2000-20132014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The World Energy Outlook (WEO), an annual publication from the International Energy Agency (IEA), is often considered to be the most authoritative source of future energy scenarios for policy decision makers. The demand and supply scenarios for oil, one of the most irreplaceable resources in the global energy system, are central in each report. For the last decade, the outlook for oil supply in 2030 in the main IEA scenario has been reduced by almost 20 million barrels per day.

    The aim of this study is to examine the revisions to the oil supply scenarios, both at global and individual country level, and note if and how the IEA has motivated these revisions. The accuracy of past WEO scenarios is quantified by track record analysis and the latest WEO scenario is assessed in detail in relation to current scientific literature. Finally, implications of the latest WEO scenario for the long term oil supply are assessed.

    It is noted that the IEA generally motivate upward revisions to their scenarios, while downward revisions are often left unmentioned. Some recent revisions are attributed to the financial crises of 2008 and the largest revision in absolute terms is the gradual downward revision of OPEC production motivated by an underestimation of key producing countries’ will and ability to expand capacity.

    The track record analysis indicates that the accuracy of the IEA scenarios has increased on a five year prediction basis following the extended methodology applied in the WEO 2008. The analysis also shows that the accuracy of scenarios decrease with time. On a ten year horizon, the mean absolute error for the IEA aggregate ‘World oil supply” was estimated to 8.2%.

    The WEO2013 ‘New Policies Scenario’, with a time frame of 2012-2035, was assessed using decline and depletion rate analysis, and compared to empirically proven rates. The scenario was found to provide a realistic but optimistic view of the future of oil supply. An alternative scenario, with depletion rates in line with the fastest observed regional rates, resulted in somewhat lower production rates throughout the scenario time frame.

    A long term extrapolation to year 2100 of the WEO 2013 scenario, based strictly on resource and production data from the WEO reports, indicated that oil supply will reach a peak in 2035 and then enter decline for the remainder of the century. A sensitivity analysis showed that changes to the assumed resource base only moves the peak by a few years, but has a significant effect on the rate of the following decline.      

  • 54.
    Hoigt, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Adoption and sustained use of energy efficient stoves in rural Uganda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, Energy saving (mud) stoves were introduced in villages around the Kachung Forestplantation in rural Uganda as part of an effort to support local sustainable development. Initial fieldwork showedthat the stoves had not been adopted as much as the apparent benefits would suggest. This has been a commonissue with improved cooking stove projects around the world. In order to find out why the stoves are notadopted, 67 women in charge of the cooking were interviewed additionally participant observations of cooking,other daily work routines and building stoves conducted, as well as interviews with other relevant stakeholders.Results show that women struggle to find enough firewood and are bothered by the smoke produced whencooking, which makes them generally very interested in improved mud stoves. Indeed many women hadadopted a local version of the mud stove in order to ease the burden of firewood collection. The reason for notadopting a mud stove in general can be mainly attributed to work burden in constructing it. As for the moresophisticated energy saving mud stoves introduced, additional factors were that the implementation strategyshows weaknesses in how the knowledge on how to build the stove is supposed to spread. Further, the stoveintroduced is rather complex in the way it is supposed to be built, which makes it difficult to spread theknowledge of how to build it. The implementation strategy needs to be revised under consideration of the localcircumstances in order to achieve a higher adoption rate.

  • 55.
    Hyttinen, O.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Virtasalo, J. J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Marine Geol, POB 96, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland..
    Kekalainen, P.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, POB 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;WSP Finland Oy, Heikkilantie 7, FI-00210 Helsinki, Finland..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Obrochta, S.
    Akita Univ, Fac Int Resource Sci, 1-1 Tegatagakuen Machi, Akita 0108502, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, SE-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Holocene stratigraphy of the Ångermanälven River estuary, Bothnian Sea2017In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 273-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation-postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.

  • 56.
    Håkansson, Ane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Davour, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Grape, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Hellesen, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lantz, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Pomp, Stephan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Qvist, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Svensk elförsörjning i framtiden – en fråga med globala dimensioner: En tvärvetenskaplig rapport från Uppsala universitet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mapping Chinese Supply2018In: Nature Energy, ISSN 0028-212X, E-ISSN 2213-0217, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 166-167Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Documenting the emissions and net energy of a crude supply could be essential to meeting national emission and energy security targets. Using data from hundreds of fields worldwide, a well-to-refinery study presents a high-granularity profile of China’s crude oil supply in terms of emissions and energy return on input.

  • 58.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Li, Junchen
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Johansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Snowden, Simon
    University of Liverpool.
    Growth rates of global energy systems and future outlooks2012In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid "oil boom"-development - i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events - their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  • 59.
    Iwinska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Coll Civitas, PKIN, Pl Defilad 1, Warsaw, Poland.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Pierotti, Livia
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Tainio, Marko
    Polish Acad Sci, Syst Res Inst, Warsaw, Poland; Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, MRC Epidemiol Unit, UKCRC Ctr Diet & Act Res CEDAR, Cambridge, England.
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England.
    Cycling in Warsaw, Poland - Perceived enablers and barriers according to cyclists and non-cyclists2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 113, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling in urban environments provides many benefits to people. However, planning of cycling infrastructures in large cities faces numerous challenges and requires better understanding of both the factors enabling cycling as well as barriers to it, determined by particular local context. While there is a growing body of research that tackle the bike transport related questions in Western Europe and the USA, there is relatively little research on that in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), in post-communist countries. In this study we used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore urban cyclists and non-cyclists opinions about the cycling, the perceived problems and obstacles, and perception of the on-going changes in bicycle transportation system in Warsaw, Poland. Although many people see potential advantages of cycling, it is mostly perceived as a leisure time activity. Those who do utilitarian cycling are more acutely aware of the benefits, such as rapidity and flexibility of this mean of transport. The main perceived barriers are linked to lack of good cycling infrastructure in the city, the feeling of insecurity linked to the behaviour of drivers, and to maintenance during winter. In conclusion, our research highlights both the opportunities and challenges linked to the development of improved cycle transportation system, suggesting the need for a range of policies, from the infrastructure improvements and comprehensive planning of the whole transportation system, to improving the driving culture that would support feeling of security of the cyclists.

  • 60.
    Jahnke, Marlene
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, Stromstad, Sweden;Univ Groningen, Groningen Inst Evolutionary Life Sci, Sect Ecol & Evolutionary Genom Nat GREEN, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gullstrom, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Josefine
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Loven Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mgeleka, Said
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Tanzania Fisheries Res Inst TAFIRI, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Silas, Mathew Ogalo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Tanzania Fisheries Res Inst TAFIRI, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Hoamby, Arielle
    Inst Halieut & Sci Marine Toliara IH SM, Toliara, Madagascar.
    Mahafina, Jamal
    Inst Halieut & Sci Marine Toliara IH SM, Toliara, Madagascar.
    Nordlund, Lina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Population genetic structure and connectivity of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Western Indian Ocean is influenced by predominant ocean currents2019In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 16, p. 8953-8964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first large-scale genetic population study of a widespread climax species of seagrass, Thalassia hemprichii, in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The aim was to understand genetic population structure and connectivity of T. hemprichii in relation to hydrodynamic features. We genotyped 205 individual seagrass shoots from 11 sites across the WIO, spanning over a distance of similar to 2,700 km, with twelve microsatellite markers. Seagrass shoots were sampled in Kenya, Tanzania (mainland and Zanzibar), Mozambique, and Madagascar: 4-26 degrees S and 33-48 degrees E. We assessed clonality and visualized genetic diversity and genetic population differentiation. We used Bayesian clustering approaches (TESS) to trace spatial ancestry of populations and used directional migration rates (DivMigrate) to identify sources of gene flow. We identified four genetically differentiated groups: (a) samples from the Zanzibar channel; (b) Mozambique; (c) Madagascar; and (d) the east coast of Zanzibar and Kenya. Significant pairwise population genetic differentiation was found among many sites. Isolation by distance was detected for the estimated magnitude of divergence (D-EST), but the three predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) also determine genetic connectivity and genetic structure. Directional migration rates indicate that Madagascar acts as an important source population. Overall, clonality was moderate to high with large differences among sampling sites, indicating relatively low, but spatially variable sexual reproduction rates. The strongest genetic break was identified for three sites in the Zanzibar channel. Although isolation by distance is present, this study suggests that the three regionally predominant ocean current systems (i.e., East African Coastal Current, North East Madagascar Current, and the South Equatorial Current) rather than distance determine genetic connectivity and structure of T. hemprichii in the WIO. If the goal is to maintain genetic connectivity of T. hemprichii within the WIO, conservation planning and implementation of marine protection should be considered at the regional scale-across national borders.

  • 61.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Snowden, Simon
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Bottom-up modeling of oil production: A review of approaches2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 64, p. 113-123Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom-up models of oil production are continuously being used to guide investments and policymaking. Compared to simpler top-down models, bottom-up models have a number of advantages due to their modularity, flexibility and concreteness. The purposes of this paper is to identify the crucial modeling challenges, compare the different ways in which nine existing models handle them, assess the appropriateness of these models, and point to possibilities of further development. The conclusions are that the high level of detail in bottom-up models is of questionable value for predictive accuracy, but of great value for identifying areas of uncertainty and new research questions. There is a potential for improved qualitative insights through systematic sensitivity analysis. This potential is at present largely unrealized.

  • 62.
    Jin, Yi
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Xu
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Cuiyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy and water conservation synergy in China: 2007-20122017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 127, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and water issues are interrelated and have significant impacts on the economy. The amount and intensity of energy and water consumption must be controlled, which was clearly stated in the "11th Five-Year" Plan and "12th Five-Year" Plan. The energy-water nexus is a useful approach to integrate economic sectors. Energy production consumes large inputs of energy and water, while producing most of the energy required by other sectors. This synergy between energy conservation and water saving in energy sectors is intricate. This study assesses the synergistic effect between energy conservation and water saving that has been achieved by energy sectors in China during the 2007-2012 period. The research results suggest that energy sectors have completely achieved 12.40 x 10(8) m(3) water saving through energy conservation and 1.12 x 10(6) tce energy conservation through water saving. Coal, oil and gas production mainly consumed water in indirect ways, while electricity generation primarily consumed water in a direct way. The synergistic energy conservation of the electric power sector was significant and was much larger than that of the coal production sector as well as oil and gas production sector. Prominent water saving can be obtained through improved energy conservation in China's energy sectors.

  • 63.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Kyla i Nyköping och Motala: Kartläggning av kylapotential för Vattenfall Värm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish energy company Vattenfall is currently the owner of the district heatingsystems in Nyköping and Motala. To be able to also offer cooling solutions tocustomers are becoming more and more important. This report describes the resultsof an investigation of the cooling market in the two cities and the potential needs forcooling today and in the coming 20 years. The total potential for the coming 20 yearsis estimated to be roughly 17 MW for Nyköping and 9 MW for Motala.Two possible district cooling systems for each of the two city centers was modeledand a comparison was made between different cooling techniques namely absorptionand compressor chillers.Absorption chillers driven with district heating during the summer is one way ofincreasing the load in a combined heat and power plant and thereby the possibleelectricity generation. The cost of heat production must be low for absorption chillerto be able to compete as an alternative. The cost for the increased heat load becauseof absorption chillers was simulated with results showing a cost of 34/MWh kr inNyköping and 143 kr/MWh in Motala for the two district cooling cases.Investment calculation showed that neither of the systems in the two cities areprofitable with a required rate of return of 7 %.

  • 64. Jokinen, Pekka
    et al.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Primmer, Eeva
    Van Herzele, Ann
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Ratamäki, Outi
    How does biodiversity conservation argumentation generate effects in policy cycles?2018In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 27, p. 1725-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Center.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brown, Kelsey
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.; Royal Swedish Acad Sci, Beijer Inst, Box 50005, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eco-Labeled Seafood: Determinants for (Blue) Green Consumption2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 9, article id 884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification has become an increasingly popular market-based tool in the endeavor to reduce negative environmental impacts from fisheries and aquaculture. In this study, we aimed at investigating which psychological consumer characteristics influence demand for eco-labeled seafood by correlating consumers’ stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood to nine variables: environmental knowledge regarding seafood production, familiarity with eco-labels, subjective knowledge, pro-environmental self-identification, sense of personal responsibility, concern for negative environmental impacts from seafood production, perceived consumer effectiveness, gender and education. Questionnaires were distributed to consumers in Stockholm, Sweden, and the data were tested with multiple regression analysis using linear modeling and model averaging (n = 371). Two variables were the best predictors of stated purchasing of eco-labeled seafood: (i) recognition and understanding of eco-labels for seafood (Marine Stewardship Council, Fish for Life, Aquaculture Stewardship Council and KRAV); and (ii) concern for negative environmental impacts associated with seafood production. Meanwhile, consumer environmental knowledge was a weaker predictor. Results from this study suggest that strengthening the emotional component of consumer decision-making and improving the level of consumer familiarity with seafood eco-labels could stimulate more pro-environmental seafood consumption.

  • 66.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Leiden University .
    Mangrove-shrimp farms in Vietnam – comparing organic and conventional systems using life cycle assessment2015In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 447, p. 66-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between aquaculture and the environment remain a debated issue, especially in areas where the aquaculture sector is still expanding, such as in theMekong delta in Vietnam. In response to environmental con- cerns, various eco-certification schemes have been introduced for seafood, aiming to improve production prac- tices. In order to reflect upon the criteria of these certification schemes, life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to conventional and certified extensive organic mangrove–shrimp farms in the lowerMekong. In total, 21 organic and 20 non-organic farms were included in the study for evaluation of effects on global warming (including emissions fromland transformation and occupation), eutrophication and acidification. Monte Carlo simulations and randomsampling were applied to aggregate contributing processes into results. The emissions of greenhouse gasses per ton of shrimp produced were substantial for both groups, and almost solely caused by the release of carbon during mangrove land transformation. Differences in the land area needed to support shrimp production explain the discrepancy. Organic farms emitted less CO2-equivalents (eq.) than the non- organic farms in 75% of theMonte Carlo iterations. Acidification impacts were similar for the two groups, with higher emissions from the non-organic farms in 67% of the iterations. Meanwhile, most mangrove-integrated farms showed a net uptake of eutrophying substances, indicating that both types of mangrove–shrimp produc- tion systems are nutrient limited. In order to put the results into perspective, a comparison with intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farmswas made.While the extensivemangrove–shrimpfarms showed higher emissions of CO2-eq. per ton shrimp produced (20 tons in average for organic and non-organic farms compared to 10 tons from intensive/semi-intensive production), results indicated lower impacts in terms of both acidification and eutrophication. We recommend LCA to be used as a central tool for identifying practices relevant for eco- certification audits, including considerations for land use. However, a better understanding of the consequences of landquality change and linkages to impacts at the ecosystemlevel e.g. effects on ecosystem services, is needed. 

  • 67.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Troell, Max
    Miljömärkning av fisk och skaldjur - hur långt räcker det?2015In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68.
    Kalla, Christelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Dekomponeringsanalys av personbilstrafikens CO2-utsläpp i Sverige 1990–20152019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By year 2045 Sweden shall reach zero territorial net emissions and by year 2030 the emissions from the transport sector shall be reduced by 70% compared to year 2010. In Sweden the road traffic stands for a third of the total greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve the climate targets, the most suited policies and actions should be prioritized. A systematic investigation into the factors that affect the change in emissions can guide decision makers to distribute resources where they contribute the most. A decomposition analysis is a potential method for this purpose since the effect of different factors can be separated and measured. Five additive LMDI-I decomposition analyses were made on the change in fossil CO2 emission from passenger cars in Sweden between year 1990–2015. The factors that were investigated were: population, vehicle per capita, fuel technologies, engine sizes, distance travelled per vehicle, emissions and biofuel share. Data from the emissions model HBEFA, the Swedish Transport Administration and Statistics Sweden were used in the analyses. During the period of year 1990–2015 the CO2 emissions were reduced, and the decomposition analyses showed that all ingoing factors affected the change. Throughout the period the factors that contributed the most were in order of size: distance travelled per vehicle (35%), fuel technologies (15%), population (15%), car per capita (13%), emissions (11%), biofuel (7%) and engine size (5%). The percentage is the share of the factor’s effect of the absolute sum of all the different effects. Distance travelled per vehicle, emissions, bio fuels and engine size reduced the emissions. Fuel technologies, population and car per capita increased the emissions. The suggestions of actions are incentive for people to use more sustainable means for transportation, increase the share of cars with lower emissions in the fleet and use more biofuel.

  • 69.
    Kama, Kärg
    et al.
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Geo-Metrics and Geo-Politics: Controversies in Estimating European Shale Gas Resources2019In: Political Geology: Active Stratigraphies and the Making of Life / [ed] Bobbette, Adam; Donovan, Amy, Cambridge: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 105-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [et]

    This chapter explores the relationship between geoscientific knowledge production and geopolitical agencies in the making of new subsurface resources, specifically unconventional fossil fuels. Focusing on recent controversies surrounding the assessment of potential shale gas resources in Europe, we analyse the ways in which highly speculative and contested resource estimates have come to inform the geopolitical imagination of many EU states and, in turn, provided a new impetus for geoscientific inventories and exploration of shale formations. In the first part of the chapter, we engage with recent volumetric accounts in political geography and cognate disciplines to conceptualize these epistemic struggles of resource-making as a case of “subterranean geo-politics”. The empirical analysis in the second part then traces the geo-politics of shale gas prospecting in Poland and the UK, describing how volumetric projections of resource abundance have become undermined by diverse materialities and socio-political constructions of the subsurface. This is evidenced by the difficulties of translating knowledge across geo-economically disparate sites of resource development, notably the failure to apply the US-based expertise to the European context. Finally, we document more recent efforts by the European Commission and other epistemic authorities to overcome the deficiency and incompatibility of local resource estimates by developing standard, EU-specific geo-metrics for shale energy assessment. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-04 00:00
  • 70.
    Kremer, A.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Fahl, K.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Ji, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Z.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wiers, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Matthiessen, J.
    Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Bremerhaven, Germany..
    Forwick, M.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Lowemark, L.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    O'Regan, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, J.
    State Ocean Adm, Inst Oceanog 2, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 182, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 degrees C.

  • 71.
    Kristjónsdóttir, Marta Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Shaping the Climate Action trajectory within the Fashion Industry: a case study of a Small Medium Sized Enterprise2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The apparel and footwear industry’s contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is one of the fifth largest per industry, equal to that of livestock, after electricity and heat, oil and gas, agriculture, and transportation (Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2017). For industry-wide emissions reduction, investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency programs across highest impacting life cycle phases offer the most effective solution. However, identifying the highest impacting life cycles phases shows varied results depending on the particular type of business model under examination. This paper responds to the lack of existing data and empirical research on how to accurately measure, report and reduce carbon emissions across the highly complex and globally interconnected apparel value chain. This is done through a single case study investigation of an Icelandic fashion brand. A hybrid approach of a standard Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the Sustainable Global Value Chain (SGVC) functions to produce a Hotspot Identification Tool (HIT) to establish a holistic portrayal of business operations in relation to emission impacts and level of controllability across Scopes. The conceptual analysis and qualitative results identify the most relevant emission hotspots to lie within the company’s privately owned manufacturing facilities, as well as the procurement phase, due to its direct connection with and influence on material production, user phase, and end-of-life. The main obstacle in this pursuit is identified as restriction of resources in terms of time, capital and expertise. It is suggested that this be overcome by joining a Multi-Stakeholder Initiative where resources and expertise is pooled in a pre-competitive manner to reach common objectives. The investigation further suggests a need for global fashion brands to leverage their influential position on down- and upstream activities across the value chain, i.e. with their supply chain partners and consumers. I argue that fashion brands play an integral role in supporting local efforts to build a decarbonisation pathway towards climate neutral economies on a global scale.

  • 72.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Post-conventional energy futures: Rendering Europe's shale gas resources governable2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the shale gas boom in the United States, unconventional natural gas extracted from organic-rich shale rock formations has generated increasing attention in the European Union (EU). This considerable interest has been spurred by a range of optimistic volumetric appraisals of shale gas resource potential trapped beneath the European continent. The paper critically examines rationalities and practices through which states of resource availability and recoverability are made visible, measurable, intelligible, and thus rendered governable, namely open to new fields of possibilities to act upon. By implementing the concept of socio-technical imaginaries as governmentality approach, the analysis is guided by two objectives: first, to identify visions of shale gas potential contained in a range of resource estimates; second, to scrutinize rationalities of government, that is how shale gas resources are made knowable and purposeful, as well as technologies of government that operationalize these rationalities via practices of calculation, visualization, and inscription. The paper illustrates that, these highly speculative and uncertain assessments can forge powerful volumetric imaginaries of shale gas potential that yield specific governing effects concerned with securitization of unconventional hydrocarbons availability. Consequently, these imaginaries prescribe and legitimize techno-political hopes for certain post-conventional energy futures underpinning the fossil fuel abundance narrative.

  • 73.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för Tema.
    The human rights turn: ENGOs’ changing tactics in the quest for a more transparent, participatory and accountable CDM2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 648-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors are increasingly participating in international climate diplomacy. The tactics employed by diverse civil society agents to influence climate policymaking are radicalizing through the adoption of more confrontational language. Activist groups have been seeking opportunities to influence policymakers regarding the rules related to transparency, public participation and accountability in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). By scrutinizing efforts of three environmental NGOs (ENGOs) — Climate Action Network, Center for International Environmental Law and Carbon Market Watch — the analysis concentrates on what tactical shifts have occurred in the framing positions and approaches of these activists during the 1997-2015 period. After several years of legal advocacy, expertise and/or critique in an effort to reform input legitimacy of CDM governance, the selected ENGOs have recently drifted away from narratives of green governmentality and ecological modernization and, instead, radicalized their rhetorical tactics by turning to a human rights perspective under the umbrella of climate justice.

  • 74.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Global Energy Systems.
    Bridge, Gavin
    Durham University, United Kingdom.
    Down the black hole: Sustaining national socio-technical imaginaries of coal in Poland2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 41, no S1, p. 136-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the socio-technical imaginaries surrounding infrastructures of coal mining and coal combustion in Poland. Contemporary policy makers in Poland mobilise a national imaginary inherited from communist times – encapsulated in the slogan ‘Poland stands on coal’ – that fuses infrastructures of coal extraction and combustion with the fate of the nation. This socio-technical imaginary provides support for coal futures, even in the face of contradictory evidence for domestic resource depletion, poor regional air quality, and global climate change. To examine this process, the paper brings research on socio-technical imaginaries into conversation with work on resource materialities. It highlights how certain materialities of coal (abundance, accessibility, energy density, location) were integral to the emergence of a national socio-technical imaginary of modernisation via coal; and how other materialities (declining resource quality, effects of emissions on respiratory health, coal as CO2-in-waiting) now collide with the political strategies of a government determined to reassert ‘black gold’ as a bedrock of national development for years to come. The paper considers how contemporary political efforts to rehabilitate coal and secure its future in Poland draw selectively upon a socio-technical imaginary of coal-fuelled national modernisation.

  • 75. Kujawa, Anna
    et al.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Falkowski, Michal
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Bohdan, Adam
    Buchholz, Lech
    Chylarecki, Przemyslaw
    Gutowski, Jerzy M.
    Latałowa, Malgorzata
    Mysłajek, Robert W.
    Nowak, Sabina
    Walankiewicz, Wieslaw
    Zalewska, Anna
    The Białowieża Forest – a U NESCO Natural Heritage Site – protection priorities2016In: Forest Research Papers, E-ISSN 2082-8926, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 302-323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Lazarova, Maria
    et al.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, BU-1113 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Marinova, Elena
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Ctr Archaeol Sci, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium.;Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, Dept Palaeontol, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tonkov, Spassimir
    Sofia Univ St Kliment Ohridski, Fac Biol, Palynol Lab, Dept Bot, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    A 5000-year pollen and plant macrofossil record from the Osogovo Mountain, Southwestern Bulgaria: Vegetation history and human impact2015In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 223, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses were performed on a sequence 105 cm deep obtained from a peat bog (1750 m) that is located above the present timber-line in the Osogovo Mountain, Southwestern Bulgaria. The palaeovegetation reconstruction, supported by a radiocarbon chronology, revealed the vegetation dynamics and human impact during the last 5000 years. The peat bog formed when a coniferous belt of Abies alba and Pinus (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) covered the high mountain slopes. Charcoal fragments indicate the presence of a broad-leaved tree community composed of Quercus, Corylus, Carpinus, Tilia, Acer and Ulmus at lower altitudes. Stands of Fagus sylvatica in places with higher air and soil humidity, like river valleys and deep ravines, became established. The pollen assemblages after c. 3200 cal. BP record an important change in the forest composition that led to the replacement of the conifers, mostly A. alba, by the invading communities of F. sylvatica. The reasons for this replacement included factors related to both climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. During the last centuries a large-scale degradation of the woodlands in the mountain has occurred. On a regional scale the palaeoecological evidence is compared with information from palynological, archaeological and historical sources in Southwestern Bulgaria.

  • 77.
    Leena, Grandell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 11818-11837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  • 78.
    Lehoux, A. P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France.;Univ Avignon & Pays Vaucluse, INRA, EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France..
    Faure, P.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Michel, E.
    Univ Avignon & Pays Vaucluse, INRA, EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France..
    Courtier-Murias, D.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Rodts, S.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Coussot, P.
    Univ Paris Est, CNRS, Lab Navier, ENPC,IFSTTAR, Champs Sur Marne, France..
    Transport and Adsorption of Nano-Colloids in Porous Media Observed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging2017In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 403-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use magnetic resonance imaging to follow the adsorption of colloids during their transport through a porous medium (grain packing). We injected successive pulses of a suspension of nanoparticles able to adsorb onto the grains. To get quantitative information we carry out 2D imaging and 1D measurements of the evolution in time of the distribution profile of all particles (suspended or adsorbed) in cross-sectional layers along the sample axis during the flow. For the first injections we observe the 1D profile amplitude progressively damping as particles advance through the sample, due to their adsorption. 2D imaging shows that successive injections finally result in a coverage of grains by adsorbed particles regularly progressing along the sample. The analysis of the results makes it possible to get a clear description of the adsorption process. In our specific case (particle charged oppositely to the adsorption sites) it appears that the particles rapidly explore the pores and adsorb as soon as they encounter available sites on grains, and the surplus of particles goes on advancing in the sample. A further analysis of the profiles makes it possible to distinguish the respective concentration distribution of suspended and adsorbed particles over time at each step of the process.

  • 79.
    Lehoux, Alizée P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Sanchez-Hachair, Arnaud
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Lefebvre, Gaëtan
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Carlier, Guillaume
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Hébrard, Celine
    Direction territoriale Nord-Picardie, Lille, France.
    Lima, Ana T.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Hofmann, Annette
    Univ Littoral Cote dOpale, Lille, France.
    Chromium (VI) Retrieval from Chromium Ore Processing Residues by Electrokinetic Treatment2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrokinetics (EK) was investigated as a possible technique for in-situ treatment of leachable chromium at a built site contaminated with chromium ore processing residues (COPR). A preliminary EK experiment was carried out at the laboratory scale on an undisturbed COPR core sample. Methods applied for material and pore water characterization before and after EK treatment addressed physical aspects by laser diffraction granulometry, pycnometry and pore water content, mineralogical aspects by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and chemical aspects by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy for elemental composition, spectrophotometry for Cr(VI) analysis, and potentiometry for pH determination. EK was run at 1 V/cm with no external constraints on current intensity. The EK experiment reached an extraction of 72% of the total leachable Cr(VI) after only 10 days of treatment and 84% after 20 days. Material texture, composition, and pH remained similar. These results indicate that EK presents a potential solution for extracting leachable Cr(VI) from COPR sites. The impounded COPR material appeared to be heterogeneous in composition at all scales, from field to lab sample, adding to the challenge of in-situ treatment.

  • 80.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Uppsala UniUniv Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Univ Paris Saclay, IPSL, LSCE, CEA,CNRS,UVSQ, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Fac Sci, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ninnemann, Ulysses S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Earth Sci, Allegaten 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.
    Wacker, Lukas
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Lab Ion Beam Phys, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Moving beyond the age-depth model paradigm in deep-sea palaeoclimate archives: dual radiocarbon and stable isotope analysis on single foraminifera2018In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late-glacial palaeoclimate reconstructions from deep-sea sediment archives provide valuable insight into past rapid changes in ocean chemistry. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of the ocean floor with sufficiently high sediment accumulation rate (SAR) is suitable for such reconstructions using the long-standing age-depth model approach. We employ ultra-small radiocarbon (C-14) dating on single microscopic foraminifera to demonstrate that the long-standing age-depth model method conceals large age uncertainties caused by post-depositional sediment mixing, meaning that existing studies may underestimate total geochronological error. We find that the age-depth distribution of our C-14-dated single foraminifera is in good agreement with existing bioturbation models only after one takes the possibility of Zoophycos burrowing into account. To overcome the problems associated with the age-depth paradigm, we use the first ever dual C-14 and stable isotope (delta O-18 and delta C-13) analysis on single microscopic foraminifera to produce a palaeoclimate time series independent of the age-depth paradigm. This new state of the art essentially decouples single foraminifera from the age-depth paradigm to provide multiple floating, temporal snapshots of ocean chemistry, thus allowing for the successful extraction of temporally accurate palaeoclimate data from low-SAR deep-sea archives. This new method can address large geographical gaps in late-glacial benthic palaeoceanographic reconstructions by opening up vast areas of previously disregarded, low-SAR deep-sea archives to research, which will lead to an improved understanding of the global interaction between oceans and climate.

  • 81.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Paris Saclay, Lab CNRS CEA UVSQ, IPSL, LSCE, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan.
    A Rapid, Deterministic Age-Depth Modeling Routine for Geological Sequences With Inherent Depth Uncertainty2019In: PALEOCEANOGRAPHY AND PALEOCLIMATOLOGY, ISSN 2572-4517, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 122-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional approaches to age-depth modeling typically assume no uncertainty for the depth value of dated intervals. However, such an assumption may not be fully valid in the case of poor coring recovery or significant sediment deformation, as well as in the case of a large subsampling interval. In consideration of these issues, we present a new age-depth modeling routine, Undatable, which includes uncertainty in both age and depth. Undatable uses Bayesian radiocarbon (C-14) calibration software (MatCal) and a deterministic approach with a positive sediment accumulation rate assumed a priori which, combined with efficient programming practices, allows for the rapid production (in a matter of seconds in many cases) of age-depth models for multiple types of geological archives. Undatable has so far been successfully applied to coral archives, as well as sediment archives from estuarine, lacustrine, and deep-sea environments. Through the inclusion of a bootstrapping option, the software performs particularly well in the case of a large scatter in age-depth constraints by expanding the uncertainty envelope of the age-depth model. Unlike other deterministic models, increasing the density of age-depth constraints results in increased precision in Undatable, even at centennial scale, thus emulating the results of probabilistic models. In addition to the code itself, we also provide an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to experiment with multiple age-depth model settings to investigate the sensitivity of a given data set to multiple parameters.

  • 82.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Obrochta, Stephen P.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lenz, Conny
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Mellström, Anette
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Metcalfe, Brett
    Vrije Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reinholdsson, Maja
    Lund Univ, Dept Geol, Lund, Sweden..
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Zillen, Lovisa
    Swedish Geol Survey, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bulk sediment C-14 dating in an estuarine environment: How accurate can it be?2017In: Paleoceanography, ISSN 0883-8305, E-ISSN 1944-9186, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a lack of marine macrofossils in many sediment cores from the estuarine Baltic Sea, researchers are often forced to carry out C-14 determinations on bulk sediment samples. However, ambiguity surrounding the carbon source pathways that contribute to bulk sediment formation introduces a large uncertainty into C-14 geochronologies based on such samples, and such uncertainty may not have been fully considered in previous Baltic Sea studies. We quantify this uncertainty by analyzing bulk sediment C-14 determinations carried out on densely spaced intervals in independently dated late-Holocene sediment sequences from two central Baltic Sea cores. Our results show a difference of similar to 600 C-14 yr in median bulk sediment reservoir age, or R(t)(bulk), between the two core locations (similar to 1200 C-14 yr for one core, similar to 620 C-14 yr for the other), indicating large spatial variation. Furthermore, we also find large downcore (i.e., temporal) R(t)(bulk) variation of at least similar to 200 C-14 yr for both cores. We also find a difference of 585 C-14 yr between two samples taken from the same core depth. We propose that studies using bulk sediment C-14 dating in large brackish water bodies should take such spatiotemporal variation in R(t)(bulk) into account when assessing uncertainties, thus leading to a larger, but more accurate, calibrated age range.

  • 83.
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van der Lubbe, H. J. L.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Davies, Gareth R.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sr-87/Sr-86 as a quantitative geochemical proxy for C-14 reservoir age in dynamic, brackish waters: Assessing applicability and quantifying uncertainties2016In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 735-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate geochronologies are crucial for reconstructing the sensitivity of brackish and estuarine environments to dynamic external impacts of the past. Radiocarbon (C-14) dating is commonly used for palaeoclimate studies, but its application in brackish environments is severely limited by an inability to quantify spatiotemporal variations in C-14 reservoir age, or R(t), due to dynamic interplay between river runoff and marine water. Additionally, old carbon effects and species-specific behavioral processes also influence C-14 ages. Using the world's largest brackish water body (the estuarine Baltic Sea) as a test bed, combined with a comprehensive approach that objectively excludes both old carbon (using GIS) and species-specific C-14 effects, we demonstrate the use of Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios for quantifying R(t) in ubiquitous mollusc shell material, leading to almost an order of magnitude increase in Baltic Sea C-14 geochronological precision over the current state of the art. We propose that similar proxy methods can be developed for other brackish water bodies worldwide.

  • 84.
    Lund, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Decline Curve Analysis of Shale Oil Production: The Case of Eagle Ford2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production of oil and gas from shale is often described as a revolution to energyproduction in North America. Since the beginning of this century the shale oilproduction has increased from practically zero to currently supply almost half of theU.S. oil production. This development is made possible by the technology ofhorizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Since the production has not been ongoingfor that long, production data is still fairly limited in length and there are still largeuncertainties in many parameters, for instance production decline, lifespan, drainagearea, geographical extent and future technological development. More research isneeded to be able to estimate future production and resources with more certainty.

    At the moment shale oil is extracted only in North America but around the worldinvestigations are starting to assess if the conditions are suitable from shale oilextraction elsewhere. The global technically recoverable resource has been estimatedto 345 Gb, 10% of all global technically recoverable resources. Health andenvironmental aspects of shale oil and gas production have not yet been investigatedthoroughly and there is a risk that these parameters may slow down or limit thespreading of shale development.

    This report aims to examine production patterns of shale oil wells by applying declinecurve analysis. This analysis comprises of analyzing historical production data toinvestigate how the future production may develop. The area of the study is the EagleFord shale play in Texas, U.S. The goal is to fit decline curves to production data andthen use them for making estimates of future production in the Eagle Ford.

    The production in the shale oil wells included in the study reach their peak already within a few months after production starts. After this point, production is declining.After one year, production has decreased by 75% and after two years the productionis 87% of the peak production. The hyperbolic decline curve has a good fit toproduction data and in many cases the curve is close to harmonic. It is too early todetermine whether the alternative decline curve that is tested, the scaling declinecurve, has a better fit in the long term. The report also investigates how the density of the petroleum affects the declinecurve. The result is that lighter products decline faster than heavier.

    A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate how different parameters affect thefuture production development. In addition to the wells’ decline rate, the assumptionson the maximum number of wells, the maximal production and the rate at which newwells are added affect the ultimately recoverable resource. These parameters all havelarge uncertainties and makes resource estimations more difficult.

  • 85.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Nature Conservancy, Delmont, NJ USA..
    King, Katie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Polpanich, Orn-Uma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Lacombe, Guillaume
    Int Water Management Inst, Viangchan, Laos..
    Assessing hydrologic changes across the Lower Mekong Basin2017In: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGY-REGIONAL STUDIES, ISSN 2214-5818, Vol. 12, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study region: In this study, 33 catchments across the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia are examined to detect historical changes in their hydrological response via a model-based methodology.

    Study focus: Intensive development over the past half century across Southeast Asia's Lower Mekong Basin has inevitably affected natural resources. Large areas have been converted from forests for subsistence and commercial agriculture, and urban development. We implement an innovative approach to screen hydrologic data for detecting impacts of such large-scale changes on hydrological response. In a first step, temporal changes in the rainfall-runoff relationship were assessed using the parsimonious, two-parameter GR2M hydrological model. In a second step, a distribution-free statistical test was applied to detect whether significant changes have occurred in the wet season (high flow) and dry season (low flow) conditions.

    New hydrological insights for the region: Our results indicate that the majority of catchments (64% of those considered) with sufficiently long data records exhibited no discernable trends in hydrological response. Those catchments that did exhibit significant trends in hydrological response were fairly evenly split between increasing trends (between 21% and 24%) and decreasing trends (between 15% and 12%) with time. There was a lack of evidence that these changes where brought about by shifts in precipitation or potential evapotranspiration; however, catchments exhibiting significant increasing trends in hydrological behavior were found to have different land cover compositions (lower percentage of forest coverage and subsequently higher paddy rice coverage) than those exhibiting significant decreasing trends. The approach presented here provides a potentially valuable screening method to highlight regions for further investigation of improved mechanistic understanding. Without this connection, we might be blind to future hydrological shifts that can have significant impact on development.

  • 86.
    Mander, Sarah
    et al.
    Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Manchester M13 4PL, Lancs, England..
    Anderson, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Manchester M13 4PL, Lancs, England.
    Larkin, Alice
    Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Manchester M13 4PL, Lancs, England..
    Gough, Clair
    Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Manchester M13 4PL, Lancs, England..
    Vaughan, Naomi
    Univ East Anglia, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
    The role of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage in meeting the climate mitigation challenge: A whole system perspective2017In: 13Th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Ghgt-13 / [ed] Dixon, T Laloui, L Twinning, S, Elsevier, 2017, p. 6036-6043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role and implications of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) for addressing the climate change mitigation challenge. Framed within the context of the latest emissions budgets, and their associated uncertainty, we present a summary of the contribution of BECCS within the Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) scenarios used by the climate change community. Within this discussion we seek to shed light on two important areas. Firstly, that BECCS is a central, but often hidden element of many of the modelling work that underpins climate policy from the global to the national scale. The second area we address are the assumptions for BECCS embedded within IAM models, and the wider system consequences of these implied levels of deployment. In light of these challenges, we question whether BECCS can deliver what is anticipated of it within existing climate change policy. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 87. Mellstrom, Anette
    et al.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Stanton, Tania
    Muscheler, Raimund
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Suttie, Neil
    Post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in depth in precisely dated varved sediments assessed by archaeomagnetic field models2015In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 410, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and precise chronologies are needed to evaluate the existence and effect of a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in process on sedimentary palaeomagnetic records. Here we present lock-in modelling results of two palaeomagnetic records from varved lake sediments (lakes Kalksjon and Gyltigesjon) in Sweden by using model predictions based on archaeomagnetic data. We used the C-14 wiggle-match dating technique to improve the precision of the Kalksjon varve chronology in the period between 3000 and 2000 cal BP, which is characterized by pronounced palaeomagnetic secular variation. This method allowed us to infer an age model with uncertainties of +/- 20 years (95.4% probability range). Furthermore, we compared the palaeomagnetic record of Kalksjon to Gyltigesjon, which has a corresponding 14C wiggle-matched chronology. The ages of palaeomagnetic features derived from the wiggle-matched varve chronologies are older than those predicted by the archaeomagnetic models. Lock-in modelling was performed with different filter functions to explain the temporal offset and the amplitude of the lake sediment palaeomagnetic data. The analyses suggest that a linear lock-in function with lock-in depths (the depth below which no more natural magnetic remanence is acquired) that range between 30 and 80 cm in Kalksjon and 50 and 160 cm in Gyltigesjon are most appropriate to explain the data. These relatively deep lock-in depths in sediments without a bioturbated 'mixed-zone' can be attributed to the relatively high organic contents and low density of the lake sediments, which contribute to a thick unconsolidated upper zone of the sediment sequence in which re-alignment of magnetic particles can take place.

  • 88.
    Mohr, Steve
    et al.
    The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Mudd, Gavin
    University of New South Wales, Institute of Environmental Studies.
    Evans, Geoffrey
    The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering.
    Projection of long-term paths for Australian coal production: comparisons of four models2011In: International Journal of Coal Geology, ISSN 0166-5162, E-ISSN 1872-7840, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 329-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal exports are an important source of revenue for Australia and for this reason Australian coal production and resources have been examined in detail and two recoverable resource estimates determined namely Standard and High. The Standard case calculated the likely recoverable coal resources in Australia to be 317 Gt, whereas the High scenario determined the maximal amount of recoverable coal resources at 367 Gt. Different modelling approaches (Logistic, Gompertz, Static and Dynamic supply and demand models) were used to project fossil fuel production and the projections of the relative approaches were compared. Good agreement was found between the Logistic, Static and Dynamic supply and demand models with production peaking in 2119 +/- 6 at between 1.9 and 3.3 Gt/y. Contrasting these projections the Gompertz curves peak in 2084 +/- 5 at 1-1.1 Gt/y. It was argued that the Logistic, Static and Dynamic models are more likely to produce accurate projections than the Gompertz curve. The production forecast is based on existing technology and constraints and a qualitative discussion is presented on possible influences on future production, namely: export capacity, climate change, overburden management, environmental and social impacts and export market issues.

  • 89. Norstrom, E.
    et al.
    Neumann, F. H.
    Scott, L.
    Smittenberg, R. H.
    Holmstrand, H.
    Lundqvist, S.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Sundqvist, H. S.
    Risberg, J.
    Bamford, M.
    Late Quaternary vegetation dynamics and hydro-climate in the Drakensberg, South Africa2014In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 105, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-proxy study of a sediment sequence from Braamhoek wetland, covering the last c. 16,000 years, reveals a record of regional climate and vegetation dynamics in the Drakensberg region, South Africa, including signals from both the organic sediment fraction (fossil pollen, charcoal, n-alkane abundance, n-alkane delta C-13, TOC) and the inorganic fraction (mineral magnetic properties). The reconstruction, supported by a robust chronology, indicates two major periods of increased regional wetness during the late Pleistocene to early Holocene phase (c. 13,800-12,600 cal yr BP; c. 10,200-8500 cal yr BP) and one during the late Holocene (c. 2000 cal yr BP to present). Drier conditions are recorded during the Younger Dryas (c. 12,600-11,300 cal yr BP) and mid-Holocene (c. 7000-2000 cal yr BP). A major decline in fynbos vegetation during the early Holocene suggests a shift towards warmer temperatures and possibly towards less pronounced winter rains in eastern South Africa from c. 8500 cal yr BP. Comparison with records from interior of South Africa show relatively high inter-site variability, however, the Braamhoek moisture proxies do co-vary with the speleothem isotope records from Makapansgat, suggesting a similar hydro-climate evolution in eastern and interior parts of the summer rainfall region during the studied period. On multi-millennial time scales, an inverse hydro-climatological pattern is evident between these two South African records and reconstructions from tropical locations in southeast Africa. Such a rainfall dipole between eastern tropical and southern Africa, has previously been identified on shorter time scales, i.e. on inter-annual to millennial scales. The Braamhoek study suggests that a similar dipole pattern is acting also on a multi-millennial perspective. These long-term precipitation anomalies are tentatively coupled to teleconnections from multi-millennial changes in the dynamics of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). 

  • 90.
    Obrochta, S. P.
    et al.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Int Resource Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Andren, T.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Fazekas, S. Z.
    Akita Univ, Grad Sch Engn Sci, Akita, Japan..
    Lougheed, Bryan C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Yokoyama, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Atmosphere & Ocean Res Inst, Chiba, Japan..
    Miyairi, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Atmosphere & Ocean Res Inst, Chiba, Japan..
    Kondo, R.
    Kogakuin Univ, Educ Dev Ctr, Tokyo, Mie, Japan..
    Kotilainen, A. T.
    Geol Survey Finland, Marine Geol, Espoo, Finland..
    Hyttinen, O.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, Helsinki, Finland..
    Fehr, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Appl Geophys & Geothermal Energy, Aachen, Germany..
    The undatables: Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin-IODP Site M00632017In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 858-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of > 1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper similar to 1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper similar to 1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk C-14 dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.

  • 91.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Water use in the Chinese coal industry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater resources are getting increasingly scarce throughout the world. In 21th century China, coal is the fuel of the nation’s economic growth. Coal is also the nation’s largest source of industrial water use. The objective of this thesis is to project water use in the Chinese coal industry up until 2035 by presenting two scenarios simulating two different approaches to water management policies.Literature studies makes up the base for estimating water use in three stages in the coal’s life cycle; mining, washing, and combustion. Through univariate sensitivity analysis, significant parameters are identified and included in the scenario modeling. Key for the study is the separation of water withdrawal rates and water consumption rates.The results indicate that future coal production and electricity demand have strong influence on water consumption. The coal industry’s water consumption is expected to have increased by 18-28% by 2035 depending on water use policies. By 2035, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) will have increased annual water consumption by 24-63% from current levels, compared to an increase of 6-35% in a water saving scenario (WS). In terms of water withdrawal by 2035, the results show a 18-47% increase in the BAU scenario and a 9% decrease to 13% increase in the WS scenario. It is concluded that water management has high potential in mitigating and reducing water withdrawal rates, but failure to do so may result in a significant increase.

  • 92.
    O'Regan, Matt
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Cilmate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coxall, Helen K.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Cilmate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    US Geol Survey, Florence Bascom Geosci Ctr, 959 Natl Ctr, Reston, VA 22092 USA.
    Gyllencreutz, Richard
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Cilmate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Cilmate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaboth, Stefanie
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Earth Sci, Heidelberg, Germany;Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Geosci, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lowemark, Ludvig
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Geosci, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wiers, Steffen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    West, Gabriel
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Cilmate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stratigraphic Occurrences of Sub-Polar Planktic Foraminifera in Pleistocene Sediments on the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean2019In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 7, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turborotalita quinqueloba is a species of planktic foraminifera commonly found in the sub-polar North Atlantic along the pathway of Atlantic waters in the Nordic seas and sometimes even in the Arctic Ocean, although its occurrence there remains poorly understood. Existing data show that T. quinqueloba is scarce in Holocene sediments from the central Arctic but abundance levels increase in sediments from the last interglacial period [Marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, 71-120 ka] in cores off the northern coast of Greenland and the southern Mendeleev Ridge. Turborotalita also occurs in earlier Pleistocene interglacials in these regions, with a unique and widespread occurrence of the less known Turborotalita egelida morphotype, proposed as a biostratigraphic marker for MIS 11 (474-374 ka). Here we present results from six new sediment cores, extending from the central to western Lomonosov Ridge, that show a consistent Pleistocene stratigraphy over 575 km. Preliminary semi-quantitative assessments of planktic foraminifer abundance and assemblage composition in two of these records (LOMROG12-7PC and AO16-5PC) reveal two distinct stratigraphic horizons containing Turborotalita in MIS 5. Earlier occurrences in Pleistocene interglacials are recognized, but contain significantly fewer specimens and do not appear to be stratigraphically coeval in the studied sequences. In all instances, the Turborotalita specimens resemble the typical T. quinqueloba morphotype but are smaller (63-125 mu m), smooth-walled and lack the final thickened calcite layer common to adults of the species. These results extend the geographical range for T. quinqueloba in MIS 5 sediments of the Arctic Ocean and provide compelling evidence for recurrent invasions during Pleistocene interglacials.

  • 93.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Forest Resource Management, NILS, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. wedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    Gaps in ecological research on the world's largest internationally coordinated network of protected areas: A review of Natura 20002016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 200, p. 216-227Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natu