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  • 51.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Jungar, Ann-Cathrine
    Södertörns högskola.
    The Influence of National Parliaments over Domestic European Union Policies2009In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 359-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present survey results on the Swedish and Finnish parliamentarians' perceived influence over domestic decision-making in EU-matters. In the literature the parliaments in Sweden and Finland are classified as powerful parliaments that can exert considerable influence in the domestic EU policy-making. Moreover, Finland and Sweden joined the EU at the same time. Therefore the overall expectation is that the parliaments should be equally powerful. However, the results from our survey indicate a significant difference in perceived influence between the two parliaments. It is obvious that the Swedish parliamentarians perceive themselves as more marginalized in relation to the Government than the Finnish parliamentarians. After having tried different explanations we conclude that the differences can be ascribed to the parliaments' different organisational set-ups for the oversight of the Government.

  • 52.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Petersson, Olof
    Sverige behöver en oberoende riksrevision1999In: TLM:Thélème, ISSN 1103-8926, no 4, p. 27-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om Inga-Britt Ahlenius förordnande håller på att hamna i personfixering medan det grundläggande problemet förblir olöst: Sverige har en alltför svag granskningsmakt. Vi behöver en verkligt oberoende riksrevision. Det skriver Olof Petersson professor i statsvetenskap, och fil dr Shirin Ahlbäck expert på statlig revision.

  • 53.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Avkollegialiseringen av den svenska högskolan2016In: Det hotade universitetet / [ed] Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin, Bennich-Björkman, Li, Hermansson, Jörgen, Karlsson, Christer & Widmalm, Sten, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2016, 1, p. 45-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sundberg, Elin
    Vad har hänt med det kollegiala styret?2017In: Det ostyrda universitetet?: Perspektiv på styrning, autonomi och reform av svenska lärosäten / [ed] Linda Wedlin & Josef Pallas, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2017, 1, p. 91-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Att göra rätt - även när ingen ser på2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    NPM på svenska2013In: Patientens pris: Ett reportage om den svenska sjukvården och marknaden / [ed] Maciej Zaremba, Stockholm: Weyler förlag , 2013, p. 122-153Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    ”Professionalism nedvärderas i den marknadsstyrda staten”2012In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2012-10-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Constitutions and the Application of Public Management Reforms: Formulating a Research Agenda2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since constitutional aspects of public management reforms are rarely debated, scholars and politicians alike end up underestimating two fundamental problems in modern democratic political systems. The first concerns the effects that public management policies may have on power allocation within and outside the public sphere. Here the lack of critical analysis and debate concerns the fact that seemingly technical adjustments of the government’s tool box may end up changing the power allocation among actors vertically as well as horizontally. The second perspective, and the one to be discussed in this paper, concerns the reverse relationship, i.e. how constitutions influence public management policy reforms. The last decades have resulted in a global spread of ideas regarding how governments should manage public authorities and the public sector. In this paper we aim at identifying constitutional variables to explain the variation of how specific public management tools are applied in different contexts.

  • 59.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Government Steering over Two Decades: A Large-N comparison2016In: RC27 Structure and Organization of Government: Panel:  RC27.05 Out of Control or over Controlled? Incentives, Audits and New Public Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The post-NPM debate on government control of state authorities is un-decisive in both problem description and in terms of suggested remedies. ‘Wicked problems’ are said to call for re-integration of state executives, and for enhanced government control in order to increase coordination between public organizations. At the same time, excessive (performance) control is accused of posing a threat to professionalism in the public sector and to its problem solving capacity. In this paper we build upon Verhoest et al’s (2004) suggestion that we need to treat autonomy as a multi-dimensional phenomenon and argue the importance of adopting a nuanced analytical perspective on issues of too much or too little control. Using a unique data set containing information on nearly 20 years of governmental steering as this is expressed in yearly appropriation direction documents (N=1330) issued by the Swedish government, we a) map out how the government’s demand for performance information has developed over time, and b) as we treat performance information demands as one out of many policy instruments in a government’s toolbox we also look for specific and stable combinations of different policy instruments (represented by autonomy dimensions). Our findings show that the number of performance information indicators requested from governments in appropriation direction-documents have on a general level decreased over time. From our bivariate and multivariate analyses we have shown that any government’s inclination to e.g. demand less performance information from its state agencies in general comes with a less autonomous management model for the state agency.

  • 60.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Interim Report on Public Administration Reform Trends and Reform Dynamics in Sweden: Snapshot and EU semester link2016Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Mature Agencification: A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Autonomy2015In: Shaping the Future - Re-invention or revolution?, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nordic Administrative Heritages and Contemporary Institutional Design2016In: Nordic Administrative Reforms - Lessons for Public Management / [ed] Greve, Carsten, Lægreid, Per and Rykkja, Lise H, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 1, p. 57-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the degree of autonomy, politicization and coordination capacity in the Nordic countries looking at variations across Nordic countries as well as between Nordic countries and other European models. The importance of the East Nordic model is addressed, and also the ministry-agency divide. In terms of autonomy, a distinction is made between managerial autonomy and autonomy in policy-making, and policy implementation respectively. The chapter looks at the question of increased politicization, that is, the degree to which politicians accept the professional expertise of senior civil servants. The chapter also looks at coordination capacity, addressing hierarchy and network arrangements as well as the quality of coordinating along the vertical and horizontal dimension.

  • 63.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Politics of Public Administration Policy: Explaining and Evaluating Public Performance Management in Sweden2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 273-281Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project is to describe and explain the introduction and the consequences of the current management model of the public sector (management by results) from a democratic theory perspective. Firstly, our aim is to disclose the norms and values that the present model is bearer of. A first step will be to unfold what kind of values that are rewarded in the present model, and thereby also calling the attention to what values that are neglected. A point of reference for this is Elster's "three-cornered dilemma" of constitutionalism, democracy, and efficiency. This analysis of conflicting values will be made on different administrative levels, since the implications are different depending on whether we focus on government steering or the conditions of the service deliverers on the local level. Secondly, we aim to answer the question on why the model was introduced in the first place, and if this process poses any democratic challenges. Our perspective is that the introduction of this model has had far reaching effects for the work of the executive branch, and thereby has had greater constitutional implications than is generally acknowledged. Yet, we also know from earlier research that the introduction of the model was not of great political interest, but is rather the product of a limited number of top civil servants. Simply put, how come that this one particular management model is adopted, and is allowed to dominate, although it has been so highly criticized?

  • 64.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Wockelberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Public Sector and the Courts2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurring themes relating to the central constitutional principles of the public sector and the courts can be summarized as administrative dualism and institutional autonomy. The scope of the dual Swedish administrative model, as well as how much institutional autonomy government agencies and the courts are granted by the Constitution, has been strongly debated. These debates exemplify what we refer to as “the Swedish Constitution as a story of unresolved issues.” Paradoxically, substantial constitutional reforms in this area rarely come about due to regular constitutional reform making in Sweden. Instead, they are often the result of formally less demanding political decision making.

  • 65.
    Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Policy and Knowledge: Ignoring Facts or Surrendering to Experts2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest to evaluate policies and make use of scientific evidence in politics and policy. However, the relationship between politics and knowledge is quite complex. Sometimes politicians involve policy analysts, because they want to find out “the best solution” to a policy problem. But other times they just want to find arguments for a position already decided. This is discouraging. If we want politics to take the form of enlightened understanding it is not acceptable that relevant information is totally ignored. In that case, policy analysis and evaluations might just be a play to the gallery or an empty ritual. On the other hand we do not want politicians to be like puppets on a string for experts. Results from evaluations, scientific committees or other policy analyses, should not be uncritically accepted by politicians. If so, we risk a situation where politics moves from democratic arenas to closed offices of consultants and experts. Hence, from a normative point of view, we would like decision-makers to critically reflect on relevant information, and be able to argue why they dismiss some information and make use of other. But this is not easy, and there are still a lot unknown: there is a need for better instruments for analysis of the problem and more empirical knowledge of how and when politicians navigate between ignorance and technocracy. In this article we take some steps in that direction. First, we elaborate on three basic ideal types; Ignorance, Rational deliberation and Entrusting experts. Second, we test the hypothesis that politicians will entrust experts when there is established knowledge in the field, consensus among experts, and clear politically established criteria to follow. However, the two cases examined do not confirm expected results. In a first case where we would expect decisive influence from experts, the knowledge produced was ignored. In the second case, where we expected politicians to have excellent opportunities to control decision-making, it was instead controlled by experts. This has important implications for how we look upon the relationship between politics and expertise, and for future research.

  • 66.
    Ahlroos Källhed, Ivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Bridging the integration gap: The relationship between women's employment, childcare costs and integration policies2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an unexplained gap in employment between native-born and foreign-born women in most European countries and it is not evident how it can be closed. This essay studies some possible explanations of the gap by looking at the effect of childcare costs and integration policies, through regression analysis. The individual effects are not significant, but the results do however give some indication that the degree of integration policies in a country can change the effect of welfare policies such as childcare.

  • 67.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendshipManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

  • 68.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Essays on the collective action dilemma of vaccination2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess positive externalities that make them susceptible to the collective action dilemma: when I get vaccinated, I protect not only myself, but also those who I might otherwise have infected. Thus, some people will have an incentive to free ride on the immunity of others. In a population of rational agents, the critical level of vaccination uptake required for herd immunity will therefore be difficult to attain in the long run, which poses difficulties for disease eradication.

    In this doctoral dissertation, I explore different implications of the collective action dilemma of vaccination, and different ways of ameliorating it. First: given that coercion or force could solve the dilemma, and democracies may be less likely to engage in policies that violate the physical integrity of citizens, democracies may also be at a disadvantage compared to non-democracies when securing herd immunity. In essay I, I show that this is, empirically, indeed the case. Barring the use of extensive coercion therefore necessitates other solutions.

    In essay II, I highlight the exception to individual rationality found in other-regarding motivations such as altruism. Our moral psychology has likely evolved to take other's welfare into account, but the extent of our prosocial motivations vary: a wider form of altruism that encompasses not just family or friends, but strangers, is likely to give way to a more narrow form when humans pair-bond and have children. This dynamic is shown to apply to the sentiments underlying vaccination behavior as well: appeals to the welfare of society of getting vaccinated have positive effects on vaccination propensity, but this effect disappears in people with families and children. On this demographic, appeals to the welfare of close loved ones instead appears to have large effects.

    In essay III, I investigate whether the prosocial motivations underlying vaccination behavior are liable to be affected by motivation crowding - that is, whether they are crowded out when introducing economic incentives to get vaccinated. I find that on average, economic incentives do not have adverse effects, but for a small minority of highly prosocially motivated people, they might.

    List of papers
    1. Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311019 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    2. When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311018 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
    3. Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy and vaccination uptake - a complex friendship
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracies are generally thought to be better able to handle the provision of public goods than non-democracies. However, vaccines are a type of public good where we might expect this dynamic not to apply. Generally, a high vaccination uptake is net-profitable for the state above a certain level of national wealth, given losses of tax income to disease and health care expenditures. At the same time, democracies may be suspected to be less likely to use coercive means to achieve the goal of high uptake. This leads to the hypothesis that at least among rich countries, democracies may fare worse in terms of vaccination uptake.

    In this paper, I test this proposal using a cross-country panel of WHO uptake data. I test both traditional panel models, as well as an IV-approach using regional democratization waves as an instrument for own-country democracy. With both approaches, the theoretical prediction appears to hold up: rich non-democracies do indeed achieve higher uptake than rich democracies.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-311017 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2016-12-20
  • 69.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Money for nothing?: Motivation crowding and economic rationality in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccines famously possess public goods characteristics that make them vulnerable to the collective action dilemma. Economists have posited a simple way of solving the problem -- economic incentives. However, results from studies on motivation crowding suggest that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation and therefore backfire. This study investigates if vaccines are subject to motivation crowding using two sets of survey experiments. It is found that in the aggregate, introducing economic incentives has positive effects on vaccination propensity. However, for a subset of highly intrinsically motivated individuals, the effect of introducing economic incentives could be negative. Further, the distinction between pure and impure public goods seems to be driving this dynamic.

  • 70.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity2017In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, we should consider decreasing self-interested motivation rather than increasing prosociality directly. Second, this should be complemented with cognitive enhancement. These suggestions are tested against existing and emerging evidence on cognitive capacity, mindfulness meditation and the effects of psychedelic drugs and are found to have sufficient grounding for further theoretical and empirical exploration. Furthermore, moral effects of the latter two are hypothesized to result from a diminished sense of self with subsequent reductions in self-interest.

  • 71.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    When is blood thicker than water?: Variations of other-regard in the vaccination decision.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social proximity and kinship have been shown to heavily influence our tendency to altruistic behavior. Evidence about group formation, the development of prosocial motivation during adolescence as well as on both endocrinological and psychological mechanisms involved in prosociality also highlight the likely inherently parochial character of human altruism. Meanwhile, other-regarding motivations can play a central role in vaccination behavior. It is not well-understood, however, what types of other-regard are involved, and what role they play.

    In this study, I use a 2x2 factor survey experiment to investigate the differing effects of narrow (family-oriented) versus wide (purely altruistic) other-regard. I find that stimulating either of these types of other-regard leads to increases in vaccination propensity. However, the effects differ markedly between types of subjects: subjects in a settled family constellation display large effects of narrow, but not wide, other-regard, whereas others display the opposite. Wide other-regard therefore appears to be crowded out by narrow when humans enter pair-bonding. To maintain sufficient vaccination uptake, this distinction should be taken into consideration when designing messages to the public.

  • 72.
    Ahlén, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Boräng, Frida
    University of Gothenburg.
    Immigration Control in Disguise?: Civic Integration Policies and Immigrant Admission2018In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a rapid diffusion of civic integration policies (CIPs) in Europe since the 21st century. The spread of CIPs has, however, been uneven across Europe, with some countries adopting civic integration strategies with tougher integration requirements, whereas others keeping more of a multicultural approach. The implementation of CIPs has mainly been motivated based on concerns about immigrant integration. As discussed in this article, however, an implied function of this policy framework is that immigrants who do not meet the conditions will face difficulties acquiring residence. This article develops and conducts a preliminary test of the argument that CIPs affect migration flows. The assumption is that CIPs provide states with tools to control and limit the inflow of immigration by a certain category of entry. The analysis lends support to the idea that there are connections between the extensions of CIPs and reductions in family immigration and labour immigration among European countries, which indicates that push for internal inclusion seems to come along with barriers of exclusion.

  • 73.
    Ahmad, Aisha
    et al.
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Ruffa, Chiara
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Semple, Michael
    Harvard Kennedy School.
    Scholars reflect on Afghan Koran burnings, rioting2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Several Harvard Kennedy School scholars who have worked in Afghanistan were asked to comment on how the United States should respond to the accidental burning of Korans by the U.S. military, and the subsequent deadly rioting in the country. Here are their responses:

  • 74.
    Akill Ali, Refka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Islamiska staten: En studie av Islamiska staten i förhållande till begreppet stat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka huruvida Islamiska staten kännetecknar en stat. Detta kommer att undersökas utifrån berättelser från källor som har befunnit sig nära Islamiska statens territorium. Det finns idag olika uppfattningar kring vilka Islamiska staten är och vad de vill – om de endast är en beväpnad politisk rörelse eller en rörelse som har lyckats bygga upp ett territorium med statsliknande organ. De berättelser som kommer att ligga i fokus i denna studie har tagits från tidningen Dabiq som är en av Islamiska statens tidningar, befintliga intervjuer från människor som har befunnit sig inom Islamiska statens territorium men även rapporter från internationella organisationer. Som hjälpmedel har studien valt att utgå från Barry Buzans teori om statsbildning. Denna teori behandlar tre kriterier av vad som utgör en stat; statens idé, statens institutionella uttryck samt statens fysiska bas. Denna teori kommer att fungera som ett verktyg för att granska och sammanställa den empiri som har valts. Studien kommer att utgå från en kvalitativ textanalys där de berättelserna som har valts om Islamiska staten prövas mot begreppet stat såsom det definieras av Barry Buzan. Resultatet visar på att Islamiska staten inte utgör en stat utifrån de berättelser som analyserats.  

  • 75.
    Aksal, Nure
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Etnisk mångfald och social tillit – kan vi ha båda samtidigt?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mainly due to the recent years of large inflow of immigrants to Europe, and not least Sweden, the debate of ethnic diversity has become more intense, and thus so has the debate of social cohesion and social capital. Social trust is part of our social capital, and has also been of interest for several researchers over the years. The development of the literature on trust first had focus on the economic and democratic benefits of trust, but has now taken a turn towards focusing more on the negative effects of ethnic diversity in societies. My research show that ethnic diversity in Uppsala does not directly affect the levels social trust in Uppsala. There are other factors, both in the society at large and personal factors that explain the relation between having another ethnic background than Swedish and trust.

  • 76.
    Al Nashéa, Aram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Reaction of the U.S. President To the Rise of China: A discourse analysis into the president of the United States’ reaction to China emerging as a competing hegemon.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The U.S. has enjoyed global hegemonic power for over 70 years and even more so

    after the fall of the Soviet Union. However, some political scientists argue that it is

    descending and the evidence lies in the increasing power of China. An imbalance of

    power in the international structure has the ability to result in different outcomes. The

    realist theory suggests that a conflict between the U.S. and China is unavoidable, the

    liberal theory suggests that the economic dependency between the two makes conflict

    less possible, while the constructivist theory suggests that the outcome depends on the

    reaction of the leaders and social change. This study asks what the reaction of the

    President of the U.S. is to the rise of China to find out the result of this hegemonic

    power imbalance. By using discourse analysis, this study has analyzed the remarks of

    President Trump from the period of January 2017 to November 2017 in search of his

    reaction to the rise of China. The results of this study show that President Trump

    divides the world in two parts making the U.S. the protagonist and the rest of the

    world, including China, the antagonist in his discourse as his reaction. Due to this

    reaction, Trump takes nationalistic and protectionist measures against China.

  • 77.
    Albers, Jorick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    European identity through ‘thick’ and ‘thin’: Normative theory and the challenge of diversity2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Explaining failed negotiations: Strategic interaction2012In: Unfinished Business: Why international negotiations fail / [ed] Guy Olivier Faure and Franz Cede, Atlanta, Georgia: University of Georgia Press , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Many Faces of Justice in International Negotiations2015In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a wide range of roles and effects that justice can have in negotiations at the international level. It can be a source of conflict and trigger for negotiation, a referent guiding negotiations, a subject of negotiation, a tool to reach effective agreements, and a tactical tool. Justice can assume any or several of these roles in any one negotiation. This article looks at justice as a lens through which to understand what drives negotiation processes and explains different results in the international arena.

  • 80.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University Fairfax USA; Macquarie University Sydney Australia; University of Queensland Brisbane Australia.
    Negotiating effectively: Justice in international environmental negotiations2016In: Group Decision and Negotiation, ISSN 0926-2644, E-ISSN 1572-9907, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are negotiators who rely on justice principles in the process of bargain- ing and drafting agreements more—or rather less—effective than others? This article examines whether adherence to principles of procedural and distributive justice in negotiations contributes to more effective results, with a focus on international envi- ronmental negotiations. Effectiveness is defined in terms of the extent of agreement (among parties and on issues), time to reach agreement, and comprehensiveness of the agreement. A set of hypotheses is evaluated on a selection of bilateral and mul- tilateral cases of environmental negotiations, using statistical methods. The analyses reveal that adherence to principles of procedural justice contributes to more effective results in multilateral environmental negotiations. These principles are found to hin- der effectiveness in the bilateral cases. On the other hand, adherence to principles of distributive justice is only moderately related to effectiveness in both the bilateral and multilateral cases. 

  • 81.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Procedures matter:  Justice and effectiveness in international trade negotiations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Young, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Setting the Table for Success - or Failure?: Agenda Management in the WTO2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 37-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the agenda management process influence the effectiveness of multilateral trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How can the all-important agenda be shaped so as to enhance the prospects of an agreement being reached? How the agenda is managed directly affects the negotiation process which follows and the eventual outcome. Yet researchers have paid little attention to the particular dynamics and challenges of agenda management in large-scale multilateral negotiations, and actual practice points to several weaknesses. This article proposes that the complexity of the agenda in multilateral talks needs to be managed and reduced in procedurally just ways if a successful outcome (agreement) is to result. It develops an analytical framework of agenda management in multilateral negotiations and conducts a structured focused comparison to explain the differences in outcomes of two rounds of WTO negotiations: the failure of the 2003 Cancún Ministerial Conference and the success of the 2004 Geneva negotiations in reaching an agreement. The findings support the proposition that a successful outcome depends in part on reducing agenda complexity and that this needs to be achieved in procedurally acceptable (if not just) ways.

  • 83.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci CNDS, Box 514, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in Europe2017In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 381-410Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Do natural disasters generally affect individuals' political trust and satisfaction with the government? To answer this question, 10 cases of minor and major disasters in Europe are examined using a quasi-experimental quantitative design that is based on ordinary least squares regression models. The results indicate that alterations in satisfaction with the government are possible, but only occur in very specific instances, and that effects are small. Changes in political trust are even more unlikely. While it was expected that disasters and their management have at least some effect on how individuals perceive their government's performance because they hold incumbents accountable for their actions, generally speaking this effect hardly occurs in relation to natural disasters. Political attitudes among individuals appear largely unaffected and cases of disasters when incumbents benefit from or are blamed for the perceived management of disasters appear to be uncommon.

  • 84.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Ctr Nat Disaster Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters2018In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 336-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve differentevents in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the EuropeanSocial Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trustas an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrenceduring or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results revealthat social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in socialcapital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National,rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluationof 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but itdoes not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency.

  • 85.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural DisastersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Albrecht, Frederike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Social and Political Impact of Natural Disasters: Investigating Attitudes and Media Coverage in the Wake of Disasters2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters are social and political phenomena. Social structures create vulnerability to natural hazards and governments are often seen as responsible for the effects of disasters. Do social trust, political trust, and government satisfaction therefore generally change following natural disasters? How can media coverage explain change in political attitudes? Prior research suggests that these variables are prone to change, but previous studies often focus on single cases, whereas this dissertation adopts a broader approach, examining multiple disasters. It investigates the social and political impact of natural disasters by examining their effect on social and political attitudes and by exploring media coverage as a mechanism underlying political consequences.

    The results reveal that natural disasters may have a comparatively frequent, although small and temporary, effect on social trust. Substantial effects are less likely. Social trust was found to decrease significantly when disasters cause nine or more fatalities (Paper I). Political attitudes were expected to be prone to change after natural disasters, but Paper II illustrates that political trust and government satisfaction among citizens are generally hardly affected by these events. Finally, media framing and the political claims of actors explained the variation in political consequences after disasters of similar severity. Paper III also illustrates the importance of the political context of natural disasters, as their occurrence can be strategically exploited by actors to further criticism towards the government in politically tense situations.

    This dissertation contributes to existing disaster research by investigating more cases than disaster studies typically do. It also uses a systematic case selection process, and a quantitative approach with a, for disaster research, unique research design. Hence, it offers methodological nuance to existing studies. A broader analysis, factoring in the variation of disaster severity and the increased number of cases offers new answers and tests assumptions about underlying patterns. The main contribution of this thesis is that it examines how common political and social effects of disasters are. Furthermore, this dissertation contributes to existing disasters research by emphasizing contextual and explanatory factors, e.g., properties of disasters and the political context that affects the media coverage of natural disasters.

    List of papers
    1. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters
    2018 (English)In: Disasters. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, ISSN 0361-3666, E-ISSN 1467-7717, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 336-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve differentevents in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the EuropeanSocial Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trustas an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrenceduring or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results revealthat social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in socialcapital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National,rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluationof 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but itdoes not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency.

    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320615 (URN)10.1111/disa.12246 (DOI)000426851400007 ()28857267 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in Europe
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Government Accountability and Natural Disasters: The Impact of Natural Hazard Events on Political Trust and Satisfaction with Governments in Europe
    2017 (English)In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 381-410Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Do natural disasters generally affect individuals' political trust and satisfaction with the government? To answer this question, 10 cases of minor and major disasters in Europe are examined using a quasi-experimental quantitative design that is based on ordinary least squares regression models. The results indicate that alterations in satisfaction with the government are possible, but only occur in very specific instances, and that effects are small. Changes in political trust are even more unlikely. While it was expected that disasters and their management have at least some effect on how individuals perceive their government's performance because they hold incumbents accountable for their actions, generally speaking this effect hardly occurs in relation to natural disasters. Political attitudes among individuals appear largely unaffected and cases of disasters when incumbents benefit from or are blamed for the perceived management of disasters appear to be uncommon.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320616 (URN)10.1002/rhc3.12122 (DOI)000417860900006 ()
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2018-03-14
    3. Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural Disasters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of Successful and Failed Disaster Management in the Media: A Comparative Analysis of News Media Coverage following Natural Disasters
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Political Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320618 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2017-04-23
  • 87.
    Al-Dahlaki, Tiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Voting of foreign-born citizens in Sweden: A case study of naturalized Swedish citizens and the motives behind their non-voting in the general election events in Sweden.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The voting turnouts in Sweden has been increasing through the years, as there are more people that are willing to vote for a candidate or a political party during the general election events. However, despite the increase of voter turnouts during elections, there is a decrease in the voting of one group in the Swedish society and are the foreign-born citizens, i.e. immigrants. It has been observed that immigrants, with naturalized Swedish citizenship and born in another country than Sweden, vote less in the general election events in Sweden than others, e.g. home-born citizens. The low voting of immigrants has been an issue for a while, and it was noticed that the numbers of immigrants that vote is becoming less with each general election event. Therefore, this thesis investigated the reasons behind the non-voting of immigrants in Sweden, by interviewing six Iraqi-born immigrants with naturalized Swedish citizenship that did not vote for at least two general events, and examined the reasons and motives behind their non-voting. 

  • 88.
    Aler, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Contested identity, contested struggle: A critical discourse analysis on victim-agent narratives regarding commercial sex in Thailand2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how efforts regarding the commercial sex industry in Thailand can be positioned in relation to an agent-victim framework. In the context of the expanding sex industry in Thailand, it becomes relevant to look at how efforts regarding it risks reproducing notions of ‘the prostitute’ as the victimised Other, and thus reinforcing neo-colonialism. However, the response in the form of an agent narrative has also been criticised for not taking into account intersecting forms of oppression. Here, a model coming from an emerging literature on the ‘third way feminist approach’ is used to illustrate how these instead can be combined. Using critical discourse analysis, this study draws on postcolonial feminist theory to scrutinise the ways in which non-governmental organisations imagine women as either agents or victims, or rather a combination of the two. The starting point has been that this binary definition might not be sufficient, neither for theoretically addressing the issue, nor for describing discourse. Two ideal types based on the agent-victim framework has been used to study to what extent the discursive practice of the organisations NightLight and Asia Pacific Network of Sex Workers can be placed neatly into one of these ideal types, or whether a third perspective is indeed needed to account for their perception of the women they work with. The analysis has been conducted using different forms of information gathered from the official websites of the organisations, in order to understand they ways in which the organisations themselves choose to communicate their work. The results show that the discursive practices of these organisations to some extent can be accounted for using this framework, yet that in order to fully understand them, one should consider the third way which combines the strengths of both.

  • 89.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Arbetsdomstolen, EU och den tilltagande rättsrötan2010In: Tiden, ISSN 0040-6759, no 4, p. 20-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 90.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Från katekestvång till religionsfrihet: debatten om religionsundervisningen i skolan under 1900-talet1975Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Algotsson, Karl-Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Grundläggande rättigheter eller handelshinder?: Den svenska debatten om EU, föreningsfriheten och rätten till fackliga stridsåtgärder2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Ali Akbar, Avin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Förverkligandet av Barnkonventionen: En jämförande analys av två kommuners mål och medel för implementeringen av barnets rätt till delaktighet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of the Convention on the Rights of the Child gaining legal status in Sweden this thesis examines the implementation of the convention on a municipal level, specifically the implementation of Article 12 and children’s right to participate in all matters affecting them. With this purpose objectives and means are examined and compared between two municipalities: the municipality of Uppsala and the municipality of Örebro. By creating a frame of analysis based on previous research and theory on children’s participation, a text analysis has been conducted on key municipal policy documents and a case study has been conducted of municipal channels for participation. In conclusion the implementation of Article 12 differs between the municipalities where the responsibility to realize children’s right to participate is a shared responsibility in Örebro municipality in comparison to Uppsala municipality where the responsibility lies with some departments. In Örebro municipality children’s participation is often defined as a right while it in Uppsala municipality often is defined as an instrument to reach other goals. The case study emphasizes the importance of critically examining who actually participates in initiatives for children’s participation, who has power over the agenda and with what effects. For the realization of children’s right to participate initiatives must be inclusive, important and with clear intentions and effects.

  • 93.
    Allansson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Themnér, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Organized violence, 1989-20162017In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 574-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dramatic increase in the number of fatalities in organized violence, seen between 2011 and 2014, did not continue in 2015 and 2016. Rather, the notation of some 131,000 fatalities in 2014 was followed by a steep decline, with just below 119,000 in 2015 and a little over 102,000 fatalities in 2016. Despite the decrease, the number was the fifth highest during the entire 1989-2016 period. Most of the fatalities - over 87,000 - were incurred in state-based conflicts, the main driver behind the trend. Just as the number of fatalities, the number of state-based conflicts, albeit remaining on a high level, continued to decrease in 2016, going from 52 to 49, with 12 of them reaching the level of war, with at least 1,000 battle-related deaths. Also the non-state conflicts dropped in number in 2016, from 73 to 60. This was followed by a decrease in the number of fatalities, and only one conflict caused more than 1,000 deaths. Twenty-one actors were registered in one-sided violence, down by five from 2015. A number this low has only been recorded twice before; in both 2009 and 2010, 21 one-sided actors were listed in UCDP data. The number of fatalities also decreased, going from almost 9,800 to a little over 6,000.

  • 94.
    Allar, Piirsoo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Hur ska vi få äpplet att falla långt ifrån trädet?: En ecperimentell studie av hur elever väljer gymnasieprogram2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social snedrekytering är ett stort samhällsproblem, och en av orsakerna till klassbildningen i samhället idag. För två decennier har universitet och högskolor i Sverige aktivt arbetat med att bredda rekryteringen av elever från icke-akademisk bakgrund, men detta utan framgång. Denna studie försöker ta ett första steg i att hitta effektiva metoder som univeristeten kan använda sig av. Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av nudging-teorin som går ut på att "knuffa" elever mot rätt riktingt genom att exponera dem för högskolealternativet, något som elever med akadeiska bakgrund får naturligt hemifrån. Det är en experimentell studie där eleverna har delats in två gruppern där den ena gruppen för behandling, och den andra gruppen används som kontrollgrupp. Studien utgår från hypotesen att en ökad närvaro av universitetet i utsatta områden kommer påverka målgruppen positivt. Resultaten ger stöd åt denna hypotes. Trots att den misslyckade randomiseringen gjorde det svårt för hypotesen förblev sambandet positivt. Alltså elever som hade fått behandlingen var mer benägna att ange högskoleförberedande program som sitt först val på gymnasiet än kontrollgruppen. 

  • 95.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Palme, JoakimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Fjorton perspektiv på framtiden: Samhälls- och humanvetenskapliga framtidsstudier2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Almberg, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vem bär ansvaret?: En diskursanalytisk policystudie av jämställdhetspolitiken på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on the gender equality in the Swedish labor market and critical

    voices in research stating that the gender policies implemented are "missing the

    target." The purpose of this essay is to examine and compare how the Swedish

    political parties, the Moderates and the Social Democrats, problematize the unequal

    labor market. It also aims to examine what these problematisations says about

    women's and men's responsibilities in the promotion of gender equality. To achieve

    my chosen purposes, I have used the inductive method of analysis "What's the

    problem represented to be?" I have also used a feministic approach of institutions as

    an analytical tool. The study results show that the parties represents the problem of

    inequality as a problem of "women". Thus, it is women who are assigned

    responsibility for gender equality in the labor market. The study results also show that

    the gender equality policies implemented are based on a male-centered perspective.

  • 97. Almén, Oscar
    Authoritarianism Constrained: The Role of Local People’s Congresses in China2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Almén, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Euroasian Studies.
    Difang renda, liyi jituan yu fazhi de fazhan (Local people's congresses. interests groups and the development of rule of law)2008In: Zhongguo minzhu de zhidu jiegou (Systemand structure of China's democracy), Shanghai: Shanghai renmin chubanshe , 2008, p. 22-33Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I discuss how China’s local legislatures, the local people’s congresses, can facilitate the development of rule of law in China. Rule by law and rule of law are perceived here as being a difference in degree, where rule of law increases as more organized groups in society can use the law to pursue their interest. The difference between China’s legislatures and legislatures in liberal democracies can be found not so much in the power functions and voting behavior of the legislators, as in the extent to which legislators are collectively organized and represent organized interest. While legislative reform can improve governance and the efficiency of the legislative system, it is when the legislature is used an instrument for different interests in society that it becomes a strengthener of the rule of law.

  • 99.
    Almén, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Local participatory innovations and experts as political entrepreneurs:: The case of China’s democracy consultants2016In: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 478-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with understanding the dynamic behind participatory innovations in China. The case of China provides a contrast to the literature on participatory innovations in democracies. While participatory innovations in democratic countries are seen as a way to deepen and improve democracy, in China these innovations are to some extent developed in order to provide an alternative to electoral democracy. In this article I introduce the concept democracy consultant to describe expert political entrepreneurs involved in the development of participatory innovations. Research on local participatory innovation in China is abundant but the role that experts play in this process has previously not been analysed. Based on in-depth interviews with democracy consultants and local officials, the study finds that democracy consultants frequently act as bridges between central and local levels of government by providing expertise, information, legitimacy, and connections. This is especially true in localities where local leaders want to gain the attention of the central level but lack the required expertise and connections.

  • 100.
    Almén, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Participatory Innovations Under Authoritarianism: Accountability and Responsiveness in Hangzhou’s Social Assessment of Government Performance2018In: Journal of Contemporary China, ISSN 1067-0564, E-ISSN 1469-9400, Vol. 27, no 110, p. 165-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role of participatory governance innovations in China. The purpose is twofold. First, it seeks to explore the logic and dynamics behind participatory innovations in China. Second, it examines in what way a participatory innovation in Hangzhou can lead to increased accountability and responsiveness of the local government. Participatory innovations in China are used as a way to improve the Party-state’s governing capability and thereby strengthen the legitimacy and power of the Communist Party. Despite some limitations related to the evaluation of politically powerful Party and government departments, social assessment of government performance in Hangzhou serves as an input channel from society that put pressure on many government departments. The study finds that by allowing limited and controlled political participation, transparency and accountability to develop, the reform in Hangzhou improves the responsiveness of the political system.

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