uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
123 51 - 100 of 141
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Jönsson, Erik
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University.
    Att ta djuret ur ekvationen: bioteknik, entreprenörsaktivism och köttets politiska ekologi2017In: Politisk ekologi: om makt och miljöer / [ed] Erik Jönsson & Elina Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 305-332Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Jönsson, Erik
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University.
    Benevolent Technotopias and Hitherto Unimaginable Meats: tracing the promises of In Vitro Meat2016In: Social Studies of Science, ISSN 0306-3127, E-ISSN 1460-3659, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 725-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat’s particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  • 53.
    Jönsson, Erik
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University.
    On Resurrected Nuggets and Sphincter Windows: Cultured meat, art, and the discursive subsumption of nature2017In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 844-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I scrutinize three art, design, and architecture projects engaging with “cultured,” or “in vitro,” meat (primarily muscle cells cultured outside of bodies) to illuminate the entanglements of academic and extra-academic environments that have characterized cultured meat’s history to date, and the conversations that this technology has spurred. In envisioning new ways of eating, and living, these projects (a book of hypothetical recipes, The In Vitro Meat Cookbook, Catts and Zurr’s bioartistic engagements with tissue engineering, and Terreform1’s tissue-house prototype “The In Vitro Meat Habitat”) illustrate cultural practices thought to be enabled by cell culturing’s new applications. Emphasizing such visions and conversations allows me to highlight an inattention to discursive dynamics within research on natures subsumed to industrial production processes (Boyd, Prudham, and Schurman 2001). But engaging with the “subsumption of nature” framework simultaneously allows me to problematize artistic visions presenting nature as fully malleable.

  • 54.
    Karlsohn, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Profession och institution: en historikers tankar2017In: Flip the system: förändra skolan från grunden / [ed] Per Kornhall, Jelmer Evers & René Kneyber, Lund, 2017, p. 319-327Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Kjellman, Johan
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    A quarter millenium of morphological Crystal Models - the makers, the materials, the collections - a current project on retrieving their history2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A quarter millenium of morphological Crystal Models – the makers, the materials, the collections – a current project on retrieving their history.

    Crystal models (CM) and crystal model collections (CMC) made of paper, wood, clay, metal, glass, etc. have been manufactured, developed, and used as an aid in the fields of mineralogy and crystallography from the 1760’s to 1920’s (Figure 1). CM have for example been used to display ideal morphology of different mineral species or relationship between crystal forms; visualize different crystallographic and physical concepts, e. g. symmetry, crystallographic and optical axes, twinning, etc. Earlier geometrical models, such as platonic and archimedian bodies, known since Antiquity and perhaps originally inspired by natural crystals, were often present in the art and the curiosity cabinets of the Rennaisance era. In the early 20th c. the progress in crystal structure determination shifted the focus in crystallography and crystal modelling from outer morphology and symmetry to inner structural relations. Still, morphological CM were produced ​​and used throughout the century.

    Apart from a few attempts to describe special CMC, drawing on the collections in the BMNH in London and Teylers Museum in Haarlem, very little has been written about CMC (Tandy 1998; Touret 2004).

    CMC could and should be complimentary research objects of early crystallography. In their time some CMC conveyed new concepts, many times under direct supervision of the inventor, and by studying them new aspects, blind alleys or pitfalls in the history of crystallography may come to light. The locations of CMC from different schools, may reflect scientific connections and influences, etc. But without any precise knowledge about the different sets and makers no such research can be made, they will remain just CM. The two main institutional uses of CMC – exhibit and education – can also pose potential threats to them, those of being worn in crystallography class or being dispersed both in education and exhibits. Banalized descriptions, e.g. “antique models” or “Krantz models”, is typical if such CM are marketed, ultimately then often losing their institutional provenance.  

    The aim of this study is to provide the mineralogical community with a deeper knowledge of the old CMC: their makers and scientists, when, where, and what of the sets were made, and how many models they contained. And not the least, where we can see typical sets of the different CMC.

    How can this work be done? By a synergetic approach from three directions: (i) by studying literature, both primary books and catalogs listing/treating CMC, and different kinds of secondary literature, (ii) by Internet searches, especially utilizing the facility of searching words in OCR scanned texts, e.g. Google Books, Gallica, an effective tool for finding information which else would be almost impossible to retrieve; (iii) by surveying important collections and their archives, some of which are digitized.

    In this presentation I will give a few examples of what I have accomplished so far by this method.

    Tandy, P. 1998. Crystallography and the geometric modelling of minerals: a reflection on the models in the Natural History Museum, London. The Geological Curator 6(9): 333  – 338.

    Touret, L. 2004. Crystal models: milestone in the birth of crystallography and mineralogy as sciences. pp. 43 – 58 in Dutch Pioneers of the Earth Sciences. Ed. by R.W. Visser and J. Touret, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam.

    Download (pdf)
    Poster
  • 56.
    Källman Andersson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Systemanalys och Energipolitik: I gråzonen mellan vetenskap och politik2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks förhållandet mellan politik och vetenskap under tidigt 1970-tal, specifikt hur detta förhållande ter sig i den offentliga statliga utredningen från 1974 om Sveriges framtida energisituation: "Energi 1985 2000". För att göra detta väljs en teorigrund baserat på gränsdragningen mellan politiken och vetenskapen, speciellt intressant blir då hur denna gränsdragning ter sig i den undersökta utredningen eftersom denna påbörjades innan oljekrisen 1973. Som grund för analysen väljs Thomas Gieryns definition av det han kallar för "Boundary work" . Denna term representerar texter eller arbeten som syftar att dra gränser mellan olika områden inom till exempel forskning, politik och ekonomi. Dessa boundary works delas i sin tur in i tre olika undergrupper. För att förstå arbetssättet bakom denna typ av utredningar förklaras även enkelt systemanalysens uppkomst och betydelse för framtidsstudier under denna period.Undersökningen och analysen av innehållet i Energi 1985 2000 leder till slutsatsen att denna typ av utredning inte enbart kan klassas som en av undergrupperna inom boundary work. Utredningen kan snarare ses som en blandning av dessa olika undergrupper samt dess aspekter. Då oljekrisen förutspåddes av utredarna bakom Energi 1985 2000 redan sommaren innan krisen anses denna inte spelat roll för utredningens riktning. Snarare kan oljekrisens effekt på utredningen tolkas som att gränsdragningen mellan politiken och vetenskapen (inom den specifika utredningen) blivit skarpare definierad.

  • 57.
    Lagerqvist, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Reformer och revolutioner: En kort introduktion till Sveriges ekonomiska historia åren 1750-20102013 (ed. 1000)Book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Bruk och bevarande av kyrkorummet: frågan om inomhusklimatet i svenska kyrkor, ca 1870–19902014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bruk och bevarande av kyrkorummet: frågan om inomhusklimatet i svenska kyrkor, ca 1870–1990

     

    Mattias Legnér, professor i kulturvård, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala Universitet Campus Gotland

     

     

    Mot bakgrund av de senare årens diskussion om hur samhällets energianvändning kan bli mer effektiv och hur sambanden mellan hälsa och inomhusmiljö ser ut, är det intressant att reflektera över hur den historiska utvecklingen har sett. Föredraget fokuserar hur Svenska kyrkan, kulturvårdande myndigheter, arkitekter och ingenjörer har sett på möjligheterna att påverka inomhusklimatet i kyrkobyggnaderna sedan 1800-talet. Det bygger på forskning som har finansierats genom Vetenskapsrådets rambidrag för kulturforskning under perioden 2010–2014.

     

    Inomhusklimatet har formats av utomhusklimatet, byggnadens form och material, hur byggnaden brukas och vad den innehåller, arkitekternas och ingenjörernas idéer om vad som var ett lämpligt klimat och hur det skulle uppnås i förhållande till tillgänglig teknik. Även krav och förväntningar från andra aktörer som skulle använda byggnaden eller hade synpunkter på dess utformning och bevarandet av kulturhistoriska värden. Flera av dessa variabler förändrats över tid. Det gäller såväl uppfattningen om vad som är ett lämpligt klimat som vad som representerar kulturhistoriska värden. Dessa förändringar har i sin tur påverkat aktörernas agerande.

     

    Trots det kyliga klimatet i Norden byggdes kyrkor under många hundra år inte för att kunna värmas upp. Ett stycke in på 1800-talet började domkapitlen uppmana församlingar att sätta in eldstad i sakristian, men många församlingar var tveksamma till de kostnader som uppvärmning medförde. Sedan dess har värmeanläggningar påverkat inte bara komforten utan även den visuella upplevelsen av kyrkorummet och bevarandet av såväl byggnad som föremål. De kostnader som värmen medfört både i form av installationer och drift har varit en mycket viktig faktor som påverkat aktörernas beslut. Långt före 1970-talet med den första globala energikrisen reflekterade många församlingar över hur deras kyrka kunde värmas på mer effektiva sätt.

     

    Föredraget behandlar också hur frågorna om uppvärmning blev mer komplexa från 1960-talet. Kyrkorna värmdes allt mer och det började uppmärksammas hur äldre inventarier påverkades negativt. Från myndighetshåll fanns det inte så mycket man kunde göra förutom att påverka installationen av värmesystem. Med tiden började kulturhistoriska värden pekas ut på ett tydligare sätt, men det kan också ha skärpt motsättningen mellan komfortbehov och bevarande. Avslutningsvis tas upp vad vi idag kan lära av de strukturella problem som funnits i utformning, installation och användning av värmesystemen.

  • 59.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    För människans väl, eller föremålens?: Komfort, bevarande och innemiljö i 1920- och 30-talens museer2010In: Gotlandsakademiker tycker om ...: 2010 / [ed] Adri de Ridder, Åke Sandström, Visby: Gotland University Press , 2010, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 60.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Gammal fråga kan få nytt svar2012In: Energi & miljö : tidskrift för VVS, inneklimat och VA, ISSN 1101-0568, Vol. 83, no 9, p. 62-64Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ett stabilt museiklimat ska kunna skapas blir en av de viktigaste frågorna i den kommande renoveringen av Nationalmuseum. När Nationalmuseum byggdes uppfattades det som mycket viktigt att museet kunde värmas men också att värmen inte fick skada byggnaden eller samlingarna. I själva verket har uppvärmningen av huset varit ett långvarigt bekymmer.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kakelugnar värmde under lilla istiden2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    1600-talsslottet i Skokloster kom snart att kompletteras med kakelugnar – möjligen för att värma Karl XI som väntades på besök. Redan på 1700- talet krävde tjänarna på Gripsholms slott att de alla skulle få glädje av den värmande nymodigheten.

  • 62.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Kyrkan - "en maskin att sitta i": införandet av komfortteknik i Gotlands kyrkor under 1900-talets första hälft2012In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 63, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with heating installations put into medieval Gotland churches from the 1920s to the early 1950s. Focus is on the work of the restorer Erik Johan Fant (1889–1954) who was the most frequently engaged restorer of churches in Sweden from c. 1925 to 1950. His work has not been the subject of much academic research. The essay covers how Fant and authorities involved in the restorations perceived the aesthetical and practical issues of installing modern heating systems in medieval churches. It also places Fant’s work in the wider context of heating for comfort and conservation purposes in churches. Our knowledge of heating systems used in churches in the past is very limited: on what grounds was a certain system chosen, how was it designed, and what consequences did it have for the conservation of the church? From having been solely an issue of increased comfort and pleasing design, the development of heating technology increasingly involved the interests of conservation. In the first half of the 20th century, central or electric heating was introduced in many stone churches, but often without any analysis of the risks involved. Still in the 1920s, the typical Gotland church was heated with just one or two ovens. They were still not electrified. Two problems especially were connected to overheating before the 1950s: first the soiling of walls and vaults, and second the desiccation of organic materials, particularly painted wooden objects. Central heating, especially in the form of low pressure steam which was common before 1945, certainly made these damages worse. Despite these issues, almost all of the 2,700 churches in Sweden had some kind of heating installed by the mid-1950s, and the reason was that heating primarily was perceived by the Swedish Church as a matter of comfort. Shortly after the end of the period in question, damages caused by heating would attract more attention from the developing conservation field.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 63.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Not Just a Summer Temple: The Development of Conservation and Indoor Climate in Nationalmuseum, Sweden2019In: Addressing the Climate in Modern Age's Construction History: Between Architecture and Building Services Engineering / [ed] Carlo Manfredi, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This essay examines the building and management of Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Today the building has just recently been reopened after years of renovation and fitting of a new system that will control the indoor climate. This means deep interventions in a nineteenth-century building that was not designed to be airtight or to be heated all year around. The renovation gives a reason to ponder on how the building originally was designed and constructed, but also how it was managed over time. The climate of the house has been an issue ever since the building was constructed in the early years of the 1860s. It was fitted with a central heating system already then, but the building proved difficult to heat in winter and to ventilate in summer. There were continuous problems with dehydration of organic materials in the art collections in winter-time, and with too much sunlight exposing fragile art in the warmer season. Curiously, the introduction of artificial humidification first around 1930 and then again in the 1950s did not solve the problem of dehydration. On the contrary climate problems became ever more complex around the mid-20thcentury because of the introduction of motor traffic with its exhausts, and increasing demands on a stable indoor climate in art museums. 

    How did museums balance the needs of their collections, against the needs of staff and visitors? What considerations where made when choosing heating and ventilation for a museum at this time? In order to illuminate these questions, archival sources from Nationalmuseum, Riksarkivet (National State Archives) and the engineering and architectural company SWECO have been used. Överintendentsämbetet (Board of Public Works and Buildings, abbreviated ÖIÄ) was the custodian of government buildings, followed by Kungliga Byggnadsstyrelsen (Board of Building and Planning, abbreviated KBS) after an organizational shift in 1918. The museum was thus responsible for the management of its collections but not of its building. Until 1939 there was also a second museum housed in the bottom floor: Statens Historiska Museum, the National Historical Museum.  

    If the museum had a complaint on the performance of the building or the heating system, it would have to notify ÖIÄ (or KBS after 1918), which then would decide how to act. Judging by archive sources, it becomes evident that ÖIÄ had small means to make more demanding interventions in existing buildings, and often complaints seem to have been more or less ignored because of lack of resources. By studying the correspondence it is possible to gain a better understanding of how museum management perceived indoor climate and how ÖIÄ responded. 

    The purpose of the essay is to explore how the construction and management of the indoor climate was shaped by technological development and how views on the running of a museum building shifted. Nationalmuseum was fitted with a hot water central heating system. In the early 1860s this was something hardly heard of in Sweden at this time. In general, the central heating systems used at that time were caloriphers, furnaces that heated the air that was then circulated through the building.  

    There were firms in Stockholm installing piping, but none of them was considered competent enough to do the installations in Nationalmuseum. Most entrepreneurs in Stockholm worked with gas piping, not with water or sewer piping.[1]In the early 1860s it was still not evident that a public building should be equipped with this kind of heating, despite the relatively long and cold winters in Stockholm. Public buildings in general were heated with local fireplaces, most often tile stoves produced in the city.  

    Today it is well known that control of indoor climate is key to the management of collections. Too much heat makes the air dry, which may cause damage to fragile objects such as paintings on panels or wooden furniture with veneer. Too little heat makes the air very humid, which promotes mold, vermin, corrosion and rot. What is considered "too little" or "too much", however, has changed since the nineteenth century.[2]The essay explores why central heating was installed in the museum, what the expectations on its functioning were, and how building and museum management (they were – and are – separate from each other) continuously commented on its performance in the decades following the opening of the museum, up until the 1970s when air pollution had become a serious problem demanding a technical solution.

    [1]G. Stålbom, Varmt och vädrat. VVS-teknik i äldre byggnader, Sveriges VVS Museum – SBUF – VVS Företagen, Stockholm 2010, 15. In 1861 Stockholm opened its first waterworks with 30 km of piping. 

    [2]M. Legnér, "Conservation versus thermal comfort – conflicting interests?: The issue of church heating, Sweden c. 1918–1975",Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2014 (e-publication ahead of print).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    On the Early History Museum Environment Control: Nationalmuseum and Gripsholm Castle in Sweden, c. 1866-19322011In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that there have been investigations into the historical development of indoor climate recommendations, to date verylittle research has been carried out on how climate control in museums was actually implemented in the past. This article examinesthe development of climate control in two Swedish museum buildings up until the 1930s: Nationalmuseum and GripsholmCastle. Nationalmuseum was erected to make the state collections more accessible to the public and to provide monitoring andcentral heating. At that time knowledge of climatic conditions in museums was tacit and based on personal experience ratherthan on scientific studies. However, in the early twentieth century the problem of managing museum climate increased as curatorsbecame more aware of the dehydrating effects of central heating on panels and polychrome wood. The first successful attemptsto automatically control indoor climate were carried out at Gripsholm in the 1920s. The focus was then on monitoring andcontrolling temperature rather than relative humidity, but these early attempts also showed that extreme levels of humidity couldbe avoided in an environment that had never been designed for permanent heating. This article examines attempts at managingindoor climate between the 1860s and the 1930s.

    Download full text (pdf)
    On the Early History of Museum Environment Control
  • 65.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    The Conservation of Medieval Swedish Churches since the Nineteenth Century, with regard to the Indoor Climate2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Conservation of Medieval Swedish Churches since the Nineteenth Century, with regard to the Indoor Climate

    PhD, Professor Mattias Legnér

     

    I will present some of the results of a recently finished research project funded by the Swedish Research Council in the years 2010–2015. The aim of the project was to investigate how the introduction and use of heating and ventilation technology have influenced conservation, design and comfort in public heritage buildings, among them churches. This talk will focus Swedish medieval churches: how their indoor climate has been viewed as a problem historically as well as today, and how wishes to improve air quality, temperature, humidity and air movement have affected conservation of the buildings and valuable inventories. In short, a misbegotten adoption of technology primarily designed for industrial, office and residential facilities resulted in serious damage to cultural heritage in the 1960s and 1970s. Only in more recent years have some efforts been made to adapt technology for the purpose of controlling the climate of particularly old churches. The talk will concentrate on an interpretation of why heating and ventilation technology was introduced and what the circumstances were.  

     

    Mattias Legnér is PhD in History and Professor in Conservation at Department of Art History, Uppsala University Campus Gotland. He has published in international journals on the subject of the history of comfort and indoor climate. Together with Mia Geijer he published the monograph "Kulturarvet och komforten. Inomhusklimatet och förvaltningen av kulturhistoriska byggnader och samlingar 1850–1985" earlier this year. 

  • 66.
    Legnér, Mattias
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Tracing the Historical Indoor Climate of a Swedish Church, c. 1800-20002012In: APT Bulletin. Journal of Preservation Technology, ISSN 0848-8525, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 67.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Geijer, Mia
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Heating regimes in old Swedish churches, c. 1880-19802012In: Cultural Heritage Preservation: Proceedings of the 2nd European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation / [ed] Elin Dahlin, Oslo: Norsk Institutt for luftforskning NILU , 2012, , p. 8p. 90-98Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper will highlight the use of heating regimes throughout the twentieth century both in large cathedrals and rural churches of medieval origin in Sweden. How have norms of thermal comfort been balanced against conservation needs of the buildings, their interiors and valuable objects? The choice of heating regime in an old church can be seen as a negotiation between different stakeholders. Together these voices have been articulating a discourse on indoor climate since the late nineteenth century when churches in Sweden were first heated.

    The historical indoor climate in churches is poorly known but often referred to in discussions on what kind of heating and climate is suitable for interiors and their artifacts. This is why it is important to collect empirically based knowledge on the features of the past climate. The historical indoor climate is shaped by several factors. Here we look at heating regimes, meaning how heating and ventilation systems have been selected, designed and used.

    By studying decision making regarding the choice of regimes and also what experience was drawn from the application of technology we will better understand the priorities made between comfort and conservation aims and how scientific knowledge has been used (or not used) to reach these aims.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 68.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Geijer, Mia
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Heating regimes in Swedish churches c. 1880-19802012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Geijer, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Kulturarvet och komforten: Inomhusklimatet och förvaltningen av kulturhistoriska byggnader och samlingar 1850-19852015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med stigande energipriser och medvetenhet om energianvändningens påverkan på klimatet behöver institutioner som förvaltar kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader och samlingar tänka strategiskt om inomhusklimat. Trots att frågan om inomhusklimat sedan slutet av 1800-talet har varit central för trivsel, hälsa och bevarande av kulturhistoriskt värdefulla hus och föremålssamlingar har dessa mål varit svåra att förena. Hur har beslut fattats om vilken teknik som ska användas? Hur har maktförhållandena sett ut mellan de aktörer som byggt, förvaltat och brukat byggnaderna? Och hur har besluten påverkat byggnaderna och samlingarna? Genom att förstå inomhusklimat och komfort som ett samspel mellan människor och materiella resurser bidrar boken med viktiga kunskaper om vår syn på och tillämpning av värme- och ventilationsteknik i kulturhistoriska miljöer. Boken bygger på omfattande undersökningar av bevarat arkivmaterial som behandlar kyrkor, museer, arkiv och bibliotek. Den är relevant för arkitekter, fastighetsförvaltare, ingenjörer, konservatorer, antikvarier, forskare och studenter som är intresserade av drift och vård av äldre byggnader. Mattias Legnér är docent i historia och professor i kulturvård vid Uppsala universitet. Han har publicerat ett antal vetenskapliga artiklar och konferensbidrag om både historiska och sentida försök att styra inomhusklimatet i kyrkor och museala byggnader. Mia Geijer är fil dr i arkitekturhistoria och bebyggelseantikvarie. Hon har ägnat sin forskning åt teman som rör det byggda kulturarvets bruk och förvaltning.

  • 70.
    Legnér, Mattias
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Luciani, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano.
    The historical indoor climate: A long-term approach to conservation environments within heritage buildings2013In: Online Proceedings of the Conference: Built Heritage 2013, Monitoring Conservation and Management; Milan, Italy / [ed] M. Boriani, R. Gabaglio and D. Gulotta, Milano: Politecnico di Milano , 2013, p. 1321-1328Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of archival sources and architectural analysis in tracing the indoor climate history of an historic building such as an old museum, a church or a palace. References to past indoor climate have often been used either to defend status quo or to justify radical changes in the climate control of a building.

    The concept of historical climate can be used in many different contexts. In the field of conservation, it has recently been defined by the European standard EN15757:2010 as the “climatic conditions in a microenvironment where a cultural heritage object has always been kept, or has been kept for a long period of time (at least one year) and to which it has become acclimatized”. Unlike many previous environmental standards, the priority is here not so much in specifying hygrothermal ranges, but in measuring the existing climatic conditions and in understanding whether the environment to which a cultural object has been exposed for a long period of time is harmful or not. As a consequence the focus should be shifted to the climatic history of the object, intended as the complex set of interactions developed throughout an extended period of time between a cultural object, its environment and the surrounding architec- ture. The term “conservation environment” introduced in this paper proposes a development of the analysis by including outdoor and indoor climate and the microenvironments which can influence buildings and artworks.

    When a cultural object is preserved within a historic building, further questions arise: which climate control strategies determined the conditions of conservation environments in the past? On what grounds were these strategies chosen and subsequently used? Which were their consequences on the conservation of cultural objects and buildings? To answer these questions environmental data gathered by indoor climate monitoring are useful but they are obviously not enough. A critical analysis of historical sources has proved to be a constructive way forward. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 71.
    Lundin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Bilsamhället: Ideologi, expertis och regelskapande i efterkrigstidens Sverige2014 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Lundin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Designing Democracy: The UTOPIA-project and the Role of the Nordic Labor Movement in Technological Change during the 1970s and 1980s2011In: History of Nordic Computing 3: Third IFIP WG9.7 Conference, HiNC 3, Stockholm, Sweden, October 18–20, 2010: Revised Selected Papers, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 187-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using the UTOPIA-project as an example, this paper highlights the role of the Nordic labor movement in technological change and underlines that there are different incentives for technological change. While corporations developing technology usually pursued increased efficiency in production, the UTOPIA-project aimed at other, alternative goals such as translating social values regarding job skills, quality of work, and quality of products into new computer hardware and software for the graphic industries. In the larger context, the UTOPIA-project can be seen as an attempt by the labor movement to revitalize and realize the old dream of industrial democracy by designing computing technology.

  • 73.
    Lundin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Driven by Morality: Systems and Users in the Historiography of the Car in Sweden2011In: Mobility in History: Review and Reflections: The Yearbook of the International Society for the History of Transport, Traffic and Mobility 3 / [ed] Peter Norton, Gijs Mom, Liz Millward, and Mathieu Flonneau, Neuchâtel: Éditions Alphil , 2011, p. 119-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Lundin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Helena Ekerholm, Bränsle för den moderna nationen: Etanol och gengas i Sverige under mellankrigstiden och andra världskriget2013In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 254-256Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Lundin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Man väljer det man vill se2014In: Axess Magasin, no 3, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 76.
    Lundin, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Impagliazzo, JohnHofstra University.Benkt, WanglerStockholms universitet.
    History of Nordic Computing 3: Third IFIP WG 9.7 Conference, HiNC3, Stockholm, Sweden, October 18-20, 2010, Revised Selected Papers2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Mincyte, Diana
    New York University.
    7. From Traditional to Modern Rural Society2012In: Rural Development and Land Use / [ed] Lars Rydén and Ingrid Karlsson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    ehsa 3-7
  • 78.
    Nilsson, Harald
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Uppsala University Museum, Uppsala University Coin Cabinet.
    Hendrik Mäkeler till nya uppdrag2017In: Svensk Numismatisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0283-071X, no 8, p. 183-184Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 79.
    Nilsson, Mikael
    KTH, Filosofi och teknikhistoria.
    Tools of Hegemony: Military Technology and Swedish-American Security Relations, 1945-19622007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis analyze the process whereby Sweden gained access to American guided missiles during the late 1950s and early 1960s. It also tracks the Swedish efforts to develop guided missiles domestically. The concept of hegemony is used to interpret these processes, the dynamic in the Swedish-American relationship, and its consequences for the Swedish policy of neutrality.

    Sweden’s domestic guided missile development program, begun in the end of World War Two, met with great difficulties already by the end of the 1940s, and had entered a cul de sac by the early 1950s. The reason for this was a contunuous lack of funding and personnel, as well as a lack of foreign hardware and know-how. By 1947 the United States had largely established its hegemony in Western Europe, and the U.S. government then sought to gain the consent of the Swedish government as well. The U.S. government used its preponderant position, and pressured Sweden to adapt its policies by withholding vital technology from the Swedes. The U.S. refusal to deliver arms to a neutral Scandinavian Defense Union was significant in this respect. Sweden gradually gave its concurrence through a series of steps, most importantly the participation in the Marshall Plan in 1948, and COCOM in the summer of 1951. The confirmation of the U.S. government’s acceptance of Sweden came in the summer of 1952 when was made eligible to buy armaments in the United States under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act (MDAA).

    However, Sweden was not granted access to American guided missiles. This was an experience shared with most of the NATO countries (with the limited exception of Britain and Canada). During the course of the 1950s the United States was forced to change its position, due to prodding from the nato allies. The annual nato meetings were used as a platform by the nato countries in this endevour. The U.S. government reversed its non-disclosure policy in 1957 because of worries that its hegemonic position was threatened if it did not provide these weapons to its allies. Guided missile deliveries to Europe was used as a means to keep the alliance together, and to preserve U.S. hegemony in Western Europe.

    Because of its consent to U.S. hegemony Sweden gained access to U.S. missiles at the same time, and many times even before the NATO countries. Sweden was the first Western European country to purchase Sidewinder (1959) and Hawk (1962), and license manufactured two versions of the Falcon missile. Because of these deliveries the development of Swedish surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles was halted. Sweden was dependent upon the U.S. for deliveries of additional missiles in wartime, and this could have become a problem for Sweden’s ability to defend its territory against Western intrusions, since Sweden’s defense was based on help arriving from the West if Sweden was attacked by the USSR. The Swedish government, using the Royal Air Force Board as a proxy, signed a memorandum of Understanding in 1961 which gave the U.S. government the rigth to any improvements to the Falcon missiles, as well as the right to use them anywhere in the world. Sweden had thus de facto become a part of the U.S. military’s supply line.

  • 80.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Anique Hommels, Jessica Mesman and Wiebe E. Bijker, eds. Vulnerability in Technological Cultures: New Directions in Research and Governance2016In: ICON, ISSN 1361-8113, p. 189-191Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Bruno, Latour: An inquiry into modes of existence. An anthropology of the moderns. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard university press, 2013, xxviii+494 s. ISBN 987-0-674-72499-0, inb.2014In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 228-229Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Clotting processes: stabilization and destabilization of roles and organizations in the development of a treatment of Haemophilia2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Cycling and the Traffic Separation Regime2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Normark, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Hagberg, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Counter, encounter: materials, voids and trial of skill2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Visioner om de svenska vattenfallen: Ett statligt vattenkraftsprojekt i Älvkarleby under 1900-talet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De svenska statliga vattenkraftsprojekten i början av 1900-talet speglar en förhoppning om ett starkt industriellt Sverige något som tidigare forskning har påpekat. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka relationen mellan statliga tekniksatsningar och föreställningar om nationen. Jag vill belysa att det är viktigt att sätta sådana projekt i relation till föreställningar om vad som är bra och eftersträvansvärt, riskfyllt och hotfullt för nationen. Begreppet sociotechnical imaginaries (sociotekniska föreställningar) relaterar den ”kollektivt föreställda idén” om nationen till teknikutveckling, där tekniken ofta representerar verktyg för att nå den eftersträvade visionen. Med föreställningar om vattenkraften i centrum målas det tredje statliga vattenkraftsprojektet i Älvkarleby upp med början vid bildandet av en statlig vattenkraftsproducent fram till den första fasen i elnätets utbredning. Jag visar att sociotekniska föreställningar underbygger argumenten i det politiska beslutsfattandet och operationaliseras i den ingenjörsmässiga praktiken. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 86. Oldenziel, Ruth
    et al.
    Emanuel, MartinUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.Albert de la Bruhèze, AdriVeraart, Frank
    Cycling Cities: The European Experience: Hundred Years of Policy and Practice2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Orrghen, Anna
    Kungl. Tekniska högskolan (KTH), Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, Avdelningen för teknik- och vetenskapshistoria..
    Tidiga söksystem: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 21 januari 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar ”Tidiga söksystem” [Early Information Retrieval Systems] was held at Tekniska museet [The National Museum of Science and Technology] in Stockholm on 21 January 2008 and was led by PhD Anna Orrghen. Different aspects of the use of digital technology in the development of information retrieval systems were discussed and debated, with special emphasis on research libraries. The witness seminar focused on three Swedish research environments that developed IR systems during an early stage: the main library at The Royal Institute of Technology (KTHB) where the systems ABACUS, EPOSVIRA, KOMPOST, TRIP and 3RIP were underlined in the discussion, the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOA) and the development of CORSAIR and Karolinska Institutet (KI) where the development and use of MEDLARS and MEDLINE took place. The main questions dealt with the origin and development of those systems, the importance of international collaboration and the role of SINFDOK as an important financier.

  • 88.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Den produktiva forskaren: Vetenskapens rationalisering i efterkrigstidens Sverige2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Folkhemsdrycken: Mjölkvetenskap, mjölkpolitik, mjölkindustrialisering, 1920-19602014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mjölken gjorde en fenomenal karriär i Sverige under 1900-talet. Från att vid början av seklet ha betraktats som ett lortigt livsmedel kom mjölken alltmer att bli en omhuldad stapelvara i det svenska folkhemmet, en modern dryck förknippad med moral, produktivitet, sunda kroppar och aktivt leverne. Med presentationen vill jag introducera min forskning som med teknik- och vetenskapshistorisk utgångspunkt behandlar frågan om hur mjölken kom att få en så framträdande position i svensk kosthållning. Tidigare livmedelshistoriska studier har visat hur svenska mjölkproducenter framgångsrikt lanserade mjölken som en nyttig och modern dryck genom den så kallade Mjölkpropagandan som bildades i början av 1920-talet. Min ambition är att vidga perspektivet och visa hur politik, vetenskap och teknisk-industriell förändring tillsammans underbyggde mjölkens modernisering och bidrog till att konstruera dess status som den perfekta drycken för välfärdsstaten Sverige. Presentationen kommer att fokusera på tiden från 1920-talet till 1960-talet och huvudsakligen behandla vetenskapens betydelse. Detta inkluderar vetenskaplig expertis, relationer mellan forskning och politik samt livsmedelsforskningens framväxt i Sverige.

  • 90.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Food sensory science: A history of experiments2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the emergence of food sensory science in the twentieth century by focusing on the development of methods and instruments for understanding food flavor. It is an “experimental history” concentrating on the interplay between a set of analytical practices within and around food sensory science, for instance: how individual taste experts were replaced by panels and surveys; how organoleptic analysis was formed as an assemblage of experimental techniques from pharmaceutics, psychophysics and chemistry; how human senses were mimicked through machinery; how techniques as gas chromatography were adopted as ways of bypassing human subjectivity in flavor studies; how the development of advanced techniques such as electronic noses responded to a need for “objective” knowledge but have never managed to replace human subjectivity in flavor analysis.

  • 91.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Forskningens banerförare: IVA mellan grundandet och andra världskriget2019In: Teknik i samhällets tjänst: Första hundra åren / [ed] Arne Kaijser & Lars Nilsson, Stockholm: Kungl. Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademien , 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Masters of flavor: Sensory analysis and high-industrial food2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project studies the branch of industrial food flavor science called sensory analysis. I focus on the system of experimental practices – e.g. organoleptic evaluation, chemical analysis, cybernetic devices, and medical science – and the role they played in the development of the field and for food production in the twentieth century.

  • 93.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Mechanical tasting: Sensory science and the flavorization of food production2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1957, food engineer Aaron Brody at MIT completed his PhD thesis on the "Strain gage denture tenderometer", a machine for food experiments with an eye-catching grinning denture, an electric motor propelling the upper jaw, strain sensors, an oscilloscope, and a camera. According to Brody, the instrument simulated human oral physiology and by feeding it with different foodstuffs it could, allegedly, provide food industry with crucial and systematic knowledge on qualities as tenderness and mouthfeel. With Brody's instrument as case in point, the paper narrates a broader history of devices designed to enhance and substitute human sensory abilities to evaluate food texture. Three interrelated processes, characteristic of the emergence of industrialized food production in the twentieth century, are examined through this history of mechanical tasting: (1) An overall "flavorization" – that is: how sensory impressions became increasingly important for the production and consumption of food in late-modern industrialized societies. (2) The emergence of food sensory science as a knowledge field, including, besides experiments using instruments like Brody's tenderometer, organoleptic taste panels, and chemical methods as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different in many aspects, those knowledge practices share nevertheless a common key feature by continuously making hybrids of human subjects and technical artifacts; panelists forming calibrated sensory machineries, laboratory devices mimicking human physiology. (3) The pervasive project of transforming the phenomenological quality of flavor into robust "objective" and "standardized" data through a range of instruments and experimental techniques. For Brody's work this meant to show scientifically the "masticatory properties" of culinary qualities as crisp, crunch and chewiness by producing photographs of "bite curves" from experiments on a range of food samples; an example of how the pursuit of objectivity and standardized knowledge coevolved with the rise of mass production and the emergence of sensory sciences.

  • 94.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Mechanical tasting: Sensory science and the flavorization of food production2017In: The Senses & Society, ISSN 1745-8927, E-ISSN 1745-8935, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper narrates the history of “texturometers”, devices that imitate the human biting mechanism and are used by food scientists inexperiments on food texture. Two interrelated processes, characteristic of the emergence of industrialized food production in the twentieth century, are examined through this history of mechanical tasting. First, the paper surveys the pervasive project of transforming the phenomenological qualities of flavor and food texture into robust “objective” and “standardized” data. In constructing and using biomimetic texturometers, food sensory scientists attempted to translate texture qualities such as tenderness, crispness, crunch and chewiness into codified properties by producing formal definitions and graphical representations – an example of how the pursuit of objectivity and standardized knowledge coevolved with the rise of mass production and the emergence of sensory sciences. Secondly,the texturometers are related to an overall “flavorization”; that is, a historical process by which the complexes of sensory impressions became increasingly important for the production and consumption of food in late-modern industrialized societies.

  • 95.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Mejeriforskningens separering: Statens mejeriförsök 1932-19672015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 1937 bildades Statens mejeriförsök vid Alnarpinstitutet. Det var en mindre forskningsanläggning som brutits ur Lantbruksakademiens försöksverksamhet vid Experimentalfältet i Stockholm där den hade samexisterat med försöksverksamhet för bland annat växtodling, husdjursskötsel och lantbruksbaktereologi. Mejeriförsöket fanns vid Alnarp fram till 1967 då det löstes upp och verksamheten flyttades till Lunds tekniska högskola. Den gradvisa förflyttningen från ett renodlat lantbrukssammanhang, via ett akademiskt inriktat lantbruksinstitut till en teknisk högskola är på sätt och vis typisk för de areella vetenskapernas ”akademiska drift” under 1900-talet. Men i kapitlet fokuserar jag istället påmejerivetenskapens ”tekniska drift”. Mejeriförsöket var speciellt genom attdet så tydligt gled ur jordbrukets forskningsorganisation och förankrades i ett tekniskt-industriellt sammanhang, och i kapitlet beskriver jag denna teknifiering av den svenska mejerivetenskapen från 1930-talet till 1960-talet som en ”separering” genom vilken verksamheten skildes från jordbruket, delades upp och renodlades mot särskilda typer av kunskap. Valet av begrepp speglar den vikt jag lägger vid mejerinäringens tekniska innovationer och den långtgående raffinering av mjölkråvaran som igångsattes i och med den mekaniska centifugalsepareringens införande vid slutet av 1800-talet. Vid mitten av 1900-talet hade Mejeriförsöket blivitdel av det moderna teknovetenskapliga forskningssystemet. Jag tolkar denutvecklingen som en strävan efter legitimitet och utgår empiriskt från Mejeriförsökets föreståndare och deras korrespondens med politiska aktörer, vetenskapsmän och industrifolk.

  • 96.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Smakens teknovetenskaper: Livsmedelsutveckling i Sverige under den högindustriella epoken2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med framställningen är att presentera forskningsprojektet ”Smakens teknovetenskaper” i vilket jag och Daniel Normark undersöker hur ingenjörer och vetenskapsmän har format den sensoriska upplevelsen, det vill säga ”smaken”, av olika livsmedel under 1900-talet. Genom att studera hur olika livsmedelsprodukter analyserades och justerades i laboratorier, provsmakningspaneler och provkök avser projektet att utforska nya dimensioner av Sveriges transformering från jordbrukssamhälle till högteknologisk industrination. Vi studerar exempelvis: hur den framväxande livsmedelsindustrin stod i förbindelse med utvecklingen av olika vetenskaper kring smak och sinnen; hur analytiska metoder som organoleptik, livsmedelsreologi, olfaktometri och gaskromatografi användes för att översätta subjektiva smakupplevelser till ”objektiv” kodifierad kunskap; hur livsmedelsindustrins tekniska framsteg genererade en mångfald av nya smakupplevelser men också gjorde att matens smaksammansättning homogeniserades och frikopplades från det lokala och agrara; hur livsmedelsindustrins forskare hanterade frågor kring vad som var exotiskt, svenskt och modernt när de utformade livsmedlens smak.

  • 97.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Smakens teknovetenskaper: Livsmedelsutveckling i Sverige under den högindustriella epoken2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med framställningen är att presentera forskningsprojektet ”Smakens teknovetenskaper” i vilket jag och Daniel Normark undersöker hur ingenjörer och vetenskapsmän under 1900-talet har format den sensoriska upplevelsen, det vill säga ”smaken”, av olika livsmedel. Projektet ligger i skärningspunkten mellan vetenskapshistoria och ekonomisk historia, och genom att studera hur olika livsmedelsprodukters smak analyserades och justerades i laboratorier och provkök utforskar det nya dimensioner i Sveriges transformering från jordbrukssamhälle till högteknologisk industrination. På ett övergripande plan studerar projektet hur den framväxande livsmedelsindustrin stod i förbindelse med utvecklingen av olika vetenskaper kring smak och sinnen, i synnerhet det brokiga kunskapsfält som brukar benämnas sensorik och formerades internationellt under mellankrigstiden med starkt inflytande från ämnesområden som psykofysik, psykologi och kemi. Centralt för framväxten av livsmedelsindustrins sensoriska vetenskaper – eller "smakforskning" kort och gott – var att producera "hård" kunskap om smak; experimentella metoder som organoleptik, olfaktometri och gaskromatografi användes i försök att översätta subjektiva smakupplevelser till ”objektiv” kodifierad kunskap.

     

    Vårt metodologiska angreppssätt är produktbiografisk. Detta innebär att vi följer utvecklingen av ett antal livsmedelsprodukter och studerar hur forskare formade matens smakegenskaper över tid. Härigenom hanterar projektet inslag i 1900-talets moderna industrisamhälle som tidigare historieforskning med få undantag tidigare har berört. Som en genomgripande företeelse tar projektet fasta på hur tillverkningen av mat genomgick en "sensorering" – en historisk process genom vilken konsumenternas sinnesintryck och estetiska bedömningar blev allt viktigare faktorer för produktionen. Projektet utforskar därmed relationen mellan den livsmedelsindustriella kunskapsproduktionen och samhällets kulinariska kultur genom att empiriskt undersöka hur livsmedelsindustrins forskare hanterade frågor kring vad som betraktades som exempelvis exotiskt, svenskt och modernt när de utformade livsmedlens smak. Vidare tar sig projektet an djupgående frågor kring livsmedelsindustrins teknovetenskapliga utveckling under 1900-talet och dess djupgående konsekvenser för matens smaksammansättning, exempelvis gällande de tendenser till homogenisering och frikoppling från det "naturliga" och "genuina" som ofta tillskrivs livsmedelsproduktionens industrialisering.

     

    För seminariets del ligger tyngdpunkten vid att diskutera dessa övergripande företeelser samt de empiriska resultat som hittills har gjorts. Projektet startade formellt i april 2017 men har redan genererat en rad viktiga insikter. Här vill jag särskilt lyfta fram våra undersökningar av ölbryggning och margarintillverkning och hur produkternas smaksammansättningar inom dessa områden formades i politiska, ekonomiska, sociala och vetenskapliga kontexter. Studier av AB Stockholms bryggerier visar en verksamhet där produkternas smakegenskaper vid 1800-talets slut styrdes av företagets bryggmästare och deras skråbundna ideal, för att under mellankrigstiden alltmer bli en fråga för forskare knutna till företagets centrallaboratorium. Förändringarna visar sig särskilt i de utredningar kring en ny alkoholsvag pilsnersort som togs fram under 1920-talets rusdrycksreformer där forskare från Karolinska institutet anlitades för att vetenskapligt säkerställa den nya produktens smakmässiga kvaliteter. Gällande margarinet vittnar styrelseprotokoll och recept från Margarinbolaget AB om smakegenskapernas ökade i betydelse under 1930- och 1940-talet och om hur branschen formade dem i förhållande till det hos allmänheten högre skattade smöret. Kontrollen över margarinets smak övertogs gradvis av en centralt placeras kontrollör och bolagets styrelse försökte på olika sätt göra margarinet smakmässigt enhetligt och tilltalande samtidigt som geopolitiska och ekonomiska omsvängningar tvingade fram nya sammansättningar av fettråvaror.

  • 98.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    The technoscientists: a Swedish construction of basic research in World War II2016In: History & Technology, ISSN 0734-1512, E-ISSN 1477-2620, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 349-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines a group of engineers and scientists in Sweden in the 1930s and 1940s that worked to gain political support for what they called ‘technoscientific research’. Following their own terminology and the ideas of close relations between engineers, scientists, industries, and politics it implied, I call these actors ‘technoscientists’. Critical to their approach was the strategical use of the concept of ‘basic research’, constructed by the technoscientists to associate knowledge production with economic development and demarcate an area of responsibility for public support of industrial research. The technoscientists promoted this strategy by linking basic research to the technical exigencies caused by World War II and by integrating it with politics of welfare, defense, and trade. The technoscientists were thus important political reformers that laid the foundations of public support of science and technology before the 1950s and 1960s when science policy emerged as an institutionalized political practice in Sweden.

  • 99.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Gott fett: Smak och sensorik vid AB Margarinbolaget2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med framställningen är att diskutera smak, det vill säga de sensoriska upplevelserna som mat genererar, i ett industrihistoriskt perspektiv med utgångspunkt i det vetenskapliga fält kring livsmedel och smak som växer fram under 1900-talet. Studien fokuserar på tillverkning och utveckling av margarin vid AB Margarinbolaget, en industrikoncern bildad 1926 av en rad margarinfabrikanter, däribland Pellerin och Zenit. Fabrikanterna inom Margarinbolaget bedrev ett frenetisk, ibland rentav aggressivt, arbete i konkurrens med mejerinäringen, och sökte med olika åtgärder stärka margarinets ställning gentemot smöret, vilket var politiskt gynnat och hos allmänheten mer uppskattat vad gällde smak. I en inledande fas hade smaken hos Margarinbolagets produkter underordnad betydelse medan folkhälsoaspekterna var framträdande; margarinet vitaminiserades för att framstå som ett nyttigare och billigare alternativ till smöret, och Margarinbolagets styrelse enrollerade vetenskaplig expertis för att underbygga sin propaganda. Under 1930-talet blir dock smaken gradvis en viktigare fråga för fabrikanterna.  Margarinbolaget anställde exempelvis en disputerad kemist med uppdrag att säkerställa smakmässig kvalitet och utveckla bolagets margarinrecept, en verksamhet som resulterade i uppförandet av ett centrallaboratorium under 1940-talet. Samtidigt koncentreras produktionen alltmer kring ett nytt varumärke: Milda, ett margarin som marknadsfördes särskilt med hänvisning till dess goda smakegenskaper. I vid betraktelse är detta ett av många exempel på hur matens sensoriska egenskaper blev allt viktigare för livsmedelsproducenter och konsumenter under 1900-talats industrialisering, och genom att på nära håll följa styrelsens strategier och överväganden ger vår undersökning inblick i framväxten av ett slags "smakens ingenjörskap". För Margarinbolagets del innebar detta införandet av olika provsmakningsrutiner med syfte att ge margarinet en attraktiv och stabil smakprofil samtidigt som geopolitiska förutsättningar och innovationer inom teknik och jordbruk återkommande förändrade tillgången på olja och fett, vilket framtvingade nya recept och tillverkningsprocesser.

  • 100.
    Pettersson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Normark, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Ölsmakens mästare: Sensorisk analys vid Stockholms bryggerier 1889–19642017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ingår i forskningsprojektet "Smakens teknovetenskaper" och behandlar praktiker för smakanalys av öl vid Stockholms bryggerier, från företagets grundande år 1889 till att det avvecklades år 1964. Ölproduktionen bedrevs länge under skråliknande former där omdömet gällande produkternas smak avgjordes av bryggmästare som provsmakade de olika brygderna, luktade på humlen, kände på malt och korn. Mästarna hade i regel varit gesäller i Tyskland och deras arbete präglades av fasta hierarkier och outtalade kriterier för god ölsmak. Syftet med studien är att visa hur dessa äldre praktiker ersattes av standardiserade metoder för sensoriska analyser och hur en ny professionell sammansättning därmed kom att bemästra ölets smak vid bryggeriet. Genom bryggerinäringens industrialisering under 1900-talet kom provsmakningen i ökande omfattning att hanteras av ingenjörer, vetenskapsmän och medicinska forskare, verksamma vid forskningsmiljöer som Zymotekniska laboratoriet, Institutionen för jäsningslära vid KTH, Karolinska institutet och företagets eget centrallaboratorium. Framväxten av dessa verksamheter var kopplade till produktionstekniska förändringar såsom införandet av pastörisering och nya metoder för kyllagring, men också till förändrade konsumtionsmönster samt nya politiska ramverk, exempelvis rusdrycksförordningar och klassificeringar av öl. Genom studier av analysprotokoll, korrespondens kring produktutveckling, utredningar och verksamhetsbeskrivningar visar vi hur rutinerna för smakanalys formades inom olika tekniska, vetenskapliga, ekonomiska och politiska kontexter och hur ett teknovetenskapligt fält etablerades inom livsmedelsindustrin.

123 51 - 100 of 141
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf