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  • 51.
    Rova, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    The influence of migration on the maintenance of assortative mating2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid speciation has been shown to be plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographical isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. However, standard theory predicts that extremely low migration rates are enough to hinder divergence between populations, and thus speciation. In this study we asked how low migration rates need to be for divergence to occur and hence for speciation to be possible. We experimentally transferred individual seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, between populations in the laboratory, thus mimicking different rates of migration, and used deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as an indicator of assortative mating. We found that assortative mating was upheld for several generations in populations experiencing immigration rates of up to 8% or 13-15 immigrants per generation, despite the lack of adaptive divergence and trade-offs between the exchanging populations. However, after some generations of extensive gene flow and in the absence of selection against hybrids, the system of assortative mating faltered. Based on our results, we conclude that selection is likely to be an important factor in speciation in the face of gene flow and that without it divergence will simply come to a halt.

  • 52.
    Rönn, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Katvala, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The costs of mating and egg production in Callosobruchus seed beetles2006In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 335-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The net cost of reproduction, as well as the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan, is affected by many male and female adaptations. Because several of these are sexually selected, we expect the cost of reproduction to be affected by sexual selection. For example, traits favoured in males by sexual selection may cause elevated costs of mating for females. We conducted a series of experiments where we independently varied female exposure to males and access to oviposition substrates in six congeneric seed beetle species (Callosobruchus spp.). These experiments allowed us to partition the cost of reproduction for females into the cost of mating and the cost of egg production. The results show that there is dramatic variation across species in the costs and benefits of a single mating in terms of effects on female lifespan. In some species, females lived for longer after mating once while others showed a net cost of mating expressed as a reduction in lifespan. Lifelong cohabitation with males resulted in a shortened lifespan for females of all species but the extent to which cohabitation reduced female lifespan varied across species. We also found partial support for a depressed lifetime egg production as a result of cohabitation with males. Collectively, our results reveal a remarkable variation across species in the costs and benefits of mating within this clade of closely related and ecologically uniform species. We conclude that key traits, which influence the economics of sexual interactions and reproduction, have evolved rapidly in this model system.

     

  • 53.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    Patterns of conspecific brood parasitism in zebra finches2010In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 1329-1337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP) brings the obvious fitness advantage of decreased breeding costs. However, the successful development of parasitic eggs depends on appropriate timing in relation to the host's own eggs. A detailed documentation of CBP requires full knowledge of parentage. We achieved this in a captive population of zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, breeding in aviaries. The overall frequency of CBP was relatively high (21% of all host clutches, 5.4% of all eggs in host clutches) and comparable to what has been found in the wild in this species. A large proportion of paired females adopted a mixed strategy, laying one or two additional eggs in other nests before initiating their own clutches. Females showed a high individual consistency in whether they adopted a pure nonparasitic strategy or a mixed strategy, which is indicative of individual specialization. About 38% of all eggs laid outside a pair's own nest were incubated by host pairs and can thus be considered successfully parasitic. No paired females were purely parasitic but unpaired females used CBP as a best of a bad job strategy. Hosts were targeted during the early phase of clutch initiation with the majority of parasitic eggs laid 0-5 days before the onset of incubation and usually before the host commenced egg laying. We did not find evidence that particular types of host females were targeted. The within-female repeatability of being a host was estimated to be negative. Overall, the systematic temporal patterns indicate targeted CBP behaviour in zebra finches.

  • 54. Sloman, KA
    et al.
    Baker, D
    Winberg, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Wilson, RW
    Are there physiological correlates of dominance in natural trout populations?2008In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 76, no Part 4, p. 1279-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition over limited resources can lead to serious injury and may be minimized by the formation of social hierarchies. However, there are often physiological consequences associated with social status which can affect both dominant and subordinate animals. In salmonid fish, at least under laboratory conditions, physiological costs are mainly associated with subordinance. The structure of hierarchies formed among salmonids in the laboratory is likely to be different from those formed in complex natural environments, and yet little is known about the physiological consequences of dominance in the field. We tested the hypothesis that there are specific physiological correlates associated with specific social behaviours among natural populations of juvenile salmonid fish by observing brown trout, Salmo trutta, in small streams. Fish were tagged and their behaviour observed by video recording over several weeks at three sites along Devonport Leat (Devon, U.K.). Although diet and tissue metal concentrations differed between sites, the behaviour of the fish at the three sites was very similar. At the end of the observation period, we sampled fish for parameters including specific growth rate, plasma cortisol and osmolality, brain monoamines and gut contents. There was no relationship between social status and growth rates but, contrary to laboratory predictions, dominant fish had higher plasma cortisol. We conclude that physiological correlates of dominance do exist among these natural fish populations but they may differ to those found in the laboratory. Further research is now required to test a wider range of physiologies in the field.

  • 55.
    South, Sandra H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Male, but not female, preference for an ornament expressed in both sexes of the polygynous mosquito Sabethes cyaneus2011In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 645-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of female ornaments in species with a female-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) and intense female competition is well understood. In contrast, the adaptive value of female ornaments in species with a male-biased OSR and male competition remains largely unresolved. Mutual mate choice is one proposed explanation for the evolution of ornaments expressed in both males and females, a hypothesis supported by the increasing empirical evidence of mutual mate choice in species with a male-biased OSR. None the less, the evolution of female ornaments remains constrained, as investment in ornaments may detract from any direct benefits being signalled to males and females may fail to reap benefits sufficient to outweigh the costs of signalling. We used phenotypic engineering (i.e. manipulation of ornament size) to ask whether both sexes show a preference for sexually homologous ornaments in the polygynous mosquito, Sabethes cyaneus. We found a directional male preference for ornamented females, but no female preference for ornamented males. There was no evidence of assortative mating based on ornament size. We discuss these results within the framework of current sexual selection theory, addressing implications for both the evolution of male mate choice and the evolution of female ornaments.

  • 56.
    Sundberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Dixon, Andrew
    Old, colourful male yellowhammers, Emberiza citrinella, benefit from extra-pair copulations1996In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 52, p. 113-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of extra-pair paternity was determined in broods of the yellowhammer using single-locus DNA fingerprinting. Of 32 analysed clutches, 69% contained at least one extra-pair young. Out of 123 nestlings, 37% were extra-pair sired young. The extra-pair male could be assigned to 23 (50%) nestlings. Successful extra-pair males were all at least 3 years old although both younger and older males suffered from extra-pair paternity. Extra-pair males were also significantly more colourful than pair males, but did not differ in other characters. Colour did not differ between males with or without extra-pair young. The frequency of extra-pair young was not related to breeding density and identified extra-pair males were not necessarily nearest neighbours, giving further evidence that extra-pair males are not chosen at random. Since females do not obtain anything but sperm from extra-pair males, the results suggest that females prefer older and more colourful males, contributing good or attractive genes, as indicated by their plumage. Consequently, old, colourful extra-pair males, and possibly females, are likely to benefit from extra-pair copulations.

  • 57.
    Sundberg, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Larsson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Male Coloration As An Indicator Of Parental Quality In The Yellowhammer, Emberiza-Citrinella1994In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 885-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In monogamous species the amount and quality of male parental care may be essential for females since fitness depends on number and quality of offspring. Degree of male ornamentation may be used by females as an indicator of paternal effort and thus may be an important factor in mate choice situations. This was tested by observing feeding rates of yellowhammers, a species showing considerable colour variation. Male and female feeding rates were inter-correlated and were both negatively correlated with male coloration. Relative male feeding rate was not correlated with male colour. In spite of a low feeding rate by more highly coloured older males, no effect was found on nestling condition, indicating compensation by high quality food or bigger load per nest visit. Nevertheless, coloration was positively related to the number of fledged young for old males and so may indicate parental quality. These results suggest that older and generally more colourful males may be more experienced and of higher quality and so may be preferred by females.

  • 58.
    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.
    et al.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Gen Syst Studies, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 1538902, Japan.
    Griesser, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Syntactic rules in avian vocal sequences as a window into the evolution of compositionality2019In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 151, p. 267-274Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the origins and evolution of language remains a deep challenge, because its complexity and expressive power are unparalleled in the animal world. One of the key features of language is that the meaning of an expression is determined both by the meanings of its constituent parts and the syntactic rules used to combine them; known as the principle of compositionality. Although compositionality has been considered unique to language, recent field studies suggest that compositionality may have also evolved in vocal combinations in nonhuman animals. Here, we discuss how compositionality can be explored in animal communication systems and review recent evidence that birds use an ordering rule to generate compositional expressions composed of meaningful calls. Also, we suggest that bird-songs, particularly when incorporating calls, may represent unrecognized examples of compositionality in animal communication. Finally, we outline future research directions to uncover the development, neural mechanisms and evolution of compositionality. 

  • 59.
    Szorkovszky, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Biol Sci, Bristol, Avon, England;Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buechel, Severine D.
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Romensky, Maxym
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Rosén, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pelckmans, Kristiaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Automatic control.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm Univ, Zool Dept, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Assortative interactions revealed by sorting of animal groups2018In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 142, p. 165-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals living in groups can show substantial variation in social traits and this affects their social organization. However, as the specific mechanisms driving this organization are difficult to identify in already organized groups typically found in the wild, the contribution of interindividual variation to group level behaviour remains enigmatic. Here, we present results of an experiment to create and compare groups that vary in social organization, and study how individual behaviour varies between these groups. We iteratively sorted individuals between groups of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, by ranking the groups according to their directional alignment and then mixing similar groups. Over the rounds of sorting the consistency of the group rankings increased, producing groups that varied significantly in key social behaviours such as collective activity and group cohesion. The repeatability of the underlying individual behaviour was then estimated by comparing the experimental data to simulations. At the level of basic locomotion, individuals in more coordinated groups displayed stronger interactions with the centre of the group, and weaker interactions with their nearest neighbours. We propose that this provides the basis for a passive phenotypic assortment mechanism that may explain the structures of social networks in the wild.

  • 60. Tan, Cedric K. W.
    et al.
    Lövlie, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Pizzari, Tommaso
    Wigby, Stuart
    No evidence for precopulatory inbreeding avoidance in Drosophila melanogaster2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1433-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inbreeding depression can lead to the evolution of inbreeding avoidance before or after mating. However, despite widespread evidence of inbreeding depression, studies of inbreeding avoidance have generated different results across populations or species. These differences could potentially reflect the confounding effects of factors such as magnitude of inbreeding depression, sex, social familiarity, state of primary sexual receptivity and mating history. We examined the influence of these proximate factors on precopulatory inbreeding avoidance in a laboratory-adapted, outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster. We found a significant but low coefficient of inbreeding depression based on egg-adult viability measures. Controlling for sex-specific responses, familiarity, sexual receptivity and mating history, we found no evidence of precopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Mate choice of virgins was random with respect to relatedness and measurements of courtship frequency, mating latency and mating duration did not indicate any preference for unrelated partners. In fact, the only evidence for differential sexual behaviour in response to relatedness was that males first mated to unrelated females were significantly faster to remate with related females than with unrelated females. These results suggest that inbreeding avoidance may be limited in outbred populations of D. melanogaster, and fit theoretical predictions that inbreeding is not selected against in either sex when the coefficient of inbreeding depression is relatively low.

  • 61.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Chicago, Comm Evolutionary Biol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Repetition rate of calls used in multiple contexts communicates presence of predators to nestlings and adult birds2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 103, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In multispecies communities, animals may come to recognize the signals of other species both by responding to common signal features and by learning about associations between signals and relevant threats. However, some signals are produced in multiple contexts. To a given receiver, such a signal may only sometimes be relevant. Here, I demonstrate that receivers use contextual variation in signal form as a cue to their relevance. Individuals from 15 species of songbirds repeated their calls rapidly when confronting widely threatening predators, but repeated the same calls more slowly during other types of social interactions. In playback experiments, repetition rate was a cue to nestling Ficedula flycatchers, which reduced their activity in response to quickly but not slowly repeated calls, and also to adult birds from a variety of species, which responded more strongly to the calls of their own and other species produced at faster rates. These results show that repetition rate is an innate or early learned contextual cue and, in combination with learning about heterospecific signals, allows receivers to fine-tune their responses to the calls of their own and other species according to their relevance, suggesting that simple rules facilitate widespread heterospecific communication networks. (C) 2015 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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