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  • 51.
    Atry, Ashkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Doping and The Participatory Responsibility of Sports Physicians2013Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it will be argued that notwithstanding the need for more clear regulative measures in relation to sports physicians’ doping behaviour, the predominant medical/legalistic approach in/by itself is not sufficient, and fails in doing what sports anti-doping authorities whish it to do, i.e., to define and to assign sports physicians’ responsibility in an adequate way. High-performance sport is a form of social practice and sports physicians are an integrated part of the practice. In dealing with such a large-scale social process as high-performance sport, the above approach is lacking since it (a) proceeds from a conception of responsibility which limits the scope of responsibility in athletic settings, and (b) overlooks social aspects of responsibility and responsibility-attributing processes. Furthermore, it will be maintained that responsibility is relational, and as such, it is chiefly created and assigned within the social practice, rather than imposed from authoritative sources that are external to the practice itself. It will be concluded that sports physicians, given their position in relation to athletes and sports management, should actively assume prospective responsibilities beyond those pre- defined responsibilities that are expressed in rules, regulations and policies issued by sports’ governing bodies.

  • 52.
    Atry, Ashkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Kihlbom, Ulrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Gene Doping and the Responsibility of Bioethicists2011In: Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, ISSN 1751-1321, E-ISSN 1751-133X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will argue: (1) that scholars, regardless of their normative stand against or for genetic enhancement indeed have a moral/professional obligation to hold on to a realistic and up-to-date conception of genetic enhancement; (2) that there is an unwarranted hype surrounding the issue of genetic enhancement in general, and gene doping in particular; and (3) that this hype is, at least partly, created due to a simplistic and reductionist conception of genetics often adopted by bioethicists.

  • 53.
    Backlund, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Kravet på godhet: en analys av etiska krav inom kristen etik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will discuss the ethical demands that are given by Stanley Hauerwas and William Schweiker in their theory about Christian ethics. The question at issue being discussed is which ethical demands to act good is revealed in Hauerwas and Schweikers understanding of Christian ethics and do they put a stronger demand on Christians to act good? This thesis finds out that both of them put some special ethical demands for Christians that are not the same as to other people. In their writing about the special claims for Christians, when it comes to moral behavior, they have their own way of understanding what these claims are.

    Hauerwas claims that Christians should act good because of Jesus Christ. To learn to be like him humans need to develop their virtues in a community of virtues. The church is the place where your person and character can develop in a certain way. This view is, according to this thesis, not reasonable in a world with global dynamics. Schweiker claims that the agent and his actions have a special relation and that humans as agents needs to take responsibility and use it as a moral imperative. For Christians responsibility gets more important because of their belief. Schweiker presents an ethic that is both reasonable and applicable to other worldviews in a world with global dynamics.  

  • 54.
    Ballantyne, Angela
    et al.
    University of Otago Wellington, Bioeth, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Research ethics revised: The new CIOMS guidelines and the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki in context2019In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 310-311Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Bergman, Karolin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Persson Osowski, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Eli, Karin
    Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Lövestam, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Elmståhl, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Nowicka, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Stakeholder responses to governmental dietary guidelines: Challenging the status quo, or reinforcing it?2018In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 613-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how stakeholders in the food and nutrition field construct and conceptualise “appropriate” national dietary advice.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In total, 40 voluntarily written stakeholder responses to updated official dietary guidelines in Sweden were analysed thematically. The analysis explored the logics and arguments employed by authorities, interest organisations, industry and private stakeholders in attempting to influence the formulation of dietary guidelines.

    Findings

    Two main themes were identified: the centrality of anchoring advice scientifically and modes of getting the message across to the public. Stakeholders expressed a view of effective health communication as that which is nutritionally and quantitatively oriented and which optimises individuals’ capacities to take action for their own health. Their responses did not offer alternative framings of how healthy eating could be practiced but rather conveyed an understanding of dietary guidelines as documents that provide simplified answers to complex questions.

    Practical implications

    Policymakers should be aware of industrial actors’ potential vested interests and actively seek out other stakeholders representing communities and citizen interests. The next step should be to question the extent to which it is ethical to publish dietary advice that represents a simplified way of conceptualising behavioural change, and thereby places responsibility for health on the individual.

    Originality/value

    This research provides a stakeholder perspective on the concept of dietary advice and is among the first to investigate referral responses to dietary guidelines.

  • 56.
    Bergsten, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Religionsdialog: Kommunikativ etik som resurs i mötet mellan kristna och muslimer i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents, interprets and analyzes Seyla Benhabib's discourse ethics, and investigates its implications for religious dialogue as practical discourse. On the basis of the fundamental principles of universal moral respect and egalitarian reciprocity, as well as the idea of ​​the situated moral self, the author proposes ten normative starting points for inter-religious dialogue between Christians and Muslims in Sweden. Aspects of gender and power are commented in particular. The study shows how discourse ethics impose far-reaching demands on the conditions of the dialogue, on the preparation of it as well as on its participants. The continuity of dialogue is emphasized as the overall goal.

  • 57. Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Language and teaching ethics2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All problems with learning are increased when using English to teach non-English native students because of the culturally-sensitive nature of the subject of ethics. Coming to teaching ethics we are confronted with more difficulties. What is right and wrong is often affected by the culture, and different cultures often have different languages. Ethics theories are also expressed in language terms and they can be more easily misunderstood or misinterpreted compared to natural science theories. The feelings and every-day life encounters with “right” and “wrong” are linguistically experienced, described, and mediated. Therefore, language has a strong impact on whether something is ethical or whether it makes sense as an ethical issue at all.

  • 58.
    Björk, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Linguistics and Philology.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Robots, ethics and language2015In: Computers & Society: The Newsletter of the ACM Special Interest Group on Computers and Society Special Issue on 20 Years of ETHICOMP / [ed] Mark Coeckelbergh, Bernd Stahl, and Catherine Flick; Vaibhav Garg and Dee Weikle, ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 268-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the classical philosophical definition of ethics and the psychological research on problem solving and decision making, the issue of ethics becomes concrete and opens up the way for the creation of IT systems that can support handling of moral problems. Also in a sense that is similar to the way humans handle their moral problems. The processes of communicating information and receiving instructions are linguistic by nature. Moreover, autonomous and heteronomous ethical thinking is expressed by way of language use. Indeed, the way we think ethically is not only linguistically mediated but linguistically construed – whether we think for example in terms of conviction and certainty (meaning heteronomy) or in terms of questioning and inquiry (meaning autonomy). A thorough analysis of the language that is used in these processes is therefore of vital importance for the development of the above mentioned tools and methods. Given that we have a clear definition based on philosophical theories and on research on human decision-making and linguistics, we can create and apply systems that can handle ethical issues. Such systems will help us to design robots and to prescribe their actions, to communicate and cooperate with them, to control the moral aspects of robots’ actions in real life applications, and to create embedded systems that allow continuous learning and adaptation.

  • 59.
    Blom, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics.
    Paragon & Renegade: En intern analys av etiken i Mass Effect2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 60.
    Boisen, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    The Protection of Civilians in the Event of Emergency or Armed Conflict: A Study of the International Humanitarian Law and Real Life Experiences of Armed Conflict2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Human Rights were established after the Second World War to prevent that kind of civilian harm from ever happening again. Despite of this, people are being violated all the time in today’s conflicts. Why is that?

    This study aims to illustrate the problem of the protection of human rights in the event of a state of emergency and armed conflict. The following research questions have been asked; is international humanitarian law sufficient protection for civilians in the event of a state of emergency and armed conflict? To what extent does the legal framework and the theories of conflict match the “real situation"? The study is limited to a few articles from international treaties together with three informants. A qualitative approach was employed and as a theoretical starting point, Agamben's theory of the state of exception and van Creveld’s theory of armed conflicts have been used. Interpretations of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights have been text analyzed and are the basis for the legal framework. Finally qualitative interviews were conducted with, a legal advisor, an ex-combatant and a journalist who all have been in armed conflict. The results of the study show that the legal protection of civilians in armed conflict is relatively good compared to that of a state of emergency, which should be more strictly regulated. The biggest problem is that the law is not complied which is due to lack of knowledge. The conclusion is that education should lead to better understanding of international regulations, which should lead to better compliance of them.

     

  • 61.
    Boyden, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of English.
    De Schutter, Helder
    The Ethics of Language Planning2008In: ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 39, no 2/3, p. 7-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62. Brunet, Pierre
    et al.
    Millard, EricMindus, PatriciaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    Realist Conceptions of Legislation: Special Issue - The Theory and Practice of Legislation2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Callewaert, Teresa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Theologies Speak of Justice: A Study of Islamic and Christian Social Ethics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how religious ethics, while retaining its identity, can contribute to political debate and to the understanding of justice. The inquiry addresses these issues by focusing on theological perspectives which challenge the solutions offered to these questions by the liberal paradigm. Three kinds of challenges are studied, each of which is represented by one thinker from the Islamic tradition and one from the Christian tradition, in order to enable a comparative perspective on the contributions of religious traditions. The thinkers studied are: 1) modified liberalism, represented by Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im and Duncan B. Forrester; 2) liberationism, represented by Ali Shariati and Gustavo Gutierrez; and 3) radical traditionalism, as developed by Tariq Ramadan and John Milbank.

    The study is organized around three main questions. First, how can innovative interpretations of religious tradition be plausibly justified? Second, what role should religious arguments and reasons play in the political sphere? Third, what can religious ethics and theological thought contribute to the understanding of social justice? The questions are engaged by means of a critical and reconstructive engagement with the six thinkers. The suggested solutions are assessed in terms of the criteria of authenticity, communicability, and potential for transformation. It is argued that a religious ethic can rely on a tradition without accepting conservative understandings of that tradition. Furthermore, it is argued that the coherence of religious ethics can be made available for public discourse but that the hospitability of the public forum to such contributions needs to be realized through a deepened democratic culture and a critique of power structures which condition perceptions of rationality. While religious ethics do not articulate complete alternative understandings of justice, they articulate contributions by relating justice to human sociality and to transcendence. 

  • 64.
    Calvo, Patrici
    et al.
    Universitat Jaume I.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Civil Society Participation in the Management of the Common Good: A Case of Ethics in Biological Resource Centres2014In: Common Goods: New Forms of Participation of Civil Society in Democracy and the Economy / [ed] Daniel Pallares Dominguez & Stefan Eriksson, Castellón: Universitat Jaume I , 2014, p. 7-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of commons is now at the centre of researchers' attention in many branches of science, particularly those related to the human or social sciences. This paper seeks to demonstrate how civil society participation in common goods or resources is not only possible but is also desirable for society because of the medium and long-term benefits it offers involved and/or affected parties. To this end, we examine the falsity of the discourse underlying the supposed incompetence of civil society to cooperate interpersonally in the pursuit of common objectives, and also analyse a specific example of the necessary and possible participation of civil society in managing common goods through biobanks.

  • 65.
    Carlson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
    “More Problems for the Counterfactual Comparative Account of Harm and Benefit”In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Carlson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    On Some Impossibility Theorems in Population Ethics2019In: The Oxford Handbook of Population Ethics / [ed] Timothy Campbell, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Carlson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    “Organiska helheter och kontextualism om finalt värde”2016In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 31-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Carlson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Philosophy, Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Value theory (Axiology)2018In: Introduction to Formal Philosophy / [ed] Hansson, Sven Ove; Hendricks, Vincent F., Springer, 2018, p. 523-534Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Undergraduate Textbook introduces key methods and examines the major areas of philosophy in which formal methods play pivotal roles.

  • 69.
    Coghill, Ken
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Ethics, parliaments and members: learning to think ethically2014In: Challenges of contemporay governance, Montreal: The International Political Science Association , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parliamentary democracies are conceptualised as complex evolving socio-political systems in which the parliament is the apex institution through which the community determines the rules and standards applying to individuals, executive government, business, other organisations and relationships within the community and across its borders. As the apex institution, assessing the failings of the parliament provide an opportunity to examine the functioning of the system as a whole. A key factor affecting parliament’s reputation, effectiveness and legitimacy is ethical conduct by its elected members. Whilst members of the political Executive bear heavier responsibilities, all members of a parliament have a duty to behave in ways that enhance rather than detract from the parliament’s performance of its roles and its legitimacy. Compliance with accepted ethical standards of conduct relies on a culture of acceptance and compliance, detection of breaches and sanctions for wrong-doing. The realisation of the prospects of detection and of sanctions facilitates a culture of compliance. A culture of compliance reduces the transaction costs of social exchanges, leaving more resources available to the institution of parliament and its elected members to fulfil the roles of the institution. Accordingly, it is in the long-term interests of both the parliament and its members that individual members practice high levels of ethical competence in the conduct of their parliamentary responsibilities. The paper reports research findings in an international study of formal induction and further development programmes in representative parliaments. Information was collected from members of national parliaments and trainers through surveys (including an innovative measure of ethical competence) and via interviews. Approaches to training relating to ethical conduct were found to vary widely, with some parliamentary induction programmes giving it considerable attention whilst others eschewed the topic. The paper concludes with comments on further research into how elected office holders (such as members of parliament) acquire, develop and sustain ethical competence, including the effectiveness of learning techniques focused on ethical behaviour.

  • 70.
    Coghill, Ken
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Thorton, Julia
    Monash University.
    Neesham, Cristina
    Monash University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Parliamentary integrity systems: Parliamentarians’ ethical conduct, accountability and transparency2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that ethical conduct by a parliament’s members is fundamental to the institution’s performance of its functions. Assurance that members are conducting themselves ethically requires that they are accountable for their conduct, which in turn requires that there is transparency around that conduct.

    Parliaments vary widely in their approaches to ethical conduct, including the nature and extent of accountability and transparency by their members. This paper compares such approaches across a range of legislatures.

  • 71.
    Collste, Goran
    Linköpings universitet; Uppsala universitet.
    Book review: The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Indian Ethics2018In: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 163-165Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Palm, Elin
    Linköping University.
    Struntar regeringen i rätten till personlig integritet?2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 1 nov.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 73.
    Dahlman, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Systematic Theology and Studies in World Views.
    ”Let Love Rule” Kärleken som högsta norm, en möjlighet eller naivt önsketänkande?: En studie om kärlekens funktion hos Margaret Farley och Timothy P.Jackson.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 74. Dal-Ré, Rafael
    et al.
    Avendaño-Solà, Cristina
    Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte
    de Boer, Anthonius
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Fuhr, Uwe
    Holm, Søren
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Mentz, Robert J
    Perucca, Emilio
    Rosendaal, Frits R
    Treweek, Shaun
    Low risk pragmatic trials do not always require participants' informed consent2019In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 364, article id l1092Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75. Dal-Ré, Rafael
    et al.
    Solberg, Berge
    Fuhr, Uwe
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Reporting the details of consent procedures in clinical trials2020In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 117, p. 150-151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Davidsson, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Du är alltså är Jag: En undersökning av Martin Bubers teori om skuld i ljuset av hans människosyn och etik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Ehnberg, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Globalization, Justice, and Communication: A Critical Study of Global Ethics2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to seek to an answer to the question of what constitutes a tenable model for global ethics. This is done in part by a critical engagement with four different models of global ethics; two proposals from political philosophy and two contributions from theological ethics. The models analyzed in the study are: (1) the capabilities approach as developed by Martha Nussbaum, (2) Seyla Benhabib’s discourse ethics and model of cosmopolitan federalism, (3) David Hollenbach’s model of the common good and human rights, and (4) the model for responsibility ethics and theological humanism as developed by William Schweiker. These models contain different understandings of global justice, human rights, and sustainable development.

    The study works with six primary problems: (1) Which are the main moral problems associated with different processes of globalization? (2) What should be the response to these problems, in the form of a normative ethical model? (3) What is the relation between global ethics and universalism? (4) What kind of institutional vision for the international arena does a tenable global ethic promote? (5) Given the human diversity and global pluralism, what would be a reasonable view of the human being included in a global ethic? (6) What kind of ethical theory is sustainable for global ethical reflection? These questions also form the basis for the analysis of the models.

    The study uses a set of criteria in order to assess the answers that the models offer for these questions. These criteria also constitute the framework within which the author’s contribution to the discussion of global ethics is phrased. The criteria are founded on an idea of what characterizes global ethical reflection. The contention is that a tenable global ethic should be relevant, and it should also be related to a reasonable view of human beings and a plausible ethical theory. Together these support the criterion of communicability, which argues that a global ethic should above all be communicable, i.e. capable of enabling cross-cultural communication. A central argument which this study makes is that a kind of ethical contextualism is more reasonable than an epistemological universalism.

  • 78.
    Ekholm Piper, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Corporate Social Responsibility: A genuine comittment or just good adverising2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of corporate social responsibility (hereinafter referred to as CSR) is on the rise, and more and more companies are engaging in activities such as cause-related marketing, employee volunteering and/or corporate philanthropy, commonly referred to CSR programmes. More than 80 % of Fortune 500 companies deal with CSR issues in the United States. In Europe the number of companies doing this is also growing, led by companies such as The Body Shop and SAP.

    What are the reasons for this trend? On the one hand, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of bad business practices in times of increasing media coverage and advanced information technology. Twitter storms and Facebook campaigns have enabled consumers to exert their powers of protest and boycotting, resulting in negative economic consequences for the companies. For instance the Coca-Cola #notinmyfridge twitter campaign is said to have had an impact on the company’s global sales due to the negative publicity.

    On the other hand, there is evidence that CSR is not only “the moral thing to do”, but also has a positive impact on the company’s relationships with its stakeholders, such as employees, customers and consumers. CSR is reported to have a positive impact on both consumer product responses as well as its attitude towards the company, including consumers’ identification with the company.

    Still, there are still many knowledge gaps with regards to how these CSR programmes are being developed and implemented today. In addition to this, there is limited research on how the programmes are being perceived by stakeholders such as customers, consumers, employees and leaders, or indeed what the main driving forces are behind setting up such programmes. Is it a desire to be a great company or just a precaution to avoid “twitter"-storms? 

  • 79.
    Eklund, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Moraliska aspekter av gruvbrytning i Gallók/Kallak: En innehållslig idéanalys av moralisk sentimentalism som möjlig beslutsmodell i fråga om rättvist beslutsfattande2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Does moral sentimentalism provide resources for reasonable decision making? In this essay I look closer on whether empathy truly is a necessary component when it comes to decision making, and also how and why moral sentimentalism seems to be undermining itself in certain aspects related to the nature of the theory itself. The thoughts of moral sentimentalism have been applied onto the conflict concerning the rights to land in the area of Gallók/Kallak, in order to provide a clear example of how the theory of moral sentimentalism may be applied. To be able to provide an answer for the main question of the essay, a number of pro and contra-arguments for moral sentimentalism have been used as guidelines for the main discussion, as well as a number of statements that sum up the main aim of moral sentimentalism as an ethical theory. In the analysis of the essay, an attempt to test if these arguments and statements are strong and clear enough to be questioned from different angles is made. By questioning these arguments and statements, I have realised that some of them seems to be undermining rather than helping the theory of moral sentimentalism when they are questioned. In the conclusion of the essay, I come to the answer that the theory of moral sentimentalism on it’s own does not contain what is needed in order to provide resources for reasonable decision making. I also find that moral sentimentalism does not manage to provide enough support for its claim that empathy is indeed crucial when it comes to decision making in the conflict concerning the rights to land in the area of Gallók/Kallak (or in decision making in conflicts in general, apart from on a 1:1 level where everyone involved in the conflict has a somewhat deep understanding for one another.) But, despite this realization, moral sentimentalism can still function as a useful validity criterion (rather than a decision model) in terms of decision making in situations of conflict.

  • 80.
    Elfström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    I've Been Looking for Freedom: En analys av frihetens plats i två samtida teorier om rättvisa2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I examine the concept of liberty as expressed by the liberal political philosopher John Rawls in his book A Theory of Justice, and by the feminist philosopher Iris Marion Young in her book Justice and the Politics of Difference. The purpose of this study is to investigate the subject that is the different understandings of liberty, and the theories of justification that underlies them, in contemporary political philosophy. I will achieve this aim through a content analysis of the two books named above, which means that I, firstly, will try to describe and clarify the authors’ respective positions. Secondly, I will evaluate the strength in their arguments and then, in the final chapter of the essay, I will make a proposition of my own on what a reasonable understanding and justification of liberty might be. One of my conclusions is that Rawls’ position is best to be understood in a negative way, as the absence of coercion, and that it is highly influenced by a politics of universal dignity. And another one, that Young holds a positive view in which liberty equals self-realization and self-determination, and as the title of her book suggests, a politics of difference. As for the justification of liberty, it is the thought experiment that Rawls calls the “veil of ignorance” with which he justifies the principle of equal liberty as well as its precedence. And Young, although not explicating a theory of justification herself, seems to suggest a modified version of Habermas’ communicative ethics. Then, in the final chapter, I argue that the most reasonable alternative is a negative understanding of liberty, together with a politics of universal dignity that is quite similar to that of Rawls’.

  • 81.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Forskningsetikens nya huvudfråga – den falska akademin?2015In: Svensk Kirurgi, ISSN 0346-847X, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 180-183Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 82.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ge doktorander en starkare ställning: kommentar till Eivind Torps ”Vem äger rätten till doktorandersforskningsresultat?”2015In: Förvaltningsrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 0015-8585, no 3, p. 371-376Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Viktigt rättsfall om forskares användning av studentarbeten2014In: Curie, ISSN 2001-3426Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Mycket talar för att det är en utbredd praxis bland handledare till studenter att använda deras arbeten i sina egna. Ledningarna vid lärosätena behöver klargöra vad som är acceptabelt, annars riskerar våra högre utbildningar att (för)leda forskare och studenter till att bryta mot god vetenskaplig sed, skriver etikforskaren Stefan Eriksson vid Uppsala universitet.

  • 84.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    What should we do about predatory publishing?2017In: European Science Editing, ISSN 0258-3127, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 80-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Predatory’ publishing covers a wide range of journals with different characteristics. Society and scientists should not accept deceitful practices in science. Neither should we accept anything less than excellence from publishing houses. Therefore, we should take three measures: first, form committees for each research field to keep track of journals and publishers; second, create a forum where scientists can share their experiences of predatory journals; third, develop software to help scientists and officials spot references to predatory journals in papers and in applications for funding, promotions, or positions.

  • 85.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Godskesen, Tove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Andersson, Lars
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    How to counter undeserving authorship2018In: Insights: the UKSG journal, E-ISSN 2048-7754, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The average number of authors listed on contributions to scientific journals has increased considerably over time. While this may be accounted for by the increased complexity of much research and a corresponding need for extended collaboration, several studies suggest that the prevalence of non-deserving authors on research papers is alarming. In this paper a combined qualitative and quantitative approach is suggested to reduce the number of undeserving authors on academic papers: 1) ask scholars who apply for positions to explain the basics of a random selection of their co-authored papers, and 2) in bibliometric measurements, divide publications and citations by the number of authors.

  • 86.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Publiceringsetik2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vetenskapliga publikationer har fått en allt mer central roll i forskar­världen. Publikationen förmedlar och tillgängliggör forskningsresultat samtidigt som den utgör en måttstock på forskargruppens och den enskilde forskarens vetenskapliga insats. Exempelvis fördelas i allt högre utsträckning fakultetsmedel utifrån institutionernas vetenskapliga produktion och vetenskaplig kompetens bedöms ofta i termer av längden på publikationslistan. Den hårda konkurrensen om forskningsmedel och tjänster kan locka forskare att ta genvägar till ytterligare publikationer. Risken är att vetenskapen då undergrävs och att forskare blir orättvist bedömda.

    Den här boken belyser olika etiska aspekter av vetenskapligt publicerande. Förutom forskningsfusk tar den bland annat upp tillbaka­hållande av forskningsresultat, överflödig publicering, hanteringen av medförfattarskap, open access, peer review och redaktionella bedömningar, samt hur man kan försöka komma till rätta med de publiceringsetiska problem som finns.

    Det här är den första svenska boken på temat publiceringsetik. Den är skriven på ett sådant sätt att den ska kunna läsas av alla som är intresserade av dessa frågor. Som utbildningsmaterial lämpar den sig för kurser och undervisningsinslag i forskningsetik med inriktning på publiceringsetiska frågor, från magisternivå och uppåt.

  • 87.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Department of LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The false academy: Predatory publishing in science & bioethics2017In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 163-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development. The paper concludes that predatory publishing is a growing phenomenon that has the potential to greatly affect both bioethics and science at large. Publishing papers and books for profit, without any genuine concern for content, but with the pretence of applying authentic academic procedures of critical scrutiny, brings about a worrying erosion of trust in scientific publishing.

  • 88.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Helgesson, Gert
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska institutet.
    Time to stop talking about ‘predatory journals’2018In: Learned Publishing, ISSN 0953-1513, E-ISSN 1741-4857, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 181-183Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Key points:

    • The term ‘predatory journal’ hides a wide range of scholarly publishing misconduct.

    • The term ‘predatory journal’ unhelpfully bundles misconduct with poor quality.

    • The term ‘predatory journal’ blinds us to important possibilities, needs, and questions arising in the developing scholarly landscape.

    • The current scholarly publishing environment cannot rely on such a simplified classification of journals into predatory or not.

  • 89.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Etiska aspekter att tänka på i observationsstudier2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 220-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Etiska aspekter av registerforskning rör framför allt personlig integritet och datasäkerhet. Även med etiktillstånd att utan samtycke använda data kräver personuppgiftslagen att alla forskningspersoner är informerade.

    Forskningen kan effektiviseras genom att data delas och används i ny forskning. De breda samtycken som skulle krävas accepteras dock oftast inte av Datainspektionen och etikprövningsnämnderna.

    Användning av vårdens kvalitetsregister i forskning bör underlättas genom bättre infrastruktur och öppenhet mot externa forskare.

    Skapandet av stora register och provsamlingar för framtida forskning kräver att etikprövningslagen och personuppgiftslagen revideras.

    Forskarsamhället och etikprövningsnämnderna bör ta större ansvar för att förhindra att undermålig forskning bedrivs.

  • 90.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Möller, Niklas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Debate: Brandom and Political Philosophy2014In: The Journal of Political Philosophy, ISSN 0963-8016, E-ISSN 1467-9760, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 486-498Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Möller, Niklas
    Three Failed Charges Against Ideal Theory2013In: Social Theory and Practice, ISSN 0037-802X, E-ISSN 2154-123X, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 19-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intensified discussion on the role of normative ideals has re-emerged in several debates in political philosophy. What is often referred to as ‘ideal theory’, represented by liberal egalitarians such as John Rawls, is under attack from those that stress that political philosophy at large should take much more seriously the non-ideal circumstances consisting of relations of domination and power under which normative ideals, principles and ideas are supposed to be applied. While the debate so far has mainly been preoccupied with defending or rejecting ideal theory through a defence or rejection of a specific ideal theory, this paper instead focuses on a number of general philosophical concerns on which the critique relies. More specifically, it brings up for scrutiny, and ultimately rejects, three charges against ideal theory: the charge that ideal theory is not action-guiding, that ideal theory is impossible, and that ideal theory is distorting. By investigating these charges in tandem, the paper shows that the criticism against ideal theory is premised on assumptions about the relationships between thought and action and between concepts and the world for which there is little or no support. 

  • 92.
    Erman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Möller, Niklas
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Why Political Realists Should Not be Afraid of Moral Values2015In: Journal of Philosophical Research (JPR), ISSN 1053-8364, E-ISSN 2153-7984, Vol. 40, p. 459-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous article, we unpacked the so-called "ethics first premise"-the idea that ethics is "prior" to politics when theorizing political legitimacy-that is denied by political realists. We defended a "justificatory" reading of this premise, according to which political justification is irreducibly moral in the sense that moral values are among the values that ground political legitimacy. We called this the "necessity thesis." In this paper we respond to two challenges that Robert Jubb and Enzo Rossi raise against our proposal. Their first claim is that our argument for the necessity thesis is question begging, since we assume rather than show that freedom and equality are moral values. The second claim is that Bernard Williams's Basic Legitimacy Demand demonstrates the possibility of giving political legitimacy a non-moral foundation, since it allows for a distinction to be made between politics and sheer domination. We refute both claims.

  • 93.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Theoretical Framing of Neuroethics: The Need for a Conceptual Approach2017In: Debates About Neuroethics: Perspectives on Its Development, Focus, and Future / [ed] Eric Racine; John Aspler, Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, p. 89-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different dominant perspectives, theories, and methodologies within neuroethics, each importantly shaping the identification, understanding, and discussion of the relevant ethical, social, philosophical and scientific issues. In this chapter, we first provide a brief overview of current neuroethical approaches calling attention to a common tendency to underestimate the role and value of conceptual analysis. Against that background, we present and develop the theoretical framework of fundamental neuroethics. Next, we suggest that neuroethics should be built on the sound scientific and philosophical foundations of informed materialism. Finally, we apply the proposed theoretical framework to the neuroethical discussion of brain simulation.

  • 94.
    Fahlquist, Jessica Nihlén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Delft Univ Technol, NL-2600 AA Delft, Netherlands.
    Experience of non-breastfeeding mothers: Norms and ethically responsible risk communication2016In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 231-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is currently strongly recommended by midwives and paediatricians, and the recommendations are based on documents provided by the World Health Organization and public health authorities worldwide.

    RESEARCH QUESTION: The underlying question is, how are non-breastfeeding mothers affected emotionally when informed that breastfeeding is the safest and healthiest option?

    RESEARCH DESIGN: The method used is an anonymous web-based qualitative survey exploring the narratives of non-breastfeeding mothers, published on Thesistools.com. The aim is to achieve qualitative knowledge about the emotions of non-breastfeeding mothers.

    PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: Participants were based in Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands and were selected through a purposeful sample.

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The online survey anonymizes responses automatically, and all respondents had to tick a box agreeing to be quoted anonymously in scientific articles. The study conforms to research ethics guidelines.

    FINDINGS: Respondents describe how they were affected, and the following themes emerged in studying their descriptions: depression, anxiety and pain, feeling failed as a mother and woman, loss of freedom/feeling trapped, relief and guilt.

    DISCUSSION: The themes are discussed against the background of the ethics of care and a theory of ethically responsible risk communication.

    CONCLUSION: Three conclusions are made. First, the message should become more empathetic. Second, information should be given in an attentive dialogue. Third, information providers should evaluate effects in a more inclusive way.

  • 95.
    Falk, Anna-Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Utveckling som vad?: En diskursanalys av meningen bakom begreppet utveckling inom kontexten för Sidas arbete och deras samverkan med näringslivet.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis asks the question of which discourses are dominant for the concept development within Sweden’s international cooperation for development, specifically for Sida and their collaboration with the private sector. In doing so, the purpose is to find a temporary fixation of the different discourses behind the concept. The thesis presents four different discourses that are relevant to the field of development theory. These are: Development as economic growth, Development as Poverty Reduction, Development as Freedom and Development as Rights. In the analysis of the material three discourses have been dominant: Development as Economic Growth, Development as Poverty Reduction and Development as Rights. 

  • 96.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Brain, consciousness and disorders of consciousness at the intersection of neuroscience and philosophy2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation starts from the general claim that neuroscience is not neutral, with regard to theoretical questions like the nature of consciousness, but it needs to be complemented with dedicated conceptual analysis. Specifically, the argument for this thesis is that the combination of empirical and conceptual work is a necessary step for assessing the significant questions raised by the most recent study of the brain. Results emerging from neuroscience are conceptually very relevant in themselves but, notwithstanding its theoretical sophistication, neuroscience is not sufficient to provide a complete interpretation or an appropriate understanding of their impact. Consequently, the present thesis starts from the need for an interdisciplinary and hybrid field of research, i.e. fundamental neuroethics.

    Within this framework, the thesis takes consciousness and related disorders (i.e. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State and Coma) and the addicted brain as illustrative cases of the potential fruitful collaboration between empirical and conceptual investigations.

    The general goal of the thesis is to contribute to the overall development of bridging the gap between empirical and conceptual understandings of consciousness. The first paper sets the theoretical framework, providing an empirically-based description of the brain with significant philosophical implications for an understanding of consciousness. The last three papers of the thesis try to apply the theoretical framework to illustrative cases. Papers II and III analyse the possible application of science and technology for an easier detection and clinical care of patients with disorders of consciousness, with particular attention to communication mediated by neurotechnology and the simulation of the conscious brain, respectively; paper IV provides a potentially new ethical analysis of addiction within the elaborated general conceptual framework.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that the impact of neuroscientific results needs that a dedicated conceptual approach reveals and investigates their conceptual meaning. This conceptual analysis is not exclusive but integrative and complementary to the empirical science. The case of consciousness, analysed from both an ethical and conceptual point of view, is highly illustrative in this respect. In the end, a conceptual/linguistic work of clarification is urgently needed.

    List of papers
    1. The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    2017 (English)In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Imprint Academic, 2017
    Keywords
    Brain, Consciousness, Neuroscience, Philosophy
    National Category
    Philosophy Ethics Neurology
    Research subject
    Philosophy; Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339292 (URN)
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    2015 (English)In: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 205-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
    Series
    Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience, ISSN 1866-3370 ; 19
    Keywords
    Consciousness Disorders of consciousness Neurotechnology Informed consent
    National Category
    Neurology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience; Bioethics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-245265 (URN)10.1007/7854_2014_338 (DOI)978-3-662-44866-3 (ISBN)
    Projects
    Human Brain Project
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 604102
    Available from: 2015-02-26 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2019-08-30
    3. Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

    Keywords
    Consciousness, Consciousness Disorders, brain modeling, Neuroethics, brain simulation
    National Category
    Computer Systems Ethics Philosophy Neurology Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience; Philosophy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347782 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00585 (DOI)000430833800001 ()29740372 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    The human brain project
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

    Keywords
    Addiction, Ethics of addiction, Unaware processing, Opioids Epidemics, Drugs addiction
    National Category
    Psychiatry Ethics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364429 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00595 (DOI)000450456300001 ()30524319 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    Human Brain Project
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
    Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
  • 97.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    “Cerebral Communication” With Patients With Disorders of Consciousness.: Clinical Feasibility and Implications2015In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 44-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Uppsala University.
    Filosofía de las Neurociencias.: Cerebro, mente, persona2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Michele Farisco presenta los desafíos que las neurociencias plantean al saber filosófico, sobre todo en el dominio ético-antropológico. El neurocientífico no permanece circunscripto a un ámbito disciplinar sino que intenta acercarse e indagar, con métodos y finalidades relativamente diversas, el sistema nervioso del hombre, llegando, en algunas casos, a elaborar una visión absolutamente biologicista de la naturaleza humana. Esta visión se ha visto potenciada por la posibilidad de visualizar el funcionamiento del cerebro gracias a las técnicas del neuroimaging. Farisco, luego de señalar las limitaciones instrumentales y conceptuales de las técnicas del neuroimaging, advierte al lector acerca de dos posibles errores: la denominada “falacia mereológica”, que consiste en atribuir al cerebro todas las actividades mentales, considerando la parte como un todo, y el error de confundir antecedentes y consecuentes, fundamentando por qué el hombre no es un sí neuroquímico (brainhood) cuyo ser se identifica con el cerebro. Farisco, con total justeza, señala que en esta posición antropológica reductiva, la ideología prevalece sobre la ciencia por cuanto formula afirmaciones que escapan totalmente al dominio de las neurociencias en particular, y de la ciencia en general.

  • 99.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neurotechnology–mediated communication: a new tool for personal rights of patients with disorders of consciousness?2016In: Mind, brain and education at Erice: ten years / [ed] Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer & María Lourdes Majdalani, Erice: Ettore Majorana Foundation , 2016, p. 149-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the inspiring and friendly environment of the ninth International Summer School on Mind, Brain and Education, titled Body, Brain and Personal Identity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, and directed by Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer and Fernando Vidal, I presented the provisional results of my investigation of the impact of neurotechnology on the speechless subjects’ ability to communicate. In particular, I focused on the possible use of neurotechnology to communicate with comatose patients. 

  • 100.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ritorno alla Physis2018In: Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, ISSN 1825-5167, E-ISSN 1825-5167, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 487-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While I am quite in agreement with the critics to transhumanism elaborated by Allegra in the book Visioni transumane. Tecnica, salvezza, ideologia, the alternative to transhumanist perspective that he argues for in this book is not completely clear to me, unless it is just the revival of a metaphysical-anthropological framework grounded on a "strong" idea of human nature. Against such perspective I argue for the necessity to keep the difference between posthumanism and transhumanism and to go back to the original meaning of physis.

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