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  • 51.
    Binz, Sophia Leandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    The Role of Norms in Enhancing Legitimacy of International Climate Agreements2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis deals with international climate agreements and their legitimacy, using the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol as examples. The thesis examines sociological legitimacy as a possible reason for implementation deficiencies of international climate agreements. Sociological legitimacy of an international agreement, as defined by Bernstein (2005), is hinged on a normative consensus among the international community adopting the agreement in question. In order to determine the degree of sociological legitimacy in the illustrative cases, a critical discourse analysis is employed as a method to identify and sort the explicit and implicit norms of the agreements according to various and contrasting sustainability discourses. This analysis allows for an assessment of the internal consistency of the norms in each case, ultimately leading to conclusions about the extent to which sociological legitimacy is present or not. The results show that neither of the two cases portray an internally consistent application of norms, and therefore lack sociological legitimacy. Further research into the sustainability norms in a given nation or society is needed for determining the external sociological legitimacy of both agreements, thus providing a final conclusion.

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  • 52.
    Biro, Josephine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kommuners bedömningar i masshanteringsfrågor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I bygg- och anläggningsarbeten uppkommer jord- och bergmassor vilka utgör fasta eller lösa markmaterial som måste grävas upp, förflyttas eller kan användas i byggnadsprocessen. Detta kallas med ett samlingsnamn för masshantering och hur den sker beror på hur massorna klassas, vad de innehåller och hur de är tänkta att användas i framtiden.                       Det är landets kommuner som är tillsynsmyndighet för masshantering och till hjälp i beslutsfattandet finns ett juridiskt reglerverk som definierar när massor utgör ett avfall, kan återanvänds eller kan återvinnas. Det finns även vägledning från Naturvårdsverket i form av rapporter och handböcker. Denna undersöknings syfte är att genom kvalitativa intervjuer och kvalitativ analys ta reda på hur tre utvalda kommuner (Linköping, Sigtuna och Söderhamn) använder sig av och tolkar det juridiska regelverket och Naturvårdsverkets vägledning för bedömningar i masshanteringsärenden. Undersökningens resultat visar att alla de undersökta kommunerna använder det juridiska regelverket och Naturvårdsverkets rapport 5976 ”Riktvärden för förorenad mark” (där riktvärden för känslig markanvändning och mindre känslig markanvändning definieras) på likartade sätt. Däremot skiljer sig tolkningen och tillämpningen av Naturvårdsverkets handbok 2010:1 ”Återvinning av avfall i anläggningsarbeten” (där riktvärden för mindre än ringa risk, ringa risk, mer än ringa risk samt nivåer för deponitäckning definieras) mellan kommunerna. Orsakerna till detta varierar från kommun till kommun.

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    Kommuners bedömningar i masshanteringsfrågor
  • 53.
    Bjälkefur Seroka, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Föroreningsspridning runt en deponi i Uppsala: Dataanalys och modellering2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills are globally the most common waste treatment method but in Sweden the method is since 2001 used only for waste that cannot be reused in any way. Before 2001, almost any type of waste could be landfilled. Today a landfill is used as a final storage and old landfills are capped to minimize infiltration and contaminant transport. A capping consists of several layers which together seal and drain the landfill surface. Storing waste in a capped landfill is considered an environmentally hazardous activity, therefore it is of great interest to monitor the surrounding groundwater during and after capping to make sure that any contaminant concentrations decreases.

    At Hovgården waste treatment plant in Uppsala, Sweden, a landfill used since 1971 was capped during 2018. Elevated contaminant concentrations have been measured in two monitoring wells close to the landfill after the capping procedure started. The aim of this master thesis was to increase the understanding of trends in contaminant concentrations and to investigate how capping affects groundwater levels and concentrations. Concentration data were compiled and statistical tools in R were used to analyze trends. Additionally, a groundwater model of the area was created in MODFLOW and MT3DMS. The model was used to simulate different steady state scenarios with and without chloride transport.

    Twelve of 33 analyzed substances and parameters show a statistically significant increase. These are alkalinity, electrical conductance, sulphate, chloride, calcium, sodium, sulfur, potassium, magnesium, strontium, barium and nitrate. Six show a decrease, these are pH, cadmium, zinc, mercury, lead and arsenic. The groundwater model indicates that the groundwater flow in the landfill is directed towards the rest of the waste treatment plant except for two places where leakage occurs: the southwest and southeast corners of the landfill. The capping results in lower groundwater levels and an altered groundwater divide, which will reduce the contaminant leakage, particularly in the southwest part. Model simulations with varying recharge and chloride concentrations showed that the increase in chloride levels cannot be explained with only decreased infiltration combined with increased concentrations. Therefore, the explanation is assumed to be other physical processes and possibly chemical reactions due to or at the same time as the capping. The model parameters that effected the simulated concentrations to the greatest extent are the conductances in drains, and the hydraulic conductivity of the till soil.

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    Sofia_BjalkefurSeroka
  • 54.
    Björgúlfsson, Páll
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Numerical Model of a Fossil Hydrothermal System in the Southern East Pacific Rise Exposed at Pito Deep2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Mid Ocean Ridge system with its volcanism and related hydrothermal activity has been a subject for many studies since the discovery of high temperature hydrothermal vents at the ridge surfaces in the 1970´s. This thesis focuses on deep sea hydrothermal activity on a superfast spreading ridge, the SouthernEast Pacific Rise (SEPR).The ridge is located in the South Pacific, off the coast of South America, and separates the Nazca Plate and the Pacific Plate. A fossil high temperature hydrothermal zone hosted by a fault was sampled 80 m below the lava/dike transition zone in the Pito Deep (a tectonic window intothe SEPR). Geochemical data from the fault zone indicates that cold (<150°C)and hot (<390°) fluids coexisted at the same time whilst the hydrothermal system was active. A numerical model (HYDROTHERM) developed by the USGS was used to recreate the geological settings in the SEPR in order to try to model the hydrothermal activity and fluid flow. The model solves two governingpartial differential equations numerically, the water component flow equation(Darcy law for flow in porous media) and the thermal energy transport equation(conservation of enthalpy for the water component and the porous media). The result of the modeling indicates that cold seawater can penetrate from the relatively permeable volcanic material into a highly permeable fault zone in the sheeted dike unit. The cooler seawater fluid flows down the fault zone,reheats and flows up again in a narrow upflow zone at the edge of the fracture/sheeted dike boundary. The result is a horizontal temperature gradient created in the fractured zone supporting the theory that hot and cold fluids can coexist in a fault hosted hydrothermal zone.

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  • 55.
    Björk, Isabella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Reaching the EU plastic packaging goal- The Swedish strategy and its effectiveness2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined the Swedish strategy to reach the goal in the recently launched EU Directive 2018/852, which has increased ambition levels for plastic packaging recycling to 55% by 2030, and also sharpened the criteria for what counts as recycling compared to previous versions. For this, the thesis will attempt to answer the following questions: 

    How does the Swedish plastic packaging recycling situation look like today? What measures have been taken and proposed by the Swedish Government and the private sector in order to reach the new EU goal of 55% recycling rate of plastic packaging by 2030? To what extent are these measures likely to contribute to reaching the goal? 

    In order to answer the questions, the thesis combined primary and secondary data in the form of reports, peer- reviewed articles and interviews with relevant experts in the field, analysed the findings from the perspective of Ecological Modernisation theory and also built scenarios to analyse plausible developments in a quantitative manner. The thesis argued on the basis of the findings that there are indeed many challenges with plastic recycling, however, there are many opportunities to overcome these. These opportunities come in the shape of various initiatives launched by both the Swedish Government, and the private sector. 

    The thesis concludes that straightforward, yet impactful changes will have a massive effect on the system as it stands today and recommends the following guidelines for future approach: 

    • Design for recyclability
    • Creating a sustainable combination of initiatives 
    • Continuous governmental facilitation 
    • Governmental supervision and self-reflection 
  • 56.
    Björkman, Ella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Implementing Nature-based Solutions in the City of Stockholm – A Case Study on Policy’s Effect on Nature-based Solutions in Stockholm Royal Seaport2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global mean temperature is continuously increasing despite of the Paris Agreement’s goal of keeping it from rising more than 1.5-2°C above pre-industrial levels. Cities are the main contributors to the increasing temperature as they emit more than 70% of total global CO2 emissions. Therefore, it is important to achieve net-zero emissions in cities to stop temperature from increasing further. Nature-based Solutions (NbS) have proven to be a cost-effective strategy to reduce CO2 emissions in urban environments (by up to 25%). Research needs to be conducted on how NbS should be incorporated into policy for them to have the best effects and desired outcomes. This thesis explores how NbS can be effectively implemented in environmental policies to reach set goals and achieve desired effects. It aims to explore factors in the Stockholm Royal Seaport (SRS) environmental policy that can strengthen and constrain the implementation of NbS. The intention of this thesis is also to learn how this area’s policy affects the collaboration between stakeholders, including residents, in this area. The research questions of this thesis are: (1) What are the environmental policies related to Nature-based Solutions used by Stockholm Royal Seaport to achieve climate positivity and strengthen ecosystem services? (2) What key factors in the environmental policies in Stockholm Royal Seaport can be identified as supporting or constraining the implementation of Nature-based Solutions? (3) How do the environmental policies in Stockholm Royal Seaport affect the collaboration among stakeholders in this area? A case study on SRS is conducted to answer these questions. The data is collected from this area’s latest steering document and sustainability report, and interviews. Thematic analysis is used to analyse the collected data. The results from the exploratory research are that SRS’s policies presented in goal four of the steering document, such as the promotion of blue and green infrastructure, positively affect the NbS used in this area to strengthen ecosystem services. However, these solutions are not explicitly identified as strategies to achieve climate positivity. Two key factors that support implementing NbS in SRS have been identified. The first is the requirement for developments to follow the stormwater management strategy and the Green Space Index. Second is the encouragement of collaboration between stakeholders. Three key constraining factors identified are: 1) the lack of definition and communication of the NbS strategies, and the reason for implementing them; 2) the lack of mention and explanation of NbS in the steering document; 3) limiting budgets. The policy in SRS is highly focused on, and encourages, collaboration and knowledge development between stakeholders, therefore, it is concluded that this area’s policy has a positive effect on this policy aspect and contributes to increasing collaboration. 

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  • 57.
    Björkvik, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Blyth, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Danley, Brian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Informing obligations: Best practice information for catch‐and‐release in Swedish local recreational fisheries management2023In: Fisheries Management and Ecology, ISSN 0969-997X, E-ISSN 1365-2400, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 310-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catch-and-release (C&R) is a popular management tool that can support sustainable development of recreational fisheries, if anglers adopt scientifically informed “best practices.” However, although the role of best practices is widely established in the academic literature, this knowledge is not always disseminated to anglers. In this paper, we investigated if and to what extent local management organizations provided best practice information to anglers. Based on a sample of 331 Swedish organizations, we reviewed the websites through which these organizations sold fishing licenses. Our review demonstrated widespread use of C&R as a management tool yet a general lack of best practice information. Among the small fraction of organizations that mentioned best practices, most mentioned only a single practice, with little consistency among practices that received attention. In addition, best practice information was particularly lacking for pike (Esox Lucius) and perch (Perca fluviatilis), which are by far the most landed and released species nationally. We discovered major knowledge deficiencies that provide insights about where and how to focus efforts for improving best practice information, in the context of local recreational fisheries management.

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  • 58.
    Björnsdotter, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Miljökonsekvenser på flygplatser som uppkommer vid trafikering med elflygplan2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is in a transition for a more sustainable future and that includes more environ- mentally friendly transport. Electric aircrafts are under development and they can fulfill a purpose to reduce the environmental impact from air trac. The electric aircrafts that are expected to first be in use have a passenger capacity of 19 people and can fly 400 km. To gain an understanding of the total environmental impact of electric aircraft, the environmental consequences that may arise around airports were investigated. The study was limited to analyzing the air pollutants that occur in the LTO-cycle, which includes the aircraft’s movements on the ground and up to 915 m altitude. The environmental consequences that are primarily aected by the use of electric aircraft are energy consumption and air pollution. Water and noise pollution were also analyzed. As expected, electric energy consumption will increase with the use of electric aircrafts and it increases with the number of electric aircraft in use. To reduce power peaks at airports that arise when charging, energy storage with batteries or hydrogen may be used. The electric aircraft have no emissions of air pollutants and the emissions around airports will therefore be reduced. The more electric aircrafts in trac, the greater the reduction in air pollution will be. The noise distribution can be expected to decrease at take-o with electric aircrafts, while higher noise levels can be expected when landing, especially since battery-electric aircraft are heavy at landing because the weight of the batteries does not decrease with the flight distance. For electric aircraft to be a more environmentally friendly alternative from an airport perspective, the energy used to charge the aircraft must come from sustainable sources. The main dierence between battery electric aircraft and fuel cell aircrafts will be the infrastructure required at the airport. Aircraft with fuel cells and hydrogen as fuel will also have water vapor as a residual product during flight, while battery-electric aircrafts have zero emissions to the air. A changed travel pattern is also conceivable, where the electric aircraft fulfill a transport alternative from smaller airports to larger airports for further travel. This could reduce passenger transports around the larger airports such as Arlanda. As the electric aircraft don’t use aviation fuel, transports of aviation fuel will also be reduced.

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  • 59.
    Blazeviciute, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Illustrative ElectricitySupply Scenarios and Sustainable Development in Lithuania2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lithuania has limited domestic energy resources, and is therefore, heavily dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas. Lithuania imported around 90% of its oil and 100% of natural gas in 2009. Particularly, after the accession to the European Union (EU), and decommissioning of main electricity generation source Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), energy security became one of the main concerns. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate different pathways the country could take in order to achieve desirable energy security, and ensure sustainable development of the energy system in Lithuania. The study was conducted using LEAP, the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to develop energy policy analysis. Different scenarios presented in the report show how Lithuanian energy system would react in given different circumstances. Moreover, it demonstrates how implementation of existing energy projects separately or combined together would affect the level of energy security and sustainability in Lithuania.

    The research shows that current government policies could lead Lithuania to more secure and sustainable energy future. However, in a long run higher investments in renewable energy might be more environmentally and economically competitive alternative.

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  • 60.
    Boldkhuyag, Enkhtuya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Values and pro environmental behaviour among Mongolian adolescents:Implications for ESD2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to contribute in the understanding of key values and behaviours for

    Education for sustainable development and their correlations and to further develop

    knowledge about how they are distributed among upper secondary school students in

    relation to socio-demographic factors. There were 274 surveys collected in 5 different

    schools in Ulaanbaatar and analysed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test and

    Pearson’s correlation tests.

    The study supports the findings of previous research that universal, benevolence and

    traditional values are positively correlated with a positive environmental behaviour.

    The positive orientation towards sustainability suggest that the current adolescent

    Mongolian population can become potential environmental supporters with a strong

    motivation towards sustainable behaviour and attitudes. The demographic and social

    factors were weak in relation to value orientations, no significant difference observed

    in value orientation. There was a notable gender difference in pro environmental

    behaviour which aligned with many existing academic studies.

    Social factors in relation to environmentally friendly attitude suggested that pro

    environmental adolescents were somehow exposed to the natural environment and

    read books during their free time displayed increasingly positive behaviour toward the

    environment. Therefore this study emphasises the importance of encouraging informal

    outdoor activities and increasing the access and popularity of reading books among

    youths. These measures would also serve to strengthen the benevolence value and

    promote pro environmental behaviour.

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  • 61.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Adaptation to climate change as social-ecological trap: a case study of fishing and aquaculture in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1527-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which people respond to climate change are frequently analyzed and explained with the term "adaptation." Conventionally, adaptation is understood as adjustments in behavior either to mitigate harm or to exploit opportunities emerging from climate change. The idea features prominently in scientific analyses as well as in policy programs. Despite its growing popularity over the years, the concept has also received critique. Social scientists in particular take issue with the implicit assumptions about human behavior and "fitness advantages" (or optimal behavior) that come with the term. Clearly, not all human and animal behavioral responses are "optimal" or display "fitness advantages." To the contrary, sub-optimal and maladaptive behavior is rather widespread. Explaining the possibility of maladaptive or sub-optimal behavior led scholars to introduce the idea of "traps." Trap situations refer to a mismatch between behavior and the social and/or ecological conditions in which this behavior takes place. This paper reviews the analytical value of traps for the study of human responses to climate change. It first lays out the theoretical assumptions underpinning the concept. A case study of the Tam Giang Lagoon, in central Vietnam, is used to evaluate how well the trap concept captures the sub-optimality and variety of human responses to climate change.

  • 62.
    Bordiga, Manuela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Bartol, Milos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Henderiks, Jorijntje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Absolute nannofossil abundance estimates: quantifying the pros and cons of different techniques2015In: Revue de Micropaléontologie, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quick and inexpensive method to determine absolute nannofossil abundance in deep sea sediments – the “drop” technique (modified dilution method) – was compared to two other available methods – the filtration and random settling techniques. All techniques rely on the same basic principle, under which a volume of known concentration (bulk sediment weight/mL) is distributed evenly over a known total area (glass slide or filter) to then count particles within a set of (randomly) selected fields of view. The three preparation techniques were also calibrated by spiking the samples with microbeads to approach the “real values” as closely as possible. Significant offsets in abundance estimates between methods mainly reflect bias due to the uneven distribution and/or loss of particles. We show that the drop technique is most consistent and accurate in estimating “real values” and offers similar or better reproducibility than the other techniques. The drop method also allows detection of the same trends with or without calibration with microbeads. The filtration method holds the risk to drastically underestimate absolute abundances, while the settling technique is demanding in terms of time and may suffer from advection processes. The composition of nannofossil assemblages can be reliably determined by any of the three different techniques.

  • 63.
    Borgersen, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Business models for sustainable investments in the context of tropical forest restoration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Tropics continue to provide the most biologically diverse and carbon rich forest in the world, but they are being lost at alarming rates. To meet the global climate change targets and the UN sustainable development goals, financing is urgently needed to speed up and increase tropical forest restoration. The aim of this thesis is to show that sustainable timber and non-timber forest products offer are a viable vehicle for investment in tropical forest restoration and to identify the needed incentives and tools to enable sustainable investment.

     

    There is a lack of research on the integration between business model design and sustainability generally and an absence of business models for tropical forest restoration. Very little research if any, has been undertaken to link the two and evaluate the feasibility of applying business models on tropical forest restoration, especially with regard to its potential as an interesting investment option. This thesis gives a background about tropical forest restorations, sustainable investment, presents three tropical reforestation projects and a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework will be used to evaluate the potential for business model application to finance restoration and enable sustainable investments.

     

    Using a business model for tropical forest restoration projects, which in most cases are not defined as businesses, is an innovative approach and an agent of needed radical change. A business model is a crucial strategic management tool to enable success of tropical forest restorations. The core logic of the business model can offer equitable customer value and the fulfillment of new types of needs. Merging economic development and forest restoration is a powerful tool for innovation. The critical variables for financing are management, monitoring, operational efficiency, political incentives and regulations, stakeholder involvement, community benefits, transparency and information communication technology.

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  • 64.
    Borinder, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Postcranial anatomy of Tanius sinensis Wiman, 1929 (Dinosauria; Hadrosauroidea)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tanius sinensis Wiman, 1929 was one of the first hadrosauroid or “duck-billed” taxa erected from China, indeed one of the very first non-avian dinosaur taxa to be erected based on material from the country. Since the original description by Wiman in 1929, the anatomy of T. sinensis has received relatively little attention in the literature since then. This is unfortunate given the importance of T. sinensis as a possible non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid i.e. a member of Hadrosauroidea outside the family of Hadrosauridae, living in the Late Cretaceous, at a time when most non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids had become replaced by the members of Hadrosauridae. To gain a better understanding of the anatomy of T. sinensis and its phylogenetic relationships, the postcranial anatomy of it is redescribed. T. sinensis is found to have a mosaic of basal traits like strongly opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae, the proximal end of scapula being dorsoventrally wider than the distal end, the positioning of the ventral apex of the supra-acetabular process of the ilium, posterodorsally to the ischial peduncle, the ratio between the proximodistal length of the metatarsal III and the mediolateral width of this element being greater than 4.5. Derived traits present in T. sinensis include curved dorsal surface of the scapula, arcuate fourth trochanter of the femur, cnemial crest of the tibia extending ventrally into the proximal half of the shaft, and the distal end of the fibula expanding into a club shape in lateral view. A potential autapomorphy is noted, being the caudal fusion of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur forming a completely enclosed “tunnel”. The body mass of the holotype of T. sinensis, is also estimated, and found to have been around 2950 kg. The phylogenetic analysis agrees with previous studies placing T. sinensis as a non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid. Furthermore, in the phylogenetic analysis, T. sinensis is recovered as non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid, forming a clade with Bactrosaurus johnsoni Gilmore, 1933, which shares the following unambiguous synapomorphies; the width of the orbital margin of the jugal being almost equally wide to that of the infratemporal margin of the bone; the ratio between the mediolateral width of the skull roof across the postorbitals and that across the quadrate cotyli of the paired squamosals being more than 1.20.

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    Postcranial anatomy of Tanius sinensis Wiman, 1929 (Dinosauria; Hadrosauroidea)
  • 65.
    Borinder, Niclas H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Poropat, Stephen F.
    Australian Age Dinosaurs Nat Hist Museum, Winton, Qld 4735, Australia.;Monash Univ, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Reassessment of the earliest documented stegosaurian fossils from Asia2016In: Cretaceous research (Print), ISSN 0195-6671, E-ISSN 1095-998X, Vol. 68, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1929, the famous Swedish palaeontologist Carl Wiman documented the first unequivocal stegosaurian dinosaur fossils from Asia. His material comprised an isolated dermal spine, together with a dorsal vertebra that was briefly described but never figured. Since then these remains have languished in obscurity, being noted in some stegosaur review articles but often ignored altogether. However, recent auditing of the Museum of Evolution palaeontological collection at Uppsala University in Sweden has led to the rediscovery of Wiman's original specimens, as well as two additional previously unrecognised stegosaurian dorsal vertebrae. All of these bones derive from the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian) Mengyin Formation of Shandong Province in eastern China, and are morphologically compatible with the stratigraphically proximal stegosaurian taxon Wuerhosaurus from the Valanginian-Albian Tugulu Group in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China. Wirnan's seminal stegosaurian fossils thus expand current palaeobiogeographical distributions, and contribute to the otherwise enigmatic record of Early Cretaceous stegosaurian occurrences.

  • 66.
    Boström, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Avrinningens variation i det boreala landskapet: - en fallstudie i Strömsjöliden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 67. Botting, Joseph P.
    et al.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Peel, John S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    A Crown-Group Demosponge from the Early Cambrian Sirius Passet Biota, North Greenland2015In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration of the divergence times of sponge lineages and understanding of their phylogenetic history are hampered by the difficulty in recognizing crown versus stem groups in the fossil record. A new specimen from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3; approximately 515 Ma) Sirius Passet Biota of North Greenland has yielded a diagnostic spicule assemblage of the extant demosponge lineages Haploscleromorpha and/or Heteroscleromorpha. The specimen has disarticulated approximately in situ, but represents an individual sponge that possessed monaxon spicules combined with a range of slightly smaller sigma, toxa and unique spiral morphologies. The combination of spicule forms, together with their relatively large size, suggests that the sponge represents the stem lineage of Haploscleromorpha + Heteroscleromorpha. This is the first crown-group demosponge described from the early Cambrian and provides the most reliable calibration point currently available for phylogenetic studies.

  • 68. Botting, Joseph P.
    et al.
    Muir, Lucy A.
    Pates, Stephen
    McCobb, Lucy M. E.
    Wallet, Elise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Willman, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Zhang, Yuandong
    Ma, Junye
    A Middle Ordovician Burgess Shale-type fauna from Castle Bank, Wales (UK)2023In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 666-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burgess Shale-type faunas are critical to our understanding of animal evolution during the Cambrian, giving an unrivalled view of the morphology of ancient organisms and the ecology of the earliest animal-dominated communities. Rare examples in Lower Ordovician strata such as the Fezouata Biota illustrate the subsequent evolution of ecosystems but only from before the main phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Later Ordovician Konservat-Lagerstätten are not directly comparable with the Burgess Shale-type faunas as they do not represent diverse, open-shelf communities, limiting our ability to track ecological development through the critical Ordovician biodiversification interval. Here we present the Castle Bank fauna: a highly diverse Middle Ordovician Burgess Shale-type fauna from Wales (UK) that is directly comparable with the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang biotas in palaeoenvironment and preservational style. The deposit includes animals with morphologies similar to the iconic Cambrian taxa Opabinia, Yohoia and Wiwaxia, combined with early examples of more derived groups such as barnacles. Many taxa such as kinorhynchs show the small sizes typical of modern faunas, illustrating post-Cambrian miniaturization. Castle Bank provides a new perspective on early animal evolution, revealing the next chapter in ecosystem development following the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale and Fezouata biotas.

  • 69.
    Bovin, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Avgränsning av tillrinningsområden till grundvattenmagasin - vilken information ger berggrundens överyta?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of recharge areas for aquifers is performed in the groundwater mapping process at the Swedish geological survey, SGU. This work is time consuming and performed manually. It is therefore desirable to develop a more general and repeatable method for defining recharge areas for aquifers.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate two other possible methods to delineate recharge areas for aquifers. The first method was to examine the possibility of using the topography of the bedrock to define the recharge areas for aquifers. To enable this, a method for generating the topography of the bedrock was developed. The recharge area could then be defined by using the Arc Hydro Tools in ArcMap. The second method was to examine whether topographic water divides delimited from the ground surface topography could be used to delineate recharge areas for aquifers. For this purpose, topographic water divides from Svenskt Vatten ARkiv (SVAR) were used.

    The results show that it is possible to generate the topography of the bedrock by using information about the soil depth from the databases at SGU for small areas with a lot of data. In order to do the same over a larger area, for example the whole of Sweden, more data and perhaps other methods are needed. The topography of the bedrock gives a lot of new information in areas where the topography of the groundwater surface does not follow the topography of the ground surface, for example where deep soils with high hydraulic conductivity occur. In the outer part of the recharge areas thin layers of soil and outcrops often occur. This means that the topography of the bedrock is very similar to the topography of the ground surface and therefore does not give much new information.

    Recharge areas delineated from the bedrock topography are very large. This method is not complex enough to calculate the delineation of recharge areas using only the bedrock topography as an input. However, the bedrock topography can be used together with other information, especially the topography of the groundwater surface but also information about soil types and bedrock. The bedrock topography can also serve as background information in the work with delimiting recharge areas as it is done today.

    It is further shown that the topographic sub-catchments from SVAR are not suitable for defining recharge areas for aquifers. This is partly because the areas of the sub-catchments are entirely dependent on which point they are defined from and these points are chosen arbitrarily along the streams, and partly because the drainage direction of the sub-catchments is difficult to take into account when using this method.

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  • 70.
    Branigan, Mary Kate
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Ossification Patterns in the Pectoral Mesomeres of the Stem Lungfish Glyptolepis groenlandica and Implications for the Evolution of the Lungfish Appendicular Skeleton2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Devonian porolepiform Glyptolepis groenlandica (Sarcopterygii) is a key taxon for understanding the early evolution of lungfish fins. However, due to technical limitations, past research on the species has focused on the external morphology of the appendicular skeleton, and no histological analysis of the internal bone structure has been conducted thus far. Investigating the bone microstructure of this taxon is essential to shed light on the early evolutionary steps of the lungfish (and more generally, sarcopterygian) fin skeleton. Using propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography, the pectoral fin of Glyptolepis groenlandica (NHMD 152554 and NHMD 141677) was scanned. These scans were used to create a three-dimensional model of the fin segments—called mesomeres—to reveal their internal patterns and structures. Segmentation shows that the trabeculae of the proximal mesomeres of the fin are oriented longitudinally with denser trabecular mesh present in the distal and proximal ends of the mesomere. The core of the mesomeres has been infilled with sediment around three-dimensionally preserved short vascular canals. The three-dimensional preservation of these canals suggests that the inner core of the mesomere is intact, and the sediment infilling has replaced formerly unmineralized tissue such as cartilage. The trabecular organization and density distribution around this core suggests that, as in tetrapod long bones, appendicular skeletal elongation took place and implies that the framework for a complex long-bone spongiosa and the elongation process were already established in stem lungfishes. This is significant for our understanding of the evolutionary pathways that led to the derived condition of the lungfish skeleton.

    The full text will be freely available from 2026-06-22 14:06
  • 71.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zopfi, Jakob
    Aquatic and Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry, University of Basel, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland.
    Buck, Moritz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jingying, Xu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
    Poté, John
    Environmental Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Geneva, Geneva CH-1205, Switzerland.
    Cosio, Claudia
    Environmental Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Geneva, Geneva CH-1205, Switzerland.;Unité Stress Environnementaux et BIOSurveillance des Milieux Aquatiques UMR-I 02 (SEBIO), Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims F-51687, France.
    Geobacteraceae are important members of mercury-methylating microbial communities of sediments impacted by waste water releases2018In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 12, p. 802-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial mercury (Hg) methylation in sediments can result in bioaccumulation of the neurotoxin methylmercury (MMHg) in aquatic food webs. Recently, the discovery of the gene hgcA, required for Hg methylation, revealed that the diversity of Hg methylators is much broader than previously thought. However, little is known about the identity of Hg-methylating microbial organisms and the environmental factors controlling their activity and distribution in lakes. Here, we combined high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and hgcA genes with the chemical characterization of sediments impacted by a waste water treatment plant that releases significant amounts of organic matter and iron. Our results highlight that the ferruginous geochemical conditions prevailing at 1–2 cm depth are conducive to MMHg formation and that the Hgmethylating guild is composed of iron and sulfur-transforming bacteria, syntrophs, and methanogens. Deltaproteobacteria, notably Geobacteraceae, dominated the hgcA carrying communities, while sulfate reducers constituted only a minor component, despite being considered the main Hg methylators in many anoxic aquatic environments. Because iron is widely applied in waste water treatment, the importance of Geobacteraceae for Hg methylation and the complexity of Hgmethylating communities reported here are likely to occur worldwide in sediments impacted by waste water treatment plant discharges and in iron-rich sediments in general.

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  • 72.
    Bray, Jamieson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Cultural Cognition and Climate Change: Communicating climate science across potential divides in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human civilization is failing in the fight to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and limit the impact of anthropogenic climate change. Whilst there are likely numerous reasons for this inertia, societal risk perception plays a fundamental role in influencing the speed and effectiveness of political and social action to address climate change. This study presents the psychological, sociological and cultural reasons for variations in the perceptions of risk amongst a group of climate change sceptics in Sweden. Highlighting cognitive barriers and characteristics associated with different ideological biases and worldviews. The paper concludes that people become more or less sceptical to climate change based on a variety of potentially intersectional issues. Whilst gender, age and wisdom all play a role, the social groups with which people identify, as well as individuals’ values and ideas of what constitutes an ideal society ultimately shape ones perception of risk in relation to climate change. The implications for the communication of climate science are discussed, revealing that any inclusive communication strategy will fail unless it is presented in a way that affirms rather than challenges one’s cultural identity.

     

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  • 73.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland, Sweden2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Geology, stratigraphy, and fossil vertebrates of Gotland, Sweden: a review2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Silurian limestones of Gotland, Sweden, and their exceptionally well-preserved fossils have attracted the interest of scientists for more than 200 years. The sedimentary rocks represent approximately 10 million years of time, and were deposited in a shallow, equatorial inland sea named the Baltic Basin. The majority of the sediments are composed of reef-associated strata, but a general transition can be seen along the strike from shallow water in the northeast to deeper shelf environments in the southwest. The understanding of the stratigraphy and the geology of Gotland has greatly improved during the last decades. This research on Gotland has also led to the discovery of a series of stable isotope excursions and extinctions among several faunal groups. These events were probably linked to cycles in atmospheric and oceanic states, and three of them have been recognized globally. The Baltic Basin was also home to a variety of early vertebrates. The first fossil vertebrates from Gotland were reported in 1861, but the most extensive study of these early fishes was performed in the late 1900s. More recently it was shown that the vertebrates were also affected by one of the extinction events. This thesis is an extensive review of previous work and will form a geological basis for future studies. In this work, all previous reports of vertebrates have been gathered, reviewed, and the old samples have been placed in an updated stratigraphical framework. The scale taxonomy of Gotland vertebrates, including the Baltic acanthodians, has been evaluated and partly revised. Additionally, the depositional environments of the sampled areas have been investigated. Studying the vertebrates of Gotland is important for understanding the distribution of vertebrates through time and in different environments during the Silurian. Initial results indicate environmental preferences among vertebrates on both group and species-level, which may prove useful for testing the vertebrate biozonation developed for the Silurian.

    List of papers
    1. An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    2015 (English)In: Estonian journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1736-4728, E-ISSN 1736-7557, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    vertebrate distribution, stratigraphy, facies, Silurian events, Gotland, Sweden
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251824 (URN)10.3176/earth.2015.03 (DOI)000351327700004 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    2. Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, no 7, p. 1523-1541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland are described from the Winnica and Rzepin sections. Both sites record the uppermost part of the Supianka Member, but represent different depositional environments. The Winnica samples come from a low-energy environment, while the Rzepin sample was taken from a high-energy, oolitic facies. Both sites contain thelodonts Thelodus parvidens, Thelodus trilobatus, an anaspid cf. Liivilepis and a number of acanthodian scales of 'nostolepid', poracanthodid and 'gomphonchid' types. Notable differences between the sites are the addition of the osteostracan Tahulaspis cf. ordinata, the thelodont Paralogania ludlowiensis and acanthodian scales identified as Nostolepis gracilis in the Rzepin section. Placing the vertebrate faunas within the vertebrate biozonation established for the Silurian proved difficult. The suggested late Ludlow age for the Supianka Member based on sequence stratigraphical and chemostratigraphical correlations cannot be definitely confirmed or refuted, but a late Ludfordian age seems the most plausible based on invertebrate and vertebrate faunas. The much lower abundance of poracanthodid acanthodians in the Rzepin sample supports the notion of Poracanthodes porosus Zone as a deep-water equivalent to a number of vertebrate biozones. The presence of P. ludlowiensis only in the oolitic sample confirms a long temporal range, but restricted environmental distribution for this taxon.

    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281657 (URN)10.1017/S0016756817000681 (DOI)000443814900008 ()
    Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
  • 75.
    Bremer, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Silurian vertebrates of Gotland (Sweden) and the Baltic Basin2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Silurian, the Swedish island Gotland was positioned close to the equator and covered by a shallow sea called the Baltic Basin. The sedimentary rocks (predominantly carbonates) comprising most of the island today were initially formed in this warm sea, and the relatively complete succession of rocks often contains fossil fragments and scales from early vertebrates, including heterostracans, anaspids, thelodonts, osteostracans, acanthodians, and a stem-osteichthyan. Fossils of early vertebrates become increasingly more common in younger Silurian rocks, but are mostly represented by fragmentary remains and rarer occurrences of articulated jawless vertebrates (agnathans). However, the record of articulated specimens and jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) are more numerous in rocks of the following Devonian Period. Isolated peaks of agnathan diversity during the Silurian and disarticulated remains of gnathostomes from this period hint at a cryptic evolutionary history. A micropaleontological approach with broader sampling may provide a better understanding of early vertebrate distribution patterns and hopefully give some insights into this history. The objective of this study was to build upon previous sampling on Gotland and to use established frameworks for disarticulated remains with the aim of making comparisons with similar studies performed in the East Baltic. However, difficulties locating the collections from these previous works necessitated a different focus. Undescribed museum collections and newly sampled material enabled some taxonomical revisions and greatly improved the understanding of vertebrate distribution in the youngest part of the Gotland sequence. It also indicated that this interval may represent the early stages of the diversification of gnathostomes that become increasingly dominant toward the end of the Silurian. Furthermore, the description of samples from partly coeval sections in Poland enabled some preliminary comparisons outside of Gotland, and presented a striking example of restricted environmental occurrences for a thelodont taxon. This is encouraging for future sampling and investigations on Gotland. Together with the establishment of a facies-framework comparable to that developed in the East Baltic and correlations to other areas, this may prove fruitful for an increased understanding of early vertebrate distribution and evolution during the Silurian.

    List of papers
    1. An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An updated stratigraphic and environmental framework for the distribution of Silurian vertebrates on Gotland
    2015 (English)In: Estonian journal of earth sciences, ISSN 1736-4728, E-ISSN 1736-7557, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    vertebrate distribution, stratigraphy, facies, Silurian events, Gotland, Sweden
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251824 (URN)10.3176/earth.2015.03 (DOI)000351327700004 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    2. End-Wenlock terminal Mulde carbon isotope excursion in Gotland, Sweden: Integration of stratigraphy and taphonomy for correlations across restricted facies and specialized faunas
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-Wenlock terminal Mulde carbon isotope excursion in Gotland, Sweden: Integration of stratigraphy and taphonomy for correlations across restricted facies and specialized faunas
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 457, p. 304-322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299498 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.031 (DOI)000380598800025 ()
    Available from: 2016-07-21 Created: 2016-07-21 Last updated: 2017-08-21
    3. Vertebrate remains and conodont biostratigraphy in the Ludlow Burgsvik Formation of Gotland, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate remains and conodont biostratigraphy in the Ludlow Burgsvik Formation of Gotland, Sweden
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328226 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-20 Created: 2017-08-20 Last updated: 2017-08-25
    4. Vertebrate remains and conodonts in the upper Silurian Hamra and Sundre formations of Gotland, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate remains and conodonts in the upper Silurian Hamra and Sundre formations of Gotland, Sweden
    2020 (English)In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 142, no 1, p. 52-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A long history of geological research on the island of Gotland, Sweden, has resulted in a detailed biostratigraphy based on conodonts for the Gotland sedimentary succession, but the relation between the Hamra and Sundre formations, the youngest strata on southern Gotland, has remained poorly resolved. These formations have also remained relatively poorly described in terms of vertebrates compared to other parts of the succession. A survey of museum collections and newly sampled material reveal that the taxonomical compositions and richness of vertebrate faunas remain similar compared to the underlying Burgsvik Sandstone and Oolite members. However, the relative abundance of the respective groups changes: Paralogania ludlowiensis and rare osteostracan remains of Tahulaspis sp. only occur in samples from the lower Hamra Formation, while Thelodus sculptilis becomes more common in samples from Sundre Formation. Conodont and isotope data give support to previous suggestions that the Hamra and Sundre formations may be largely isochronous, and it is possible that the observed differences in vertebrate faunas reflect changes in depositional setting. This interval on Gotland has been suggested to represent a hiatus in the East Baltic sections, where younger strata show an increased importance of acanthodians in the vertebrate faunas. Gotland could therefore give insights into the early stages of this diversification of gnathostomes during late Silurian times. However, this has to be done in combination with data from other areas, as well as with a review and revision of the scale-based taxonomy of Silurian acanthodians from the Baltic Basin.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa UK Limited, 2020
    Keywords
    Vertebrate microremains, conodonts, isotope stratigraphy, upper Silurian, Gotland, Sweden
    National Category
    Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328227 (URN)10.1080/11035897.2019.1655790 (DOI)000487906900001 ()
    Note

    Title in Thesis List of papers: Vertebrate dermal remains and conodont distribution in the upper Silurian Hamra and Sundre formations of Gotland, Sweden

    Available from: 2017-08-20 Created: 2017-08-20 Last updated: 2021-03-25Bibliographically approved
    5. Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, no 7, p. 1523-1541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland are described from the Winnica and Rzepin sections. Both sites record the uppermost part of the Supianka Member, but represent different depositional environments. The Winnica samples come from a low-energy environment, while the Rzepin sample was taken from a high-energy, oolitic facies. Both sites contain thelodonts Thelodus parvidens, Thelodus trilobatus, an anaspid cf. Liivilepis and a number of acanthodian scales of 'nostolepid', poracanthodid and 'gomphonchid' types. Notable differences between the sites are the addition of the osteostracan Tahulaspis cf. ordinata, the thelodont Paralogania ludlowiensis and acanthodian scales identified as Nostolepis gracilis in the Rzepin section. Placing the vertebrate faunas within the vertebrate biozonation established for the Silurian proved difficult. The suggested late Ludlow age for the Supianka Member based on sequence stratigraphical and chemostratigraphical correlations cannot be definitely confirmed or refuted, but a late Ludfordian age seems the most plausible based on invertebrate and vertebrate faunas. The much lower abundance of poracanthodid acanthodians in the Rzepin sample supports the notion of Poracanthodes porosus Zone as a deep-water equivalent to a number of vertebrate biozones. The presence of P. ludlowiensis only in the oolitic sample confirms a long temporal range, but restricted environmental distribution for this taxon.

    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281657 (URN)10.1017/S0016756817000681 (DOI)000443814900008 ()
    Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
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  • 76.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Biostratigraphy of early vertebrates on Gotland2014In: 4th Annual Meeting of IGCP 591, Estonia, 10 - 19 June 2014.: Abstracts and Field Guide / [ed] Heikki Bauert, Olle Hints, Tõnu Meidla & Peep Männik, Tartu: University of Tartu, 2014, p. 21-21Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Biostratigraphy of Silurian vertebrates from Gotland, Sweden, revisited: understanding spatial and temporal distributions2015In: Abstract volume of the 13th International symposium on Early and Lower Vertebrates / [ed] Kate Trinajstic, Zerina Johanson, Martha Richter and Catherine Boisvert, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    CT-scan of Parasaurolophus tubicen from the Sternberg Collection (Uppsala University)2011In: The 2nd Wiman Meeting. Carl Wiman's Legacy: 100 Years of Swedish Palaeontology / [ed] Benjamin P. Kear and Michael Streng, 2011, p. 4-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1922, Carl Wiman, head of the then Palaeontological Institute at Uppsala University, received a series of crates containing dinosaur remains from the Upper Cretaceous (upper Campanian–Maastrichtian) Kirtland Formation of New Mexico, U.S.A. The specimens had been collected in 1921 by the famous American fossil hunter, Charles H. Sternberg, during a commissioned 5 month field expedition to the in the San Juan Basin. Arguably, one of the most significant specimens recovered was the partial skull of the spectacular crested hadrosaur Parasaurolophus tubicen. The holotype (PMU 24925) comprises the massive crest and neurocranium, together with parts of the pareital, frontal, prefrontals, postorbitals, squamosals and exoccipitals. The right quadrate is also preserved in articulation with the quadratojugal and pterygoid; the right jugal, maxilla, pterygoid, ectopterygoid and the anterior section of the lacrimal make up the facial region of the skull. Wiman was the first to propose that the crest of Parasaurolophus functioned as a vocalization structure. This study aims to investigate the functional morphology of the crest in this hadrosaur, in conjunction with endocranial anatomy, using CT-scanning and 3D modelling of the intracranial chambers. Comparisons with other specimens of Parasaurolophus will permit reconstruction of sensory capabilities in this 'classic' dinosaur taxon.

  • 79.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dec, Marek
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kozłowski, Wojciech
    Univ Warsaw, Inst Geol, Zwirki & Wigury 93, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland2018In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, no 7, p. 1523-1541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland are described from the Winnica and Rzepin sections. Both sites record the uppermost part of the Supianka Member, but represent different depositional environments. The Winnica samples come from a low-energy environment, while the Rzepin sample was taken from a high-energy, oolitic facies. Both sites contain thelodonts Thelodus parvidens, Thelodus trilobatus, an anaspid cf. Liivilepis and a number of acanthodian scales of 'nostolepid', poracanthodid and 'gomphonchid' types. Notable differences between the sites are the addition of the osteostracan Tahulaspis cf. ordinata, the thelodont Paralogania ludlowiensis and acanthodian scales identified as Nostolepis gracilis in the Rzepin section. Placing the vertebrate faunas within the vertebrate biozonation established for the Silurian proved difficult. The suggested late Ludlow age for the Supianka Member based on sequence stratigraphical and chemostratigraphical correlations cannot be definitely confirmed or refuted, but a late Ludfordian age seems the most plausible based on invertebrate and vertebrate faunas. The much lower abundance of poracanthodid acanthodians in the Rzepin sample supports the notion of Poracanthodes porosus Zone as a deep-water equivalent to a number of vertebrate biozones. The presence of P. ludlowiensis only in the oolitic sample confirms a long temporal range, but restricted environmental distribution for this taxon.

  • 80.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Turner, Susan
    Queensland Museum Geosci, 122 Gerler Rd, Hendra, Qld 4011, Australia.
    Marss, Tiiu
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Dept Geol, Ehitajate Tee 5, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Silurian vertebrate remains from the Oslo Region, Norway, and their implications for regional biostratigraphy2019In: Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-196X, E-ISSN 1502-5322, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 129-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several vertebrate assemblages are described from the Silurian of the Oslo Region, Norway, based on the review and revision of previous reports of microremains, as well as unpublished material from museum collections. Articulated thelodont specimens from the Rudstangen Fauna, Ringerike Group, are also described here for the first time, revealing a seemingly monogeneric loganelliid assemblage. The oldest assemblage (mid-Llandovery) only contains the thelodont Loganellia cf. aldridgei, while a single sample from upper Llandovery strata produced four Thelodus sp. scales. These scales share features with those from younger Thelodus taxa and give additional support to an early appearance of this genus. The mid-Wenlock faunas consist of thelodonts Loganellia grossi, Loganellia einari and Thelodus laevis. These are joined by the thelodont Paralogania martinssoni, anaspids Rhyncholepis parvula and cf. Pterygolepis nitida, as well as the osteostracans cf. Tyriaspis whitei and Osteostraci gen. et sp. indet. in late Wenlock and earliest Ludlow faunas. These complement the previously described anaspids and osteostracans of the Rudstangen Fauna based on articulated specimens. The faunas of a number of calcarenite samples collectively contain the thelodonts L. grossi, L. einari, P. martinssoni and T. laevis, and are most likely of early Ludlow age. When the vertebrate-producing samples are put in the proposed stratigraphical framework for the Oslo Region that has been refined in recent decades, the faunas fit well into the vertebrate biozonation established for the Silurian, contrary to previous claims. The earliest faunas in the area show similarities to the Llandovery of Britain, whereas thelodonts and anaspids, but not osteostracans, from late Wenlock and early Ludlow are more closely related to Baltic forms. Additional sampling of the area may assist in refining the biostratigraphy and provide insights into Silurian vertebrate distributions in Norway and related regions.

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  • 81.
    Breuillard, H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Yordanova, Emiliya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vaivads, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Alexandrova, O.
    LESIA Observ Paris Meudon, Meudon, France..
    The Effects Of Kinetic Instabilities On Small-Scale Turbulence In Earth's Magnetosheath2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 829, no 1, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's magnetosheath is the region delimited by the bow shock and the magnetopause. It is characterized by highly turbulent fluctuations covering all scales from MHD down to kinetic scales. Turbulence is thought to play a fundamental role in key processes such as energy transport and dissipation in plasma. In addition to turbulence, different plasma instabilities are generated in the magnetosheath because of the large anisotropies in plasma temperature introduced by its boundaries. In this study we use high-quality magnetic field measurements from Cluster spacecraft to investigate the effects of such instabilities on the small-scale turbulence (from ion down to electron scales). We show that the steepening of the power spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath occurs at the largest characteristic ion scale. However, the spectrum can be modified by the presence of waves/structures at ion scales, shifting the onset of the small-scale turbulent cascade toward the smallest ion scale. This cascade is therefore highly dependent on the presence of kinetic instabilities, waves, and local plasma parameters. Here we show that in the absence of strong waves the small-scale turbulence is quasi-isotropic and has a spectral index alpha approximate to 2.8. When transverse or compressive waves are present, we observe an anisotropy in the magnetic field components and a decrease in the absolute value of alpha. Slab/2D turbulence also develops in the presence of transverse/compressive waves, resulting in gyrotropy/non-gyrotropy of small-scale fluctuations. The presence of both types of waves reduces the anisotropy in the amplitude of fluctuations in the small-scale range.

  • 82.
    Brisvåg, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Utveckling av beslutsstöd för hållbara val av dagvattenhantering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing urbanization contributes to decreaseinfiltration and evaporation of water, compared to natural environments. This affect the natural water cycle, leading to an increased surface runoff of rain and melt water, also known as stormwater. Stormwater has by tradition been managed by diverting it to wastewater treatment plants or to the closest receiving waters. Today, it isconsidered to be more sustainable and modern managing the stormwater locally, close to the source by imitating a natural water cycle. The problem of realizing this modern management is not caused by inadequate modern techniques, but a communicative problem between the concerned parties. To promote a long term and sustainable management, a commonvision is required. This demands new forums for discussion. All concerned partiesshould pursue a common goal to minimize the risk of the system being chosen based on economy and previous experience. Focus should be pointed to solutions that are sustainable in the specific area. This should be elucidated in the procurement stage to create good conditions for implementation.

    The objective with this thesis wasto elaborate a decision supportmethod, facilitating communication between the concerned parties at the procurement stage of stormwater management. The decision support will promotea long term and sustainable solution, and consider the specific area with regard to social conditions and nature. By using multiple-criteria decision analysis, systems of stormwater management will be compared based on problems and advantages of stormwater in an urban environment and an optimal solution can be identified. The decision support has been designedto easily retrieve basic conditions for the comparison early in the procurement stage, which then can be analyzed in view of opinions from the different concerned parties. The design is based on established methods concerning delay demands, pollution load and dimensioning of systems of stormwater management. To test the relevance of the decision support, a case study of an area currently under procurement for exploitation in Uppsala was performed.

    The developed decision support consists of four sections; “Multiple-criteria decision analysis”, “Alternatives of systems”, “Delay demands” and “Pollution load”. “Multiple-criteria decision analysis” includes analytical comparison where different systems of stormwater management are evaluated and weighted according to 21 criteria related to sustainable stormwater management. “Alternatives of systems”, suggests stormwater techniques which can form a system ofstormwater management. “Delay demands” calculates how much water that should be delayed after exploitation and “Pollution load” calculates the purification effect on polluted stormwater depending on choice of systems. The case study reveals that the support can contribute to better communication between concerned parties within procurement and that the best suited system of stormwater management for the case study area are systems that manage stormwater locally near the source of water.

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    Julia_Brisvåg
  • 83.
    Brosse, Morgane
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Palaontol Inst & Museum, Karl Schmid Str 4, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bucher, Hugo
    Univ Zurich, Palaontol Inst & Museum, Karl Schmid Str 4, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Baud, Aymon
    BGC, Parc Rouvraie 28, CH-1018 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Frisk, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Goudemand, Nicolas
    Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, Inst Genom Fonct Lyon, ENS Lyon,CNRS,UMR 5242, 46 Allee Italie, F-69364 Lyon 07, France.
    Hagdorn, Hans
    Muschelkalkmuseum, Schlossstr 11, D-74653 Ingelfingen, Germany.
    Nützel, Alexander
    LMU, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, SNSB Bayer Staatssammlung Palaontol & Geol, GeoBio Ctr,Palaeontol & Geobiol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany.
    Ware, David
    Leibniz Inst Evolut & Biodiversitatsforsch, Museum Nat Kunde, Invalidenstr 43, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.
    Hautmann, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Palaontol Inst & Museum, Karl Schmid Str 4, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    New data from Oman indicate benthic high biomass productivity coupled with low taxonomic diversity in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic Boundary mass extinction2019In: Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, ISSN 0024-1164, E-ISSN 1502-3931, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 165-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Early Triassic marine fauna is described from an exotic block (olistolith) from the Ad Daffah conglomerate in eastern Oman (Batain), which provides new insights into the ecology and diversity during the early aftermath of the Permian-Triassic Boundary mass extinction. Based on conodont quantitative biochronology, we assign a middle Griesbachian age to the upper part of this boulder. It was derived from an offshore seamount and yielded both nektonic and benthic faunas, including conodonts, ammonoids, gastropods and crinoid ossicles in mass abundance. This demonstrates that despite the stratigraphically near extinction at the Permian-Triassic Boundary, Crinoidea produced enough biomass to form crinoidal limestone as early as middle Griesbachian time. Baudicrinus, previously placed in Dadocrinidae, is now placed in Holocrinidae; therefore, Dadocrinidae are absent in the Early Triassic, and Holocrinidae remains the most basal crown-group articulates, originating during the middle Griesbachian in the Tethyan Realm. Abundant gastropods assigned to Naticopsis reached a shell size larger than 20 mm and provide another example against any generalized Lilliput effect during the Griesbachian. Whereas the benthic biomass was as high as to allow the resumption of small carbonate factories, the taxonomic diversity of the benthos remained low compared to post-Early Triassic times. This slow benthic taxonomic recovery is here attributed to low competition within impoverished post-extinction faunas.

  • 84.
    Bryhn, Andreas C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Loadings from Effective and Cost-Effective Phosphorus Management Around the Baltic Sea2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 5, p. e5417-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the environmental goal to restore the trophic state in the Baltic Sea to pre-1960s levels. Furthermore, the extent to which various abatement options may decrease the phosphorus loading in a cost-effective manner has been studied. Upgrading urban sewage treatment in the catchment could, alone or in combination with banning phosphates in detergents, be sufficient to meet the set environmental goal, at an estimated annual basin-wide cost of 0.21–0.43 billion euro. Such a plan would potentially decrease the total phosphorus loading to the Baltic Sea with 6,650–10,200 tonnes per year.

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  • 85.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Coastal eutrophication: whether N and/or P should be abated depends on the dynamic mass balance2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 1, p. E3-E3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Eklund, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Variabilities and uncertainties in key coastal water variables as a basis for understanding changes and obtaining predictice power in modelling2008In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 64, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work is on general patterns in uncertainty as well as temporal and spatial variability in keywater variables in coastal science and management. These patterns are essential since they regulate how manysamples must be taken to get reliable mean or median values characterising coastal water quality and whichvariables are most suitable for monitoring and predictive modelling. We present results concerning coefficientsof variation, correlations, regressions, variations in data from different time periods, and confidence intervalsfor empirical mean values. We use data from Ringkøbing Fjord (Denmark, N. Europe), Chesapeake Bay(Eastern U.S.) and other coastal marine sites to illustrate the basic principles related to patterns in variability.We have shown that total and particulate N and P generally have much lower coefficients of variability (CV)than dissolved inorganic nutrient fractions. The latter are, hence, of limited use in predictive models for coastalmanagement. Total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were, on the other hand, found to be useful predictors oftwo standard bioindicators, the Secchi depth (a measure of water clarity) and chlorophyll-a concentrations(a measure of phytoplankton biomass or production)

  • 87.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Variabilities and uncertainties in management-related coastal water variables.: Deliverable D2.3.3.2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 88.
    Bryhn, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. LUVAL.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. LUVAL.
    Bekämpa Östersjöns övergödning med reningsverk i Polen.2008Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 89.
    Butler, Aodhan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Resolving the position of problematic lower to middle Cambrian Lophotrochozoa: a critical appraisal of tommotiid and stem-brachiopod character homologies.2012In: 23.1 Martin Glaessner Symposium: The Ediacaran and the Cambrian Explosion, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and early evolution of Brachiopoda can be traced back to the plethora of scleritomes and brachiopod-like taxa in the lower Cambrian. Most conspicuous are members of Lagerstätten such as the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang faunas. By combining records of exceptionally-preserved faunas with more widespread records of lower Cambrian stem-brachiopods and small shelly faunas, we aim to determine the characters suites associated with the evolution of these organisms. This determination is crucial to reconstructing the brachiopod stem-group and to polarising character changes associated with a transition from scleritome organisms to crown-group brachiopods. Critical comparison of the shell structure and setae of extant lophotrochozoans with those from fossil specimens from Sweden, Estonia and Nevada reveals the extent of taphonomic alteration, further informing previous taxonomic efforts.

    Characters previously proposed as systematically important are re-evaluated, based on critical examination of two distinct character suites: firstly examination of the homology of striated tubes which are associated with the secretion of setae, which are exceptionally preserved in many cases; and secondly, the occurrence of phosphatised columnar shell structures previously referred to as 'punctae'. Overall we provide further support for homologous character suites shared between tommotiids such as Micrina, Sunnaginia and Eccentrotheca, and stem-brachiopods including Mickwitzia and Setatella. These suggested homologies are of phylogenetic significance, and shed further light on the early evolution of the lophotrochozoan body plan in the early Cambrian.

  • 90.
    Butler, Aodhan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Bauert, Heikki
    NGO Geoguide Baltoscandia, Estonia.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Agić, Heda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Recent palaeobiological and stratigraphical advances from the Cambrian of Estonia2011In: The 2nd Wiman Meeting: Carl Wiman's Legacy: 100 years of Swedish Palaeontology, Uppsala, 2011, p. 5-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique Cambrian sediments of Estonia represent an important and understudied component of the Baltic system. Here we present an overview of recent field studies conducted by Uppsala University in association with colleagues from the Baltic Geotourism project, that have revealed a number of exciting discoveries in terms of Cambrian palaeontology and stratigraphy of Estonia. These include new purported stem lophotrochozoans with bizarre shell structure. Current efforts to describe and systematically appraise this material are outlined. The presence of unusual shell structure and whether this is the result of taphonomic alteration or indeed represents a novel shell structure type is examined. We propose herein affinities to the inarticulate stem-brachiopod Mickwitzia based upon the presence of an umbo and the overall gross morphology.  Possible new records of Estoniadiscus discinoides (Schmidt 1888), an extremely rare enigmatic organism with postulated affinities to eldonioids or other stem-group lophophorates are also described from the type section at Kakumägi, within the Kakumägi member Member of the lower Cambrian Tiskre formationFormation. The discovery of Dictyonema Rhabdinopora sp. graptolites, which have until now demarcated the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, in-situ approximately 3 m below the previous reported occurrence from the Pakri cape section of the Kallavere formation Formation is also significant. Our findings highlight the need for both a stratigraphical and palaeobiological reapprasal of these important sequences, and their correlative implications for the Swedish and broader Baltoscandian regions.

  • 91.
    Butler, Aodhan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Garwood, Russel
    Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility.
    Lowe, Tristan
    Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Constructing Cambrian body-plans: critical evaluation of tommotiid and stem-brachiopod character homologies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Butler, Aodhan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Babcock, Loren
    Lund University.
    Exceptional preservation of lower Cambrian mickwitziidsfrom the Indian Springs Lagerstätte, Nevada, and implications for early brachiopod phylogeny2011In: The Palaeontological Association, 55th Annual Meeting: Programme and Abstracts, 2011, p. 44-45Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Butler, Aodhan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Skovsted, Christian B.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Resolving the position of problematic lower to middle Cambrian lophotrochozoans: a critical appraisal of tommotiid and stem-brachiopod character homologies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Decoding the fossil record of early lophophorates: Systematics and phylogeny of problematic Cambrian Lophotrochozoa2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary origins of animal phyla are intimately linked with the Cambrian explosion, a period of radical ecological and evolutionary innovation that begins approximately 540 Mya and continues for some 20 million years, during which most major animal groups appear. Lophotrochozoa, a major group of protostome animals that includes molluscs, annelids and brachiopods, represent a significant component of the oldest known fossil records of biomineralised animals, as disclosed by the enigmatic ‘small shelly fossil’ faunas of the early Cambrian. Determining the affinities of these scleritome taxa is highly informative for examining Cambrian evolutionary patterns, since many are supposed stem-group Lophotrochozoa. The main focus of this thesis pertained to the stem-group of the Brachiopoda, a highly diverse and important clade of suspension feeding animals in the Palaeozoic era, which are still extant but with only with a fraction of past diversity. Major findings include adding support for tommotiid affinity as stem-group lophophorates. Determining morphological character homologies vital to reconstructing the brachiopod stem-group was achieved by comparing Cambrian Lagerstätten with the widespread biomineralised record of Cambrian stem-brachiopods and small shelly fossils. Polarising character changes associated with the putative transition from scleritome organisms to crown-group brachiopods was furthered by the description of an enigmatic agglutinated tubular lophophorate Yuganotheca elegans from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China, which possesses an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid characters. These efforts were furthered by the use of X-ray tomographic techniques that revealed novel anatomical features, including exceptionally preserved setae in the tommotiid Micrina. The evidence for a common origin of columnar brachiopod shell structures in the tommotiids is suggested and critically examined. Enigmatic and problematic early and middle Cambrian lophotrochozoans are newly described or re-described in light of new evidence, namely: the stem-brachiopod Mickwitzia occidens Walcott from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte, Nevada; a putative stem-group entoproct Cotyledion tylodes Luo and Hu from Chengjiang, China; a new enigmatic family of rhynchonelliform brachiopods exemplified by the newly described Tomteluva perturbata from the Stephen Formation, Canada; and the tommotiid Micrina etheridgei (Tate) from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Cladistic analyses of fossil morphological data supports a monophyletic Brachiopoda.

    List of papers
    1. Exceptionally-preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exceptionally-preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte.
    (English)In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Article in journal (Other academic) Accepted
    Abstract [en]

    A new assemblage of the early Cambrian stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia is described from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte possessing exceptionally preserved mantle setae. Critical analysis of shell structure and mantle setae from these specimens with those from additional sites with variable diagenetic history reveals the extent of taphonomic alteration and further sheds light on the phylogenetic position of the mickwitziids. A morphometric approach to shell outline and growth landmarks within these specimens reveals a clear species level discriminant signal of Nevada Mickwitzia in comparison to M. monlifera from Sweden. Detailed electron micrographs allow revision of the genus diagnosis for Mickwitzia based on presence of inward pointing phosphatic cones and tangential setae bearing tubes. We also conclude the inward pointing cone structures are not consistent with setal bearing structures as previously thought, but rather represent an endopunctae-like structure. A tommotiid-like shell architecture and presence of acrotretid columns in the dorsal juvenile shell of M. cf. occidens further strengthens the proposed close relationship between stem-group brachiopods and tommotiids.

    Keywords
    Brachiopoda, Mickwitzia, shell penetrating setae, lower Cambrian, Indian Springs
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geology Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216149 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
    Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. X-ray microtomography of the tommotiid Micrina reveals cellular and ultrastructural preservation, confirming a tommotiid stem-linguliform affinity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray microtomography of the tommotiid Micrina reveals cellular and ultrastructural preservation, confirming a tommotiid stem-linguliform affinity
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261903 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-09-05 Created: 2015-09-05 Last updated: 2017-01-20
    3. A new family of Cambrian rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Order Naukatida) with an aberrant coral-like morphology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new family of Cambrian rhynchonelliformean brachiopods (Order Naukatida) with an aberrant coral-like morphology
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 269-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Tomteluva perturbata gen. et sp. nov. and Nasakia thulensis gen. et sp. nov., two new rhynchonelliformean brachiopod taxa, are described from carbonate beds from the lower middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) basinal Stephen Formation, Canada, and the upper lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 4) Henson Gletscher Formation, North Greenland, respectively. The two taxa are characterized by an unusual coral-like morphology typified by a high conical ventral valve with an anteriorly curved umbo and a tube-like structure inside the ventral valve, interpreted as pedicle tube. Both resemble the problematic late middle Cambrian (Drumian) species Anomalocalyx cawoodi Brock from Australia, whose systematic affiliation is controversial. Together, the three genera are interpreted as representatives of a new family of rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, the Tomteluvidae fam. nov., which is interpreted as an aberrant or derived taxon within the Order Naukatida. Convergence between the Tomteluvidae and the coralla of small solitary Cambrian coralimorphs, as well as the late Palaeozoic reef-building richthofenioid brachiopods, might indicate adaptation to a similar life habits and environments. However, their small size (length 4 mm), well-developed pedicle and perfect morphological symmetry make it more likely that tomteluvids lived attached to frondose algae or sponges, above the seafloor, in a similar fashion to the acrotretoid brachiopods with which they show a high degree of morphological convergence. Morphological features of the pedicle tube of N. thulensis suggest that the tomteluvid pedicle is homologous to that in modern rhynchonelliformean brachiopods. This is the first evidence of the pedicle type within the Naukatida and represents the oldest confirmation of a rhynchonellate pedicle.

    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261904 (URN)10.1111/pala.12226 (DOI)000370607400007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4961
    Available from: 2015-09-05 Created: 2015-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
    2014 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, p. 4682-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen.et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long coelomic pedicle providing anchorage. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

    National Category
    Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216152 (URN)10.1038/srep04682 (DOI)000335885800001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
    Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
    5.
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  • 95.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Exceptionally Preserved Cambrian Lophotrochozoa: Taxonomy, Systematics and Taphonomy of Chengjiang and Indian Springs Lophophorates2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and evolution of Lophotrochozoa can be traced to the plethora of lower Cambrian scleritome taxa.  We aim to determine the character suites linking these stem-Lophotrochozoa to their extant crown relatives, in particular the small shelly tommotiids and the stem-group brachiopods. Tracing the origin of morphological characters from these fossils informs the evolution and construction of lophotrochozoan body plans associated with the Cambrian Explosion. This is achieved by comparing records of exceptional preservation, most conspicuously Burgess Shale type Lagerstätten with more widespread Cambrian stem-brachiopods and small shelly fossils with their purported extant relatives, for example. Determining morphological character homologies is crucial to reconstructing the brachiopod stem-group and in polarising character changes associated with the putative transition from scleritome organisms to crown-group brachiopods. In this thesis arguments for a common origin of specific shell structures and exceptionally preserved soft-tissues are investigated. New records of enigmatic stem-group lophotrochozoans are described from two localities, the Indian Springs and Chengjiang Lagerstätte. Comprising the stem-brachiopod Mickwitzia cf. occidens, a putative stem-group entoproct Cotyledion tylodes and an enigmatic agglutinated tubular lophophorate possessing an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid characters, Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. The interplay of bauplan, microbial activity and environmental factors resulting in such incidences of exceptional soft tissue preservation is also examined critically. Consequently, the evolution of through-gut bearing bilaterians is suggested as the reason for why the Cambrian hosts such a plethora of Lagerstätten. The closure of this taphonomic window is then associated with increased bioturbation following the Cambrian substrate revolution.

    List of papers
    1. Exceptionally-preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exceptionally-preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte.
    (English)In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Article in journal (Other academic) Accepted
    Abstract [en]

    A new assemblage of the early Cambrian stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia is described from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte possessing exceptionally preserved mantle setae. Critical analysis of shell structure and mantle setae from these specimens with those from additional sites with variable diagenetic history reveals the extent of taphonomic alteration and further sheds light on the phylogenetic position of the mickwitziids. A morphometric approach to shell outline and growth landmarks within these specimens reveals a clear species level discriminant signal of Nevada Mickwitzia in comparison to M. monlifera from Sweden. Detailed electron micrographs allow revision of the genus diagnosis for Mickwitzia based on presence of inward pointing phosphatic cones and tangential setae bearing tubes. We also conclude the inward pointing cone structures are not consistent with setal bearing structures as previously thought, but rather represent an endopunctae-like structure. A tommotiid-like shell architecture and presence of acrotretid columns in the dorsal juvenile shell of M. cf. occidens further strengthens the proposed close relationship between stem-group brachiopods and tommotiids.

    Keywords
    Brachiopoda, Mickwitzia, shell penetrating setae, lower Cambrian, Indian Springs
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geology Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216149 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
    Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. The role of microbes in decay and preservation: a Cambrian Explosion of animals and Lagerstätten.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of microbes in decay and preservation: a Cambrian Explosion of animals and Lagerstätten.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abrupt appearance of animals in the early Cambrian has been interpreted either as an explosive biological diversification or, alternatively, as an artefact resulting from a sudden increase in the probability of animal remains becoming fossilised. We attempt to reconcile these competing interpretations in exceptionally-preserved biota, which provide a vital part of our knowledge of the disparity and diversity of the Cambrian fauna. We assess the factors influencing the potential for exceptional fossil preservation using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as our experimental model. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, internal, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity and formed pseudomorphs of tissues. Gut-derived microbes were shown to be the main factor mediating both decay and biofilm replacement and tissue stabilisation. This pattern of preservation is consistent with results from other experimental studies and with the nature of Burgess Shale type fossil remains. Thus, the evolution of a through-gut may have not only underpinned the ecological revolution that bilaterian diversification represents, but also catalysed the exceptional preservation of early bilaterian fossils.

    Keywords
    Cambrian Explosion, palaeobiology, taphonomy, bilateria, metazoa
    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Evolutionary Biology Geology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216151 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2014-02-06
    3. A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A sclerite-bearing stem group entoproct from the early Cambrian and its implications
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. 1066-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Lophotrochozoa includes disparate tentacle-bearing sessile protostome animals, which apparently appeared in the Cambrian explosion, but lack an uncontested fossil record. Here we describe abundant well preserved material of Cotyledion tylodes Luo et Hu, 1999, from the Cambrian (Series 2) Chengjiang deposits, reinterpreted here as a stem-group entoproct. The entoproct affinity is supported by the sessile body plan and interior soft anatomy. The body consists of an upper calyx and a lower elongate stalk with a distal holdfast. The soft anatomy includes a U-shaped gut with a mouth and aboral anus ringed by retractable marginal tentacles. Cotyledion differs from extant entoprocts in being larger, and having the calyx and the stalk covered by numerous loosely-spaced external sclerites. The description of entoprocts from the Chengjiang biota traces the ancestry of yet another lophotrochozoan phylum back to the Cambrian radiation, and has important implications for the earliest evolution of lophotrochozoans.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194748 (URN)10.1038/srep01066 (DOI)000313650900001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012–1658
    Available from: 2013-03-13 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
    4. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters
    2014 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 4, p. 4682-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen.et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long coelomic pedicle providing anchorage. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

    National Category
    Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Evolutionary Biology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-216152 (URN)10.1038/srep04682 (DOI)000335885800001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2009-4395, 2012-1658
    Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-19 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
  • 96.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Cunningham, John A.
    University of Bristol.
    Donoghue, Philip C. J.
    University of Bristol.
    The role of microbes in decay and preservation: a Cambrian Explosion of animals and Lagerstätten.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The abrupt appearance of animals in the early Cambrian has been interpreted either as an explosive biological diversification or, alternatively, as an artefact resulting from a sudden increase in the probability of animal remains becoming fossilised. We attempt to reconcile these competing interpretations in exceptionally-preserved biota, which provide a vital part of our knowledge of the disparity and diversity of the Cambrian fauna. We assess the factors influencing the potential for exceptional fossil preservation using the brine shrimp Artemia salina as our experimental model. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, internal, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity and formed pseudomorphs of tissues. Gut-derived microbes were shown to be the main factor mediating both decay and biofilm replacement and tissue stabilisation. This pattern of preservation is consistent with results from other experimental studies and with the nature of Burgess Shale type fossil remains. Thus, the evolution of a through-gut may have not only underpinned the ecological revolution that bilaterian diversification represents, but also catalysed the exceptional preservation of early bilaterian fossils.

  • 97.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Garwood, Russell
    The University of Manchester, School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Lowe, Tristan
    The Manchester X-Ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    X-ray microtomography of the tommotiid Micrina reveals cellular and ultrastructural preservation, confirming a tommotiid stem-linguliform affinityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Babcock, Loren
    Lund.
    Exceptionally-preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte.In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new assemblage of the early Cambrian stem group brachiopod Mickwitzia is described from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte possessing exceptionally preserved mantle setae. Critical analysis of shell structure and mantle setae from these specimens with those from additional sites with variable diagenetic history reveals the extent of taphonomic alteration and further sheds light on the phylogenetic position of the mickwitziids. A morphometric approach to shell outline and growth landmarks within these specimens reveals a clear species level discriminant signal of Nevada Mickwitzia in comparison to M. monlifera from Sweden. Detailed electron micrographs allow revision of the genus diagnosis for Mickwitzia based on presence of inward pointing phosphatic cones and tangential setae bearing tubes. We also conclude the inward pointing cone structures are not consistent with setal bearing structures as previously thought, but rather represent an endopunctae-like structure. A tommotiid-like shell architecture and presence of acrotretid columns in the dorsal juvenile shell of M. cf. occidens further strengthens the proposed close relationship between stem-group brachiopods and tommotiids.

  • 99.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Streng, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Holmer, Lars E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Babcock, Loren E.
    Exceptionally preserved Mickwitzia from the Indian Springs Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3), Nevada2015In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 933-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT Exceptionally preserved specimens of the Cambrian stem-group brachiopod Mickwitzia occidens Walcott, 1908 are described in detail from the Indian Springs LagerstÀtte in Nevada, USA. Shell structure and preserved mantle setae from these specimens reveal a variable diagenetic (taphonomic) history and provide insight into the phylogenetic position of mickwitziids. Morphologic and morphometric comparison to M. monilifera (Linnarsson, 1869) from Sweden and M. muralensis Walcott, 1913 from British Columbia, Canada reveals clear species-level distinctions. Scanning electron microscopic analysis allows revision of the generic diagnosis. The Mickwitzia shell is characterized by the presence of inwardly pointing phosphatic cones and tangential setae-bearing tubes. The inwardly pointing cone structures are not consistent with setal bearing structures as previously thought, but rather represent endopunctae-like structures. Acrotretid-like shell structures and shell-penetrating setae in M. occidens strengthen the previously proposed close relationship between stem-group brachiopods and tommotiids, a group of small shelly fossils.

  • 100.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Carbon in Boreal Streams: Isotopic Tracing of Terrestrial Sources2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The boreal biome comprises vast areas of coniferous forests, dotted with millions of peatlands. Plants harbouring these ecosystems fix CO2 from the atmosphere, which is later incorporated into the vegetation biomass and subsequently buried in soils. Over the course of millennia, this process has led to the formation of a large repository of organic C, currently stored in boreal soils. Streams draining this landscape are typically enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). As a consequence, streams tend to emit CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, two potent greenhouse gases, and thus contribute positively to radiative climate forcing. The sources fuelling C to boreal streams are not well understood. This thesis aims to unravel these sources, and promote a better consolidation of terrestrial and aquatic C biogeochemical processes. The work is largely based on stable and radiogenic C isotope characterization of various dissolved C forms in stream and groundwater, within contrasting ecosystem types across Sweden.

    This thesis identifies boreal soils as the main source of CO2 in streams. Soil respiration (i.e. biogenic sources) overwhelmingly supply CO2 to streams, leaving only a few exceptions where geogenic CO2 sources were present. An array of biological processes also transform CO2 during its transport from soils to streams. These include; methanogenesis, aquatic DOC mineralization and primary production. The majority of C in boreal streams is sustained by the decomposition of recent photosynthates, with ancient C substrates holding a negligible share of the total C export. While these results suggest that the repository of ancient soil organic C is currently stable, within boreal forests and peatlands, the close connection with recently occurring photosynthesis suggest that forecasted alterations in plant C allocation patterns, driven by climate and land-use changes, will produce a rapid response in stream CO2 emissions. Isotopic characterization of C in stream and groundwater can help reveal these sources and transformation processes, but its interpretation must be made with care.

    List of papers
    1. Multiple sources and sinks of dissolved inorganic carbon across Swedish streams, refocusing the lens of stable C isotopes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiple sources and sinks of dissolved inorganic carbon across Swedish streams, refocusing the lens of stable C isotopes
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that stream dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes play a central role in the global C cycle, yet the sources of stream DIC remain to a large extent unresolved. Here, we explore large-scale patterns in delta C-13-DIC from streams across Sweden to separate and further quantify the sources and sinks of stream DIC. We found that stream DIC is governed by a variety of sources and sinks including biogenic and geogenic sources, CO2 evasion, as well as in-stream processes. Although soil respiration was the main source of DIC across all streams, a geogenic DIC influence was identified in the northernmost region. All streams were affected by various degrees of atmospheric CO2 evasion, but residual variance in delta C-13-DIC also indicated a significant influence of in-stream metabolism and anaerobic processes. Due to those multiple sources and sinks, we emphasize that simply quantifying aquatic DIC fluxes will not be sufficient to characterise their role in the global C cycle.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328530 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-09049-9 (DOI)000408285200002 ()28831088 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-3919Swedish Research Council, 2007-3841Swedish Research Council, 2013-5001Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2008-202Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2017-08-25 Created: 2017-08-25 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Stable carbon isotopes reveal soil - stream DIC linkages in contrasting headwater catchments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stable carbon isotopes reveal soil - stream DIC linkages in contrasting headwater catchments
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 149-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Large CO2 evasion to the atmosphere occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is transported from soils to streams. While this physical process has been the focus of multiple studies, less is known about the underlying biogeochemical transformations that accompany this transfer of C from soils to streams. Here we used patterns in stream water and groundwater C-13-DIC values within three headwater catchments with contrasting land cover to identify the sources and processes regulating DIC during its transport. We found that although considerable CO2 evasion occurs as DIC is transported from soils to streams, there were also other processes affecting the DIC pool. Methane production and mixing of C sources, associated with different types and spatial distribution of peat-rich areas within each catchment, had a significant influence on the C-13-DIC values in both soils and streams. These processes represent an additional control on C-13-DIC values and the catchment-scale cycling of DIC across different northern landscape types. The results from this study demonstrate that the transport of DIC from soils to streams results in more than just rapid CO2 evasion to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of C transformation, which questions some of our current conceptualizations of C cycling at the landscape scale. Plain Language Summary Large carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere occurs as rainwater percolates through soils and into streams. This physical process is important for the global carbon cycle and has been the focus of multiple studies. However, less is known about the underlying processes that accompanies this transfer of carbon dioxide from soils to streams. Here we analyze the stable isotope composition of soil and stream carbon dioxide and demonstrate that methane production and mixing of carbon sources also occur in soils and streams. These processes were linked to different types and configurations of peat-rich areas, for example, bogs, fens, and riparian zones, found within each of the three studied catchments. Our results therefore demonstrate that the export of carbon dioxide from soils to streams not only results in emissions to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of transformation. This questions some of our current conceptualization of the catchment-scale cycling of carbon dioxide.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
    Keywords
    stable C isotopes, carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, methane, soil, stream
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337637 (URN)10.1002/2017JG004083 (DOI)000425517800012 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-3919Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
    3. Aquatic export of young dissolved and gaseous carbon from a pristine boreal fen: Implications for peat carbon stock stability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aquatic export of young dissolved and gaseous carbon from a pristine boreal fen: Implications for peat carbon stock stability
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 5523-5536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of northern peatland's carbon (C) store under changing climate is of major concern for the global C cycle. The aquatic export of C from boreal peatlands is recognized as both a critical pathway for the remobilization of peat C stocks as well as a major component of the net ecosystem C balance (NECB). Here, we present a full year characterization of radiocarbon content (14C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) exported from a boreal peatland catchment coupled with 14C characterization of the catchment's peat profile of the same C species. The age of aquatic C in runoff varied little throughout the year and appeared to be sustained by recently fixed C from the atmosphere (<60 years), despite stream DOC, CO2, and CH4 primarily being sourced from deep peat horizons (2–4 m) near the mire's outlet. In fact, the 14C content of DOC, CO2, and CH4 across the entire peat profile was considerably enriched with postbomb C compared with the solid peat material. Overall, our results demonstrate little to no mobilization of ancient C stocks from this boreal peatland and a relatively large resilience of the source of aquatic C export to forecasted hydroclimatic changes.

    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328531 (URN)10.1111/gcb.13815 (DOI)000414969000046 ()28712133 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-3919NERC - the Natural Environment Research Council, NRCF010001Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2017-08-25 Created: 2017-08-25 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
    4. Current forest carbon fixation fuels stream CO2 emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current forest carbon fixation fuels stream CO2 emissions
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stream CO2 emissions contribute significantly to atmospheric climate forcing. While there are strong indications that groundwater inputs sustain these emissions, the specific biogeochemical pathways and timescales involved in this lateral CO2 export are still obscure. Here, via an extensive radiocarbon (C-14) characterisation of CO2 and DOC in stream water and its groundwater sources in an old-growth boreal forest, we demonstrate that the C-14-CO2 is consistently in tune with the current atmospheric C-14-CO2 level and shows little association with the C-14-DOC in the same waters. Our findings thus indicate that stream CO2 emissions act as a shortcut that returns CO2 recently fixed by the forest vegetation to the atmosphere. Our results expose a positive feedback mechanism within the C budget of forested catchments, where stream CO2 emissions will be highly sensitive to changes in forest C allocation patterns associated with climate and land-use changes.

    National Category
    Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381845 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-09922-3 (DOI)000465201500009 ()31015439 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-3919Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
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