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  • 51.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning With Selective Feedback: Effects on Performance and Coding of Unknown Outcomes2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In experiential learning, one important source of information is the feedback that people receive on the outcomes of their decisions. Typically, however, feedback is systematically absent for many decisions and the actual experience of people may therefore be highly selective. It is thus surprising that research on the cognitive processes involved in human judgement and categorisation has not addressed the effects of learning with selective feedback. In this thesis, three studies are presented in which the effects of learning with systematically selective feedback were investigated.

    The hypothesis of constructivist coding was introduced in Study I, suggesting a cognitive mechanism for the processing of selective information. In the absence of external feedback people infer the most likely outcome, and then code this inference into memory as “internal feedback”. This internally generated feedback is stored and processed in the same manner as externally presented feedback and is used as a basis for beliefs about the characteristics of the environment. Results from Studies I, II, and III demonstrated support for constructivist coding under varied learning conditions.

    Study III investigated the effects on the beliefs of participants when they learn from feedback received only for positive decisions. Results indicated that the participants’ beliefs well reflected their actual, however selective, experience. When participants aimed to achieve good immediate outcomes, their experience became restrictive and biased, resulting in biased beliefs. In contrast, when the focus of participants was on long-term learning, their decisions produced a more representative experience and their beliefs came to reflect the actual structure of the environment. Biased beliefs were thus demonstrated to result from a sensitivity of participants to selectively available information.

    The present findings offer an understanding of the cognitive processes involved in learning from selectively absent feedback. The conclusions propose a sensitivity of participants to objectively experienced information in the forming of knowledge and beliefs. Further, when external information is absent, participants appear to rely on their knowledge and expectations to infer and code the most likely outcome, and use these stored inferences to form a coherent representation of the environment.

    List of papers
    1. Constructivist Coding: Learning from Selective Feedback
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructivist Coding: Learning from Selective Feedback
    2007 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 105-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although much learning in real-life environments relies on highly selective feedback about outcomes, virtually all cognitive models of learning, judgment, and categorization assume complete and representative feedback. We investigated empirically the effect of selective feedback on decision making and how people code experience with selective feedback. The results showed that, in contrast to a commonly raised concern, performance was not impaired following learning with selective and biased feedback. Furthermore, even in a simple decision task, the experience that people acquired was not a mere recording of the observed outcomes, but rather a reconstruction from general task knowledge.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-87226 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01856.x (DOI)000245157900003 ()
    Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although people often have to learn from environments with scarce and highly selective outcome feedback, the question of how non-feedback trials are represented in memory and affect later performance has received little attention in models of learning and decision making. In this article, the Generalized Context Model (R. M. Nosofsky, 1986) is used as a vehicle to test contrasting hypotheses about the coding of non-feedback trials. Data across 3 experiments with selective decision-contingent and selective outcome-contingent feedback provide support for the hypothesis of constructivist coding (E. Elwin, P. Juslin, H. Olsson, & T. Enkvist, 2007), according to which the outcomes on non-feedback trials are coded with the most likely outcome, as inferred by the individual. The relation to sampling-based approaches to judgment, and the adaptive significance of constructivist coding, are discussed.

    Keywords
    selective feedback, constructivist coding, generalized context model, base-rate bias
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106876 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on performance of selective feedback contingent on the decisions of the individual were investigated, and the prediction that negative effects of selective feedback are mediated by sampling behaviour that produces a sample of experience that apparently confirms an initial incorrect belief. Empirical results demonstrated that negative effects on performance of selective feedback were small. However, when participants were offered an incorrect prior assumption concerning the likely outcomes of their decisions, and the aim was to produce good outcomes, selective feedback lead to a restrictive sample of experiences that confirmed the incorrect assumption. Consequently, mistaken beliefs persisted, even after accurately perceived and interpreted extensive experience. In contrast, when the decision maker was encouraged to sample more liberally, objective experience allowed the revision of an incorrect assumption. Finally, the estimated base-rates of participants with selective feedback supported the predictions from constructivist coding.

    Keywords
    sampling, selective feedback, experiential learning, confirmation bias, constructivist coding
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106878 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 52.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and ExperienceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on performance of selective feedback contingent on the decisions of the individual were investigated, and the prediction that negative effects of selective feedback are mediated by sampling behaviour that produces a sample of experience that apparently confirms an initial incorrect belief. Empirical results demonstrated that negative effects on performance of selective feedback were small. However, when participants were offered an incorrect prior assumption concerning the likely outcomes of their decisions, and the aim was to produce good outcomes, selective feedback lead to a restrictive sample of experiences that confirmed the incorrect assumption. Consequently, mistaken beliefs persisted, even after accurately perceived and interpreted extensive experience. In contrast, when the decision maker was encouraged to sample more liberally, objective experience allowed the revision of an incorrect assumption. Finally, the estimated base-rates of participants with selective feedback supported the predictions from constructivist coding.

  • 53. Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Encoding of Numerical Information in Memory: Magnitude or Nominal?2017In: Journal of Numerical Cognition, Vol. 3, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlström, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children With Autism2015In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct gaze facilitated memory performance in children with typical development (n = 25, 6 years old), but no such facilitation was seen in the clinical group (n = 10, 6 years old). Eye tracking conducted during the cognitive test revealed strikingly similar patterns of eye movements, indicating that the results cannot be explained by differences in overt attention. Collectively, these findings have theoretical significance and practical implications for testing practices in children.

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  • 55.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Brief Report: Lack of Processing Bias for the Objects Other People Attend to in 3-Year-Olds with Autism2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1897-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether gaze following-a key component of joint attention-is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking technology, we show that gaze following accuracy is intact in intellectually low-functioning 3-year-olds with ASD. However, analyses of the duration of first fixations at the objects in the scene revealed markedly weaker initial processing bias for attended objects in children with ASD compared to children with typical development and non-autistic children with developmental delays. Limited processing bias for the objects other people attend to may negatively affect learning opportunities in ASD.

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  • 56.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How special is social looking in ASD: a review2011In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, Vol. 189, p. 209-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is primarily concerned with the view that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) look less at the eyes and more at the mouth compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Such performance in ASD could reflect that the eyes are not meaningful or that they are perceived as threatening, two ideas that may seem intuitively appealing. However, our review shows that despite the fact that the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis fits with clinical common sense and initial data from adults, it does not-as a generalization across ages and contexts-fit with the emerging pattern of eye-tracking data. In adolescents and adults, there is only partial support for the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis, and regarding children, most studies do not support this hypothesis. In particular, independent studies have found longer looking durations on the mouth in TD children than in children with ASD, and no difference for the eye area. We describe recent evidence that mouth fixations are functional responses related to (early) stages of normative language development. We conclude that although individuals with ASD often give less preferential attention to social objects and events (faces, people, and social actions) than TD individuals, the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis of ASD is not generally supported. Therefore, this hypothesis needs to be reevaluated, as do related theories of social perception in ASD.

  • 57.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Josefsson, Albin
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Berggren, Tore
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    How Much Therapy Is Enough?: Comparing Dose-Effect and Good-Enough Models in Two Different Settings2016In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dose-Effect model holds that longer therapy leads to better outcome, although increasing treatment length will yield diminishing returns, as additional sessions lead to progressively less change in a negatively accelerating fashion. In contrast, the Good-Enough-Level (GEL) model proposes that patients, therapists, or patients-with-therapists decide on ending treatment when treatment outcome is satisfactory, meaning that patients who change faster will have shorter treatments. If true, this means that aggregating among patients with different treatment lengths would yield biased results. Most previous research has shown that symptom change rate depends on treatment length, but all of these studies used data from University counseling centers in the United States. There is a need to test if previous results hold in different settings. Two datasets from Swedish community-based primary care (n = 640) and psychiatric care (n = 284) were used. Patients made session-wise ratings on the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Multilevel models indicated better fit for a model in which treatment length moderated symptom change rate. In the primary care sample, patients in longer treatments achieved more symptom change from pre- to posttreatment, despite having slower rate of improvement. The most important aspect of the GEL model was supported, and no evidence was found for a negatively accelerating Dose-Effect curve. Results cannot be generalized beyond about 12 sessions, due to scarcity of data for longer treatments.

  • 58. Fath, Aaron J.
    et al.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Bingham, Geoffrey P.
    Perception of time to contact of slow- and fast-moving objects using monocular and binocular motion information2018In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 1584-1590Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arslan, Melda
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden; Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4157Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 60.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Infants anticipate others’ social preferences2012In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current eye-tracking study, we explored whether 12-month-old infants can predict others' social preferences. We showed infants scenes in which two characters alternately helped or hindered an agent in his goal of climbing a hill. In a control condition, the two characters moved up and down the hill in identical ways to the helper and hinderer but did not make contact with the agent; thus, they did not cause him to reach or not reach his goal. Following six alternating familiarization trials of helping and hindering interactions (helphinder condition) or up and down interactions (updown condition), infants were shown one test trial in which they could visually anticipate the agent approaching one of the two characters. As predicted, infants in the helphinder condition made significantly more visual anticipations toward the helping than hindering character, suggesting that they predicted the agent to approach the helping character. In contrast, infants revealed no difference in visual anticipations between the up and down characters. The updown condition served to control for low-level perceptual explanations of the results for the helphinder condition. Thus, together the results reveal that 12-month-old infants make predictions about others' behaviour and social preferences from a third-party perspective.

  • 61.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants2012In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 434-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1 model acting alone (solitary action). Infants' behavior was examined after they were given each object. Infants in the joint action condition attempted to initiate joint action more often than infants in the other conditions, yet they were equally likely to communicate for other reasons and to imitate the demonstrated object-directed actions. The findings suggest that infants learn to replicate others' joint activity through observation, an important skill for cultural transmission of shared practices.

  • 62.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Markson, Lori
    Children reason about shared preferences2010In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Markson, Lori
    Similarity predicts liking in three-year-old children2010In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tunçgenç, Bahar
    Univ Oxford, Inst Cognit & Evolutionary Anthropol, Oxford OX2 6PN, England..
    Infants' use of movement synchrony to infer social affiliation in others2017In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 160, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants socially engage with others and observe others' social interactions from early in life. One characteristic found to be important for signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships is physical coordination and synchronization of movements. This study investigated whether synchrony in others' movements signals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants were shown a scene in which two characters moved either synchronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the center. Next, the center character made an affiliation declaration and subsequently approached and cuddled one of the two characters. Using measures of gaze, we gauged infants' inferences about whom the center character would affiliate with before the cuddling took place. We found that 15-month-olds, but not 12-month-olds, inferred that the center character would affiliate with the previously synchronous character, suggesting that they can make inferences about others' affiliation based on movement synchrony. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the infants' personal preferences and the potential importance of first-person experience in the development of social cognition.

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  • 65.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Washington University School of Medicine.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for the Spontaneous Transfer of Arousal2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Forsgren, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Further perceptions of probability: The perception-cognition gap and sequence retention models under continuously changing Bernoulli distributions2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hyman Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis (Minsky, 1977) proposes that cyclicality in the financial market is caused by a rational process of learning and inference of probabilities. Although a substantial literature is available on the perception of stationary probability distributions, the learning of non-stationary distributions has received less interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate people’s cognitive ability to learn cyclical changes in an underlying probability from feedback. Key aspects of the design of Gallistel et al. (2014) are replicated, but under continuously, rather than stepwise, changing Bernoulli distributions to establish: (i) if the learning process is continuous or discrete, (ii) if there is only local learning or if people induce the underlying functional form, and (iii) if there are any differences in performance between perceptual and cognitive formulations of the task. The step-hold updating model introduced by Gallistel et al. (2014) is compared to two simple trial by trial updating models. The results suggest that (i) the learning process is continuous, (ii) people perceive the functional form explicitly but do not extrapolate, and (iii) there are some differences depending on framing. One of the trial by trial models outperforms the step-hold model for the majority of subjects in this sample and version of the task.

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  • 67.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Temperament, and Inhibition, as Interactive and Independent Predictors of Early ADHD Symptoms2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 68.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Viksang Maternal & Paediat Hlth Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation2018In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10months (n=124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation.

  • 69.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aspekte expressiver Gestaltung musikalischer Aufführungen2005In: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie.: Musikpsychologie Bd 1. Allgemeine Musikpsychologie: Allgemeinpsychologische Grundlagen musikalischen Handels, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2005, p. 843-875Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individuella starka musikupplevelser2006In: Konsterna och själen: Estetik ur ett humanvetenskapligt perspektiv, Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien , Stockholm , 2006, p. 107-117Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strong experiences elicited by music — What music?2006In: New Directions in Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Psychology of Art, Baywood Publishing Company,Amityville, NY , 2006, p. 251-267Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Struktur och känslor i musik- några musikpsykologiska reflektioner2006In: Nutida musik, ISSN 1652-6082, Vol. 49, no 2 och 3, p. 24-30, 72Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 73.
    Galazka, Martyna A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Child & Babylab.
    Social causality in motion: Visual bias and categorization of social interactions during the observation of chasing in infancy2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the seminal work of Fritz Heider and Marienne Simmel (1944) the study of animacy perception, or the perception and attribution of life from the motion of simple geometrical shapes has intrigued researchers. The intrigue for psychologists and vision scientists then and today centered on the stark disconnect between the simplicity of the visual input and the universal richness of the resulting percept.

    Infant research in this domain has become critical in examining the ontological processes behind the formation of animated percepts. To date, little is known about how infants process these kinds of stimuli. While numerous habituation studies have shown sensitivity to animate motion in general, none to date has examined whether infants actually perceive animate displays as social interactions.

    The overarching goal of the present thesis is to answer this question and further augment knowledge about the mechanisms behind the formation of animated percepts in infancy. I, along with my collaborators, do so in three ways, in three separate studies. First, we examined visual attention during online observation of randomly moving geometrical shapes in adults and infants (Study I, using eye tracking). Second, we examine distribution of visual attention in infancy during online observation of non-contact causal interactions, focusing on the most ubiquitous, fitness relevant of interactions – chasing (Study II, using eye tracking). Third, we answer the question whether infants perceive social content in chasing displays by measuring the neural correlates in response to chasing (Study III, using EEG).

    The collective contribution of the present work is also three fold. First, it demonstrates that starting at the end of the first year of life, human visual system is sensitive to cues that efficiently predict an interaction. Second, at 5-months infants begins allocating attention differently across agents within interactions. Finally, attention to specific objects is not due to low-level saliency but the social nature of the interaction. Subsequently, I present the case that perception of social agents is fast, direct, and reflects the workings of a specialized learning mechanisms whose function is the detection of heat-seeking animates in motion. 

    List of papers
    1. Visual Attention to Dynamic Spatial Relations in Infants and Adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Attention to Dynamic Spatial Relations in Infants and Adults
    2016 (English)In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that kinematic features of interactions, such as spatial proximity, capture adult visual attention. The current research uses online measures of gaze behavior to determine attentional capture to objects with reduced interobject spacing in adults as well as infants at 5 and 12months. The three age groups observed three identical geometrical shapes that moved randomly. Relative distance between the objects was mapped and intervals of high and low spatial proximity were identified. Findings demonstrate that only adults and 12-month-olds look significantly more at the objects that are close during instances of high spatial proximity, while 5-month-olds look at chance. The findings speak for a developmental trend in oculomotor processes, where a bias to look at objects with high spatial proximity develops within the first year of life.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268915 (URN)10.1111/infa.12091 (DOI)000368719000005 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-1528
    Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Infants' preference for individual agents within chasing interactions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants' preference for individual agents within chasing interactions
    2016 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 147, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Infants, like adults, are able to discriminate between chasing and non-chasing interactions when watching animations with simple geometric shapes. But where infants derive the necessary information for discrimination and how chasing detection influences later visual attention has been previously unexplored. Here, using eye tracking, we investigated how 5- and 12-month-old infants (N = 94) distribute their visual attention among individual members within different interactions depending on a type of interaction. Infant gaze was examined when observing animations depicting chasing and following interactions compared with animations displaying randomly moving shapes. Results demonstrate that when observing chasing and following interactions, all infants strongly preferred to attend to the agent that initiates an interaction and trails behind another. Low-level features, such as changes in agent-specific velocity profiles, could not account for this preference (Study 2). Rather, the strong preference for the agent going behind seems to be dependent on the initial goal-directed or "heat-seeking" motion of one agent toward another (Study 3). The current set of experiments suggests that, similar to adults, 5 months-olds' visual attention depends on the motion features of an individual agent within the interaction and is fine-tuned to agents that display goal-directed motion toward other agents.

    Keywords
    Visual attention, Social interactions, Social perception, Infant, Eye tracking, Chasing
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298836 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2016.02.010 (DOI)000376698100004 ()27017143 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-1528
    Available from: 2016-07-11 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
    3. How social is the chaser?: Neural correlates of chasing perception in 9-month-old infants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How social is the chaser?: Neural correlates of chasing perception in 9-month-old infants
    2016 (English)In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 19, p. 270-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the neural correlates of chasing perception in infancy to determine whether animated interactions are processed as social events. By using EEG and an ERP design with animations of simple geometric shapes, we examined whether the positive posterior (P400) component, previously found in response to social stimuli, as well as the attention related negative fronto-central component (Nc), differs when infants observed a chaser versus a non-chaser. In Study 1, the chaser was compared to an inanimate object. In Study 2, the chaser was compared to an animate but not chasing agent (randomly moving agent). Results demonstrate no difference in the Nc component, but statistically higher P400 amplitude when the chasing agent was compared to either an inanimate object or a random object. We also find a difference in the N290 component in both studies and in the P200 component in Study 2, when the chasing agent is compared to the randomly moving agent. The present studies demonstrate for the first time that infants' process correlated motion such as chasing as a social interaction. The perception of the chasing agent elicits stronger time-locked responses, denoting a link between motion perception and social cognition.

    Keywords
    P400, Animacy perception, Chasing
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299733 (URN)10.1016/j.dcn.2016.05.0051878 (DOI)000378032000027 ()27258722 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-1528EU, European Research Council, 312292
    Available from: 2016-07-26 Created: 2016-07-26 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
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  • 74.
    Galazka, Martyna A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Roché, Laëtitia
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Human Infants Detect Other People's Interactions Based on Complex Patterns of Kinematic Information.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e112432-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do infants perceive other people's interactions by means of a mechanism that integrates biological motion information across the observed individuals? In support of this view, the present study demonstrates that infants (N = 28, Age  = 14 months) discriminate between point light displays representing disrupted and non-disrupted interactions between people, even though the two interaction types are identical at the level of individual point light agents. Moreover, a second experiment (sample 2: N = 28, Age  = 14 months) indicated that visual preference in this context is influenced by an audiovisual integration processes that takes into account the presence of an interaction between people. All these results were found exclusively for upright displays - when stimuli were shown upside-down (disrupting biological motion processing), performance was random. Collectively, these findings point to an important role for biological motion in social perception in human infants.

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  • 75.
    Galazka, Martyna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' preference for individual agents within chasing interactions2016In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 147, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants, like adults, are able to discriminate between chasing and non-chasing interactions when watching animations with simple geometric shapes. But where infants derive the necessary information for discrimination and how chasing detection influences later visual attention has been previously unexplored. Here, using eye tracking, we investigated how 5- and 12-month-old infants (N = 94) distribute their visual attention among individual members within different interactions depending on a type of interaction. Infant gaze was examined when observing animations depicting chasing and following interactions compared with animations displaying randomly moving shapes. Results demonstrate that when observing chasing and following interactions, all infants strongly preferred to attend to the agent that initiates an interaction and trails behind another. Low-level features, such as changes in agent-specific velocity profiles, could not account for this preference (Study 2). Rather, the strong preference for the agent going behind seems to be dependent on the initial goal-directed or "heat-seeking" motion of one agent toward another (Study 3). The current set of experiments suggests that, similar to adults, 5 months-olds' visual attention depends on the motion features of an individual agent within the interaction and is fine-tuned to agents that display goal-directed motion toward other agents.

  • 76.
    Gamble, Beau
    et al.
    School of Psychology, The University of Auckland.
    Moreau, David
    Tippett, Lynette J
    Addis, Donna Rose
    Specificity of Future Thinking in Depression: A Meta-Analysis.2019In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 816-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory has been well established in depression, but whether this overgenerality extends to future thinking has not been the focus of a meta-analysis. Following a preregistered protocol, we searched six electronic databases, Google Scholar, and personal libraries and contacted authors in the field for studies matching search terms related to depression, future thinking, and specificity. We reduced an initial 7,332 results to 46 included studies, with 89 effect sizes and 4,813 total participants. Random-effects meta-analytic modeling revealed a small but robust correlation between reduced future specificity and higher levels of depression (r = -.13, p < .001). Of the 11 moderator variables examined, the most striking effects were related to the emotional valence of future thinking (p < .001) and the sex of participants (p = .025). Namely, depression was linked to reduced specificity for positive (but not negative or neutral) future thinking, and the relationship was stronger in samples with a higher proportion of males. This meta-analysis contributes to our understanding of how prospection is altered in depression and dysphoria and, by revealing areas where current evidence is inconclusive, highlights key avenues for future research.

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  • 77. Gamble, Beau
    et al.
    Tippett, Lynette J
    Moreau, David
    Addis, Donna Rose
    The Futures We Want: How Goal-Directed Imagination Relates to Mental HealthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagination is an adaptive ability that can be directed towards the pursuit of personal goals. While there is a wealth of research on goals, and on imagination, few studies lie at the intersection—little is known about individual differences in goal-directed imagination. In 153 adults, we examined how 28 aspects of goal setting and goal-directed imagination relate to mental health. Higher well-being and lower depressive symptoms were strongly linked to having goals that were more attainable, under control, and expected to bring more joy; and to goal-directed imagination that was clearer, more detailed, and more positive. These variables also predicted greater goal progress two months later. Importantly, having more intrinsically rewarding goals predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms over time, while more positive imagination predicted an increase in well-being. These findings contribute to our understanding of goal-directed imagination, and highlight potential targets for goal- and imagery-based interventions to improve mental health.

  • 78.
    Gentili, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Unit Behav Med, Funct Area Med Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rickardsson, Jenny
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Unit Behav Med, Funct Area Med Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Unit Behav Med, Funct Area Med Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simons, Laura E.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Anesthesiol Perioperat & Pain Med, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Unit Behav Med, Funct Area Med Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychological Flexibility as a Resilience Factor in Individuals With Chronic Pain2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience factors have been suggested as key mechanisms in the relation between symptoms and disability among individuals with chronic pain. However, there is a need to better operationalize resilience and to empirically evaluate its role and function. The present study examined psychological flexibility as a resilience factor in relation to symptoms and functioning among 252 adults with chronic pain applying for participation in a digital ACT-based self-help treatment. Participants completed measures of symptoms (pain intensity, and anxiety), functioning (pain interference and depression), as well as the hypothesized resilience factor psychological flexibility (measured as avoidance, value obstruction, and value progress). As expected, symptoms, functioning and resilience factors were significantly associated. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that psychological flexibility significantly contributed to the prediction of pain interference and depression when adjusting for age, pain and anxiety. Also, participants with low levels of psychological flexibility were more likely to be on sick leave. Furthermore, a series of multiple mediation analyses showed that psychological flexibility had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between symptoms and functioning. Avoidance was consistently shown to contribute to the indirect effect. Results support previous findings and suggest the importance of psychological flexibility as a resilience factor among individuals with chronic pain and anxiety.

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  • 79.
    Gilpin, Helen
    et al.
    Guy's and St Thomas' NHSFT.
    Stahl, Daniel
    King's College London.
    McCracken, Lance
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A theoretically guided approach to identifying predictors of treatment outcome in contextual CBT for chronic pain2019In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 354-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Psychological treatments are known to be effective for chronic pain, but little is understood about which patients are most likely to benefit from which ones.

    METHODS:

    The study reported here included 609 people who attended a residential, interdisciplinary, pain management programme based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy between January 2012 and August 2014. A flexible and theoretically guided approach to model building based on fractional polynomials was used to identify potential predictors of outcome in domains of emotional, physical and social functioning and pain intensity. Variables considered for inclusion were baseline demographic variables along with measures reflecting processes of psychological flexibility, including acceptance, cognitive defusion and committed action.

    RESULTS:

    Employment status, level of distress, decentring (a process like cognitive defusion) and acceptance significantly contributed to the model above and beyond the effects of other baseline variables. The unique effects of these were small but may be clinically relevant.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Future research should continue to investigate moderators of treatment outcome and to explicitly link these to treatment mechanisms. Taking a flexible, theoretically driven approach to modelling continuous outcomes may be valuable in furthering our understanding of which patients might respond best to which treatments.

    SIGNIFICANCE:

    Further research is needed to better understand who benefits most from psychological treatments for chronic pain. This study suggests that a flexible, multivariate and theoretical approach to identifying predictors of outcome may be valuable in furthering research in this area.

  • 80.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Ovarian Steroid Hormones, Emotion Processing and Mood2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that some psychiatric disorders may deteriorate in relation to the menstrual cycle. However, in some conditions, such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), symptomatology is triggered mainly by the variations in ovarian steroid hormones. Although symptoms induced by fluctuations in ovarian steroids often are affective, little is known about how emotion processing in women is influenced by variations, or actual levels, of ovarian steroid hormones.

    The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate menstrual cycle effects on reactivity in emotion generating and controlling areas in the corticolimbic system to emotional stimulation and anticipation, in healthy controls and women with PMDD. A second aim was to evaluate corticolimbic reactivity during long-term administration of exogenous ovarian steroids.

    In study I, III and IV effects of the menstrual cycle on emotional reactivity in women with PMDD was studied. In study I, women with PMDD in displayed higher amygdala reactivity than healthy controls to emotional faces, not in the luteal phase as was hypothesised, but in the follicular phase. No difference between menstrual cycle phases was obtained in women with PMDD, while healthy controls had an increased reactivity in the luteal phase. The results of study I was further elaborated in study III, where women with PMDD were observed to have an increased anticipatory reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. However, no differences in amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli were obtained across the menstrual cycle. Finally, in study IV the hypothesis that amygdala reactivity increase in the luteal phase in women with PMDD is linked to social stimuli rather than generally arousing stimuli was suggested, tested and supported.

    In study II, re-exposure to COC induced mood symptoms de novo in women with a previous history of COC-induced adverse mood. Women treated with COC reported increased levels of mood symptoms both as compared to before treatment, and as compared to the placebo group. There was a relatively strong correlation between depressive scores before and during treatment. The effects of repeated COC administration on subjective measures and brain function were however dissociated with increased aversive experiences accompanied by reduced reactivity in the insular cortex.

    List of papers
    1. Menstrual cycle effects on amygdala reactivity to emotional stimulation in premenstrual dysphoric disorder
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Menstrual cycle effects on amygdala reactivity to emotional stimulation in premenstrual dysphoric disorder
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    2012 (English)In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) with luteal phase related anxiety and mood swings compromise quality of life in around 4% of reproductive women. While anxiety is related to amygdala function, prior studies on amygdala reactivity both in healthy controls and women with PMDD are inconsistent with respect to menstrual cycle effects. Here women with PMDD and healthy controls were exposed to emotional faces during the mid-follicular and late luteal phase, and mean blood-oxygen-level dependence (BOLD) signal changes in the amygdala were determined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Women with PMDD had enhanced bilateral amygdala reactivity in the follicular phase in comparison with healthy controls, but there was no difference between groups during the luteal phase. In contrast, healthy controls displayed higher left amygdala reactivity in the luteal than in their follicular phase. However, among women with PMDD follicular phase progesterone serum concentrations were positively correlated with bilateral amygdala reactivity while depression scores were positively correlated with right amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. In addition, women with PMDD and high scores on trait anxiety had increased right amygdala reactivity in the luteal as compared to the follicular phase. Finally, amygdala reactivity was more prone to habituation in women with PMDD, as they had enhanced amygdala reactivity in comparison with controls at the first, but not the second scanning session. Thus, while the study failed to indicate increased luteal phase amygdala reactivity in women with PMDD, our findings suggest that anxiety proneness and progesterone levels modulate menstrual cycle related amygdala reactivity in women with PMDD.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183654 (URN)10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.07.005 (DOI)000310654100006 ()22814368 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-10-31 Created: 2012-10-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Oral contraceptive use changes brain activity and mood in women with previous negative affect on the pill: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of a levonorgestrel-containing combined oral contraceptive
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oral contraceptive use changes brain activity and mood in women with previous negative affect on the pill: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of a levonorgestrel-containing combined oral contraceptive
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    2013 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1133-1144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Most women on combined oral contraceptives (COC) report high levels of satisfaction, but 4-10% complain of adverse mood effects. The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate if COC use would induce more pronounced mood symptoms than placebo in women with previous history of COC-induced adverse mood. A second aim was to determine if COC use is associated with changes in brain reactivity in regions previously associated with emotion processing.

    METHODS:

    Thirty-four women with previous experience of mood deterioration during COC use were randomized to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing COC or placebo. An emotional face matching task (vs. geometrical shapes) was administered during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the COC treatment cycle. Throughout the trial, women recorded daily symptom ratings on the Cyclicity Diagnoser (CD) scale.

    RESULTS:

    During the last week of the treatment cycle COC users had higher scores of depressed mood, mood swings, and fatigue than placebo users. COC users also had lower emotion-induced reactivity in the left insula, left middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyri as compared to placebo users. In comparison with their pretreatment cycle, the COC group had decreased emotion-induced reactivity in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, whereas placebo users had decreased reactivity in the right amygdala.

    CONCLUSION:

    COC use in women who previously had experienced emotional side effects resulted in mood deterioration, and COC use was also accompanied by changes in emotional brain reactivity. These findings are of relevance for the understanding of how combined oral contraceptives may influence mood. Placebo-controlled fMRI studies in COC sensitive women could be of relevance for future testing of adverse mood effects in new oral contraceptives.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-188504 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.11.006 (DOI)000320412400018 ()23219471 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and prefrontal reactivity during anticipation of emotional stimuli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and prefrontal reactivity during anticipation of emotional stimuli
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    2013 (English)In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1474-1483Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Premenstrual disorder (PMDD) affects around 5% of women in childbearing ages. An increased sensitivity in emotion processing areas of the brain to variations in ovarian steroid levels has been suggested as part of the pathophysiology in PMDD, but prior neuroimaging studies of emotion processing are yet inconclusive. Previous behavioral studies of women with PMDD have, however, reported enhanced luteal phase startle responsivity during emotional anticipation. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate central neural circuitry activity during anticipation of, and exposure to, emotional stimuli across the menstrual cycle in women with and without PMDD. As compared to healthy controls, women with PMDD displayed significantly enhanced reactivity in the prefrontal cortex during anticipation of, but not exposure to, negative emotional stimuli during the luteal phase. In PMDD patients, BOLD reactivity during anticipation or viewing of negative emotional stimuli was not dependent on absolute levels of estradiol or progesterone. However, progesterone levels were positively correlated with emotion-induced reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to positive emotional stimuli. These findings suggest that cortical emotional circuitry reactivity during anticipation is altered in PMDD during the luteal phase, which might be part of the pathophysiology behind the emotional symptoms or lack of emotional control reported by women with PMDD.

    Keywords
    fMRI, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, progesterone, estrogen, anticipation, emotion
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199788 (URN)10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.08.002 (DOI)000328014700016 ()24001875 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Social stimulation, amygdala reactivity and connectivity in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social stimulation, amygdala reactivity and connectivity in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    premenstrual dysphoric disorder, estrogen, progesterone, amygdala, fMRI, emotion.
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199789 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2013-08-30
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  • 81.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bird, Laura
    Keenaghan, Samantha
    Diamond, Clare
    Zampieri, Eliana
    Tosodduk, Haleema
    Bremner, Andrew J.
    Cowie, Dorothy
    The developing bodily self: Posture constrains embodiment in children and adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For adults, the feeling of inhabiting a body (a sense of embodiment) is constrained by bottom-up multisensory information such as spatiotemporal correlations between visual and tactile sensations, and by top-down knowledge of the body such as its possible postures. However, to date it is unknown what kinds of body models children have. Here we asked whether common factors constrain embodiment in children and adults. In two experiments, we compared 6- to 7-year-olds’ and adults’ embodiment of a fake hand in the rubber hand illusion, measuring illusion-induced proprioceptive drift and questionnaire responses. In Experiment 1 (N = 120), the fake hand was either congruent with the participant’s own hand, or incongruent by 90° and, as a result, in an impossible posture with respect to the current position of their body. In Experiment 2 (N = 60), the fake hand was incongruent with the participant’s own hand by 20°, but still in a possible posture. Across both experiments, and in both children and adults, visual-proprioceptive congruency of posture, and visual-tactile spatiotemporal congruency in stroking independently yielded greater proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand. Subjective ratings of embodiment were also higher when visual-tactile information was congruent, but were not affected by posture. Top-down knowledge of body posture therefore partially constrains embodiment in middle childhood, as in adulthood. This shows that, although childhood is a period of significant change in both bodily dimensions and sensory capabilities, 6- to 7-year-olds have sensitive, robust mechanisms for maintaining a sense of bodily self.

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  • 82.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juvrud, Joshua C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Green, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that action prediction provides a cornerstone in a learning process known as internal forward models. According to this suggestion infants' predictions (looking to the mouth of someone moving a spoon upward) will moments later be validated or proven false (spoon was in fact directed toward a bowl), information that is directly perceived as the distance between the predicted and actual goal. Using an individual difference approach we demonstrate that action prediction correlates with the tendency to react with surprise when social interactions are not acted out as expected (action evaluation). This association is demonstrated across tasks and in a large sample (n = 118) at 6 months of age. These results provide the first indication that infants might rely on internal forward models to structure their social world. Additional analysis, consistent with prior work and assumptions from embodied cognition, demonstrates that the latency of infants' action predictions correlate with the infant's own manual proficiency.

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  • 83.
    Green, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive Eye Movements During Action Observation in Infancy: Understanding the Processes Behind Action Prediction2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to predict the goal of other people’s actions is an important aspect of our daily lives. This ability allows us to interact timely with others and adjust our behaviour appropriately.

    The general aim of the present thesis was to explore which processes best explain our ability to predict other people’s action goals during development. There are different theories concerning this ability. Some stress the fact that observation of others actions activate the same areas of the brain involved in our own action production, this way helping us to understand what they are doing. Other theories suggest that we understand actions independently of our own motor proficiency. For example, the ability to predict other peoples’ action goals could be based on visual experience seeing others actions acquired trough time or on the assumption that actions will be performed in a rational way.

    The studies included in this thesis use eye tracking to study infants’ and adults’ action prediction during observation of goal directed actions. Prediction is operationalized as predictive gaze shifts to the goal of the action.

    Study I showed that infants are sensitive to the functionality of hand configuration and predict the goal of reaching actions but not moving fists. Fourteen-month-olds also looked earlier to the goal of reaching actions when the goal was to contain rather than displace, indicating that the overarching goal (contain/displace) impact the ability to predict local action goals, in this case the goal of the initial reaching action.

    Study II demonstrated that 6-month-olds, an age when infants have not yet started placing objects into containers, did not look to the container ahead of time when observing another person placing objects into containers. They did, however, look to the container ahead of time when a ball was moving on its own. The results thus indicate that different processes might be used to predict human actions and other events.

    Study III showed that 8-month-old infants in China looked to the mouth of an actor eating with chopsticks ahead of time but not when the actor was eating with a spoon. Swedish infants on the other hand looked predictively to the mouth when the actor was eating with a spoon but not with chopsticks. This study demonstrates that prediction of others’ goal directed actions is not simply based on own motor ability (as assumed in Study I and II) but rather on a combination of visual/cultural experience and own motor ability.

    The results of these studies suggest that both own motor proficiency as well as visual experience with observing similar actions is necessary for our ability to predict other people’s action goals. These results are discusses in the light of a newer account of the mirror neuron system taking both statistical regularities in the environment and own motor capabilities into account. 

    List of papers
    1. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants
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    2009 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1190-1194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds, anticipated the goal of reaching actions but tracked all the other actions reactively. Fourteen-month-olds also produced more anticipatory gaze shifts during containment compared with displacement and differentiated between reaching actions dependent on whether the overall goal was to displace objects or place objects inside containers. These results demonstrate that action type and goal type modulate the latency of goal-directed gaze shifts in infants.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112743 (URN)10.1037/a0015667 (DOI)000267681200023 ()19586188 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-01-21 Created: 2010-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Extrapolation and direct matching mediate anticipation infancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extrapolation and direct matching mediate anticipation infancy
    2014 (English)In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213354 (URN)10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.12.002 (DOI)000333720700014 ()
    Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Culture influences action understanding in infancy: prediction of actions performed with chopsticks and spoons in Chinese and Swedish infants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture influences action understanding in infancy: prediction of actions performed with chopsticks and spoons in Chinese and Swedish infants
    2016 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 736-746Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The cultural specificity of action prediction was assessed in 8-month-old Chinese and Swedish infants. Infants were presented with an actor eating with a spoon or chopsticks. Predictive goal-directed gaze shifts were examined using eye tracking. The results demonstrate that Chinese infants only predict the goal of eating actions performed with chopsticks, whereas Swedish infants exclusively predict the goal of eating actions per- formed with a spoon. Infants in neither culture predicted the goal of object manipulation actions (e.g., picking up food) performed with a spoon or chopsticks. The results support the view that multiple processes (both visual/cultural learning and motor-based direct matching processes) facilitate goal prediction during observa- tion of other peoples’ actions early in infancy.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230990 (URN)10.1111/cdev.12500 (DOI)000379913500010 ()27189401 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR 2011-1528NIH (National Institute of Health), 5R01HD067581
    Available from: 2014-09-02 Created: 2014-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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  • 84.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Ander, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Toft, Teolinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    U-CARE: Adolescent involvement in psychosocial research including the design of an internet based psychological intervention2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Norlund, Fredrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Wallin, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Held, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    U-CARE Heart: A Randomized Controlled Study of the Effects of Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with a Previous Myocardial Infarction: A Clinical Trial Protocol2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Feedback learning and multiple goal pursuit in an electricity consumption task2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with the thesis was to investigate how learning to pursue two conflicting goals (cost and utility) in an electricity consumption task is affected by different forms of feedback, goal phrasing, and task environment. Applied research investigating the efficiency of outcome feedback on electricity consumption via in-home displays points at modest reductions (2-4%). Further, a wealth of cognitive psychological research shows that learning with outcome feedback is not unproblematic. A new experimental paradigm, the simulated household, that captures the cognitive task that confronts people when trying to regulate their electricity consumption, was developed. In three studies, different aspects of the problem of regulating one’s consumption was investigated. Study I, investigated how different feedback in terms of frequency, detail, and presence of random noise or not affect performance. It also investigated if participants pursued the goals sequentially or simultaneously and if they were able to derive a model of the task. Results showed that frequent feedback was beneficial only in a deterministic system and, surprisingly, random noise improved performance by highlighting the most costly appliances. Modelling results indicated that participants pursued goals sequentially and did not have a mental model of the task. Study II, investigated if a short feedforward training could replace or complement outcome feedback. Results indicated that the performance with one of the feedforward training schemes lead to comparable performance to outcome feedback only. The best performance was obtained when this feedforward scheme was combined with outcome feedback. Study III, investigated if the sequential goal pursuit observed in Study I was related to interpretation of the task or cognitive limitations by specifying goals for cost and/or utility. Further, it investigated the reason for the cost prioritisation. Results indicated that the sequential goal pursuit derives from cognitive constraints. Together, the results from the studies suggest that people pursue the goals sequentially and that instant outcome feedback may harm performance by distracting people from the most important and costly appliances to the appliances that allow large variability in use.

    List of papers
    1. Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequential and myopic: On the use of feedback to balance cost and utility in a simulated electricity efficiency task
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 106-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive research on feedback, little research is aimed at the use of feedback to optimise conflicting goals. A task modelled after In Home Displays for providing feedback about electricity cost was designed to investigate the effects of feedback frequency, detail, and stability, when participants try to balance cost and utility. Frequent feedback proved to be advantageous in a deterministic system, but feedback aggregated over time was advantageous in a system with noisy feedback. Surprisingly, performance was better with noisy feedback, where the probabilism, in effect, acted as a filter, highlighting the applications that are most important for the cost and the utility. Computational modelling suggested that the best-fitting model assumes that the participants are sequential, considering one goal at a time, first satisfying the cost budget, only thereafter trying to maximise the utility, and reflexive, myopically responding primarily to the feedback explicitly available on a given trial.

    Keywords
    Feedback, optimisation, goal conflict, cognitive myopia, energy efficiency
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-274420 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2015.1095192 (DOI)000367337800008 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning
    2015 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A popular way to improve consumers' control over their electricity consumption is by providing outcome feedback on the cost with in-home displays. Research on function learning, however, suggests that outcome feedback may not always be ideal for learning, especially if the feedback signal is noisy. In this study, we relate research on function learning to in-home displays and use a laboratory task simulating a household to investigate the role of outcome feedback and function learning on electricity optimization. Three function training schemes (FTSs) are presented that convey specific properties of the functions that relate the electricity consumption to the utility and cost. In Experiment 1, we compared learning from outcome feedback with 3 FTSs, 1 of which allowed maximization of the utility while keeping the budget, despite no feedback about the total monthly cost. In Experiment 2, we explored the combination of this FTS and outcome feedback. The results suggested that electricity optimization may be facilitated if feedback learning is preceded by a brief period of function training.

    Keywords
    function learning, electricity consumption, electricity optimization, in-home displays
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272132 (URN)10.1037/xap0000056 (DOI)000366318200002 ()26460677 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research in Cognitive Psychology has investigated people’s ability to use feedback to pursue a single goal, little research has addressed their ability to use feedback to pursue multiple goals. In a study (Juslin et al., 2016) that investigated people’s ability to use electricity efficiently in a simulated household, balancing the cost of its use against its utility, results showed that the goals were addressed sequentially, first the cost, thereafter the utility. In the present study, we investigated the reasons for this sequential goal pursuit and, specifically, if it derives from cognitive constraints. In Experiment 1, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if they are equally emphasized by an explicit “budget”. In Experiment 2, we tested if the initial priority assigned to cost derives from its larger evaluability. In Experiment 3, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if not only cost but also utility is represented by a linear function. The results suggest that the sequential goal pursuit is driven by limits on cognitive capacity that are little affected by training, goal phrasing, and function form. We found no evidence that the initial priority assigned to cost is caused by its higher evaluability or its linear function form.

    Keywords
    sequential goal pursuit, goal-shielding, goal-dilution, electricity consumption
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348820 (URN)
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
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  • 87.
    Guath, Mona
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rackwitz, Roger
    Why Do People Pursue Goals Sequentially when they Try to Balance the Cost and the Utility in an Electricity Consumption Task?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While research in Cognitive Psychology has investigated people’s ability to use feedback to pursue a single goal, little research has addressed their ability to use feedback to pursue multiple goals. In a study (Juslin et al., 2016) that investigated people’s ability to use electricity efficiently in a simulated household, balancing the cost of its use against its utility, results showed that the goals were addressed sequentially, first the cost, thereafter the utility. In the present study, we investigated the reasons for this sequential goal pursuit and, specifically, if it derives from cognitive constraints. In Experiment 1, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if they are equally emphasized by an explicit “budget”. In Experiment 2, we tested if the initial priority assigned to cost derives from its larger evaluability. In Experiment 3, we tested if cost and utility are pursued simultaneously if not only cost but also utility is represented by a linear function. The results suggest that the sequential goal pursuit is driven by limits on cognitive capacity that are little affected by training, goal phrasing, and function form. We found no evidence that the initial priority assigned to cost is caused by its higher evaluability or its linear function form.

  • 88.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Nygren, Else
    Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    The need for new application specific interface elements1993In: Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics 19B, Human Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces, 1993, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of user interfaces for skilled workers in professional work settings should be based on style guides that certify efficiency. Most of today's style guides and design guidelines overemphasise general aspects or aspects relevant to novices. To increase efficiency both of the design process and of the resulting interface, more domain specific interface elements should be used. This paper explains the basic ideas of such domain specific style guides and gives some examples from the health care domain.

  • 89.
    Hagström, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Virtually overcoming grammar learning with 3D application of Loci mnemonics?2018In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Hall, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Integration of Refugees and Support for the Ethos of Conflict2018In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 2040-2067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following forced expulsion and campaigns of ethnic cleansing, substantial portions of national communities affected by conflict no longer live within the boundaries of the state. Nevertheless, existing wartime and postwar public opinion research is largely confined to countries directly affected by conflict. As a result, current research may overlook important war-affected populations and processes shaping their opinions. I address this problem by examining the question: does incorporation in settlement countries reduce support for conflict ideology? Examining this question requires new microdata. I examine the results of a large-scale survey of ex-Yugoslavs in Sweden. The findings suggest that incorporation undermines support for conflict ideology by increasing the socioeconomic security and social identity complexity of migrants. This has important implications for multiculturalism policies in the context of the current global migration crisis.

  • 91.
    Hall, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kahn, Dennis
    Baruch Ivcher School of Psychology, Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Israel; Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Exposure to war-time trauma decreases positive emotions and altruism towards rival outgroups (but not non-rival outgroups): a field experiment among Syrian refugees2019In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey experiment, carried out in a field setting among Sunni Arab Syrian refugees (N = 2,479), examined the effect of exposure to wartime trauma, ethnoreligious group affiliation, and degree of hostility of intergroup relations on altruism and positive emotional regard. The results showed that in-group targets were met with more positive emotional regard and altruism than relatively neutral out-group targets, which in turn were met with more positive emotional regard and altruism than individuals from a hostile out-group. These tendencies were elevated among participants with a high degree of exposure to wartime trauma. Emotions mediated the effect of ethnoreligious group affiliation on altruism, and this mediating effect was moderated by exposure to wartime trauma.

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  • 92.
    Hall, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Kovras, Iosif
    University of London, London, UK.
    Stefanovic, Djordje
    Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Canada.
    Loizides, Neophytos
    University of Kent, Kent, UK.
    Exposure to Violence and Attitudes Towards Transitional Justice2018In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 345-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitional justice has emerged to address victims’ needs as a means of restoring relations broken by violence. Yet we know little about victims’ attitudes towards different transitional justice mechanisms. Why do some victims prioritize retributive justice while others favor other forms of dealing with the violent past? What determines victims’ attitudes towards transitional justice policies? To address these questions, we offer a new theoretical framework that draws upon recent insights from the field of evolutionary psychology and links both war exposure and postwar environments to transitional justice preferences. We argue that both past experiences of wartime violence and present-day social interdependence with perpetrators impact transitional justice preferences, but in divergent ways (resulting in greater support for retributive vs. restorative justice measures, respectively). To test our framework, we rely upon a 2013 representative survey of 1,007 respondents focusing on general population attitudes towards transitional justice in Bosnia two decades after the implementation of the Dayton Accords. Specifically, we examine the impact of displacement, return to prewar homes, loss of property, loss of a loved one, physical injury, imprisonment, and torture on attitudes towards transitional justice. On the whole, our findings confirm our two main hypotheses: Exposure to direct violence and losses is associated with more support for retributive justice measures, while greater present-day interdependence with perpetrators is associated with more support for restorative justice measures. While acknowledging the legacy of wartime violence, we highlight the importance of the postwar context and institutional mechanisms that support victims in reconstructing their lives.

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  • 93.
    Hanborg, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Främling, vad döljer du för mig?: Skillnaden i personlighetsbedömningar av närstående och främlingar utifrån Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att vi drar slutsatser om andra personer redan utifrån ansikten och detta påverkar oss i många skeden i livet. Till viss del har även korrektheten av dessa bedömningar undersökts i olika situationer, t.ex. foto och/eller text utifrån arbetsansökningar och sociala medier. Ingen studie har undersökt hur väl vi kan bedöma andra individers personlighet beroende på relationsperspektiv och grad av information. Vi testade därför två hypoteser gällande Facebook; 1) Närstående bedömer bättre en individs personlighet än främlingar, oavsett informationsgrad, 2) Mer information kommer ge främlingarna en mer korrekt bedömning. För att besvara hypoteserna fick 90 deltagare skatta 15 deltagares personlighet utifrån tre olika relationsperspektiv; närstående, främling utifrån profilbild eller främling utifrån Facebookprofil. Samtliga deltagare rekryterades huvudsakligen från två lärosäten och genom bekvämlighetsurval. Resultatet gav stöd för första hypotesen men inte andra hypotesen. En närstående bedömer personlighet bättre än en främling och informationsgrad påverkar inte främlingars korrekthet signifikant. Dock kunde främlingar göra en bedömning som påvisade en bättre korrelation än noll. Detta menar vi har implikationer för främst rekryterare som ofta utgår från sociala medier i sin bedömning av arbetsansökande.

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  • 94. Hannus, Aave
    et al.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bekkering, Harold
    Roerdink, Jos B T M
    Cornelissen, Frans W
    Visual search near threshold: Some features are more equal than others.2006In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While searching for objects, we combine information from multiple visual modalities. Classical theories of visual search assume that features are processed independently prior to an integration stage. Based on this, one would predict that features that are equally discriminable in single feature search should remain so in conjunction search. We test this hypothesis by examining whether search accuracy in feature search predicts accuracy in conjunction search. Subjects searched for objects combining color and orientation or size; eye movements were recorded. Prior to the main experiment, we matched feature discriminability, making sure that in feature search, 70% of saccades were likely to go to the correct target stimulus. In contrast to this symmetric single feature discrimination performance, the conjunction search task showed an asymmetry in feature discrimination performance: In conjunction search, a similar percentage of saccades went to the correct color as in feature search but much less often to correct orientation or size. Therefore, accuracy in feature search is a good predictor of accuracy in conjunction search for color but not for size and orientation. We propose two explanations for the presence of such asymmetries in conjunction search: the use of conjunctively tuned channels and differential crowding effects for different features.

  • 95.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Naïve Intuitive Statistician: Organism-Environment Relations from yet another Angle.2008In: The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science, New York: Oxford University Press , 2008, p. 237-260Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 96.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pupillometric screening of potential neonatal acetylcholine, dopamine, and melatonin dysregulations in neurodevelopmental disordersIn: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD are common neurodevelopmental disorders that benefit from early intervention but currently suffer from late detection and diagnosis: neurochemical dysregulations are extant already at birth but clinical phenotypes are not distinguishable until preschool age or later. The vast heterogeneity between subjects’ phenotypes relates to interaction between multiple unknown factors, making research on factor causality insurmountable. To unlock this situation we pose the hypothesis that atypical pupillary light responses from rods, cones, and the recently discovered ipRGC system reflect early acetylcholine, melatonin, and dopamine dysregulation that are sufficient but not necessary factors for developing ASD and/or ADHD disorders. Current technology allows non-invasive cost-efficient assessment already from the first postnatal month. The benefits of the current proposal are: identification of clinical subgroups based on cause rather than phenotypes; facilitation of research on other causal factors; neonatal prediction of later diagnoses; and guidance for targeted therapeutical intervention.

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  • 97.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spädbarns dysreglering av acetylkolin, dopamin och melatonin – nya verktyg för orsakssambandsforskning på ASD och ADHD 2017In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 98.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities2018In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 573-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In the current study we investigate five factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally-elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N=59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation. Our data show (1) low parental extroversion is associated with participants’ overall rate of conformity; (2) and low participant extroversion and high openness are associated with an informational instead of a normative motivation to conform. This suggests that sensitivity to the social context or social engagement level, as manifested through extroversion, could be an important factor in conformist behaviour.

  • 99.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What happens when 3.5-year-olds meet conflicting information? Eye-tracking reveals the conformists and their motivations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenson, T Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Contradicting Data and Comments on Oldmeadow and Dixson's (2015) "The Association Between Men's Sexist Attitudes and Facial Hair"2016In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 783-784Article in journal (Other academic)
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