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  • 51.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stålenheim, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Sjödén, Per-Olow
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mentally disordered offenders' abilities in occupational performance and social participation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aim was to describe occupational performance (OP) and social participation (SP) of mentally disordered offenders (MDO), and to compare professionals’ and MDOs’ appraisals of these abilities. Also, diagnostic groups and groups with/without substance related disorders were compared with regard to OP and SP. Self-report instruments (Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Self-Efficacy Scale, Importance scale, Interview Schedule for Social Interaction), observations (Allen Cognitive Level Screen), and register data (Psychosocial and Environment Problems—Axis IV; Global Assessment of Functioning Scale—Axis V; Assessment Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments) were utilized. Demographic and register data were collected from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Seventy-four out of 161 incarcerated subjects (46%), selected consecutively after informed consent during a period of 16 months, were interviewed on their hospital wards. The MDOs reported some disability in performing occupations and participating in community life. However, they were satisfied with their performance and participation, implying limited awareness of their disabilities. The professionals judged the MDOs as having problems with social participation, and major, longstanding disablements in several areas. Subjects with schizophrenia scored lower in some OP and SP variables than did subjects with personality disorders and other mental disorders. The results suggest that a large proportion of MDOs need support to enable their community living.

  • 52. Lips, E. S.
    et al.
    Cornelisse, L. N.
    Toonen, R. F.
    Min, J. L.
    Hultman, C. M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Holmans, P. A.
    O'Donovan, M. C.
    Purcell, S. M.
    Smit, A. B.
    Verhage, M.
    Sullivan, P. F.
    Visscher, P. M.
    Posthuma, D.
    Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia2012In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 996-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of similar to 1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 7.6 x 10(-11)) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P < 0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P = 2.0 x 10(-4)), excitability (P = 9.0 x 10(-4)) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P = 2.4 x 10(-3)). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry (2012) 17, 996-1006; doi:10.1038/mp.2011.117; published online 20 September 2011

  • 53.
    Lundin, Tom
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Jansson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Traumatic impact of a fire disaster on survivors: A 25-year follow-up of the 1978 hotel fire in Borås, Sweden2007In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term psychological and mental health outcomes among survivors of a disastrous hotel fire. A 25-year follow-up investigation among adolescent and young adult survivors of a fire disaster was conducted in Boras, Sweden. A self-evaluation questionnaire and four self-rating scales - the IES-22, PTSS-10, GHQ-28 and SoC - were sent by mail to the participants. The results from the self-reported data showed low levels of psychiatric illness. Moreover, the respondents reported a low level of traumatic stress symptoms. More than 50% of the participants stated that the fire had a determining effect on their lives. Sixteen (21.3%) respondents indicated that the fire still had an impact on their daily lives. Differences between men and women were reported in most of the self-rating scales. The results indicate that a traumatizing experience (such as a fire disaster) still had a small effect on psychological health in a long-term perspective.

  • 54.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Posttraumatiskt stressyndrom alltmer i fokus: diagnos och riskfaktorer välbeskrivna men oklart hur vanligt tillståndet är2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 44, p. 3369-3372Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Uttervall, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Överlevande svenskar efter tsunamin: 3-årsuppföljning visar relativt god hälsa – men många har problem2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 41, no 106, p. 2604-2606Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mental health situation among the population of Swedish tsunami survivors investigated three years after the disaster was relatively good, and appeared to have improved compared to the earlier investigation in spring 2006, 14-months post-tsunami. Women appeared to suffer from reactions and discomfort more than men did. Even though the health situation was good for the majority of participants, there were still a considerable minority with problems after the tsunami, for instance, the most seriously stricken who were exposed to a life-threatening situation or who had lost loved ones. Further studies will determine how their health develops.

  • 56.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Psykologisk första hjälp i samband med katastrofer och olyckor: Psychological first aid after disasters and accidents2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 39, p. 2855-2856Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Personality disorders in a Swedish peacekeeping unit2005In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge about the incidence of personality disorders and their consequences among peacekeepers. Moreover, most studies are follow-up studies in which, if at all, personality traits are screened for after the soldiers have left their service abroad. The aim of this paper was to study personality disorders in a longitudinal perspective. The method used was to screen the personnel in a Swedish mechanized battalion serving in Bosnia from March until October 1996 on four occasions: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment and 1 year after deployment. Serving in the battalion were 724 individuals of whom 516 took part in the survey. The screening instrument used was the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). The result shows that the rate of personality disorders were on the same level, or a little bit lower, than in the general population. Moreover, personality disorders were related to impaired general mental health and to reported traumatic experiences. Personality disorders also seemed to contribute to poor mental health 1 year after returning home from a mission abroad. The implications of these results for the future selection of peacekeepers are discussed.

  • 58.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Suicide Rate Among Former Swedish Peacekeeping Personnel2007In: Military medicine, ISSN 0026-4075, E-ISSN 1930-613X, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 278-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peacekeeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  • 59.
    Nilsson, Björn M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Hultman, Christina M
    Wiesel, Fritz-Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Niacin skin-flush response and electrodermal activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls2006In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 74, no 5, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with schizophrenia have in different studies shown reduced niacin sensitivity and lower electrodermal activity (EDA) after auditory stimulation. Peripheral mediation of prostaglandins may have a physiological role in both responses. This motivates study of both niacin response and electrodermal responding in the same patients with schizophrenia. Thirty patients with schizophrenia and 17 controls were investigated with EDA and thereafter given 200 mg niacin orally with continuous assessment of skin temperature. The patients showed a delayed temperature increase after niacin ingestion (P = 0.002) and a higher frequency of electrodermal non-responding (P < 0.05). Response/non-response for niacin correlated with EDA response/non-response in the patient group (P = 0.009). The niacin test revealed a slower vasodilation reaction in the patients. The association between response patterns for the niacin test and EDA suggests that a common aberration in skin physiology may be of importance for both reactions in schizophrenia.

  • 60. Ohlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    Gunne, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    The treatment goal in maintenance treatment of heroin addiction ought to be more than retention2013In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61. Olsson, Sara K.
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Martin
    Saetre, Peter
    Lindström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Jönsson, Erik G.
    Nordin, Conny
    Engberg, Göran
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Landén, Mikael
    Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder2010In: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, ISSN 1180-4882, E-ISSN 1488-2434, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 195-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) This astrocyte] derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive functiona We measured the levels of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid T vSyU of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers to investigate the putative involvement of KYNA in bipolar disorder. Methods: We obtained CSF by lumbar puncture from 23 healthy men and 31 euthymic men with bipolar disorder. We analyzed the samples using high] performance liquid chromatography. Results: Patients with bipolar disorder had increased levels of KYNA in their CSF compared with healthy volunteers (1.71 nM, standard error of the mean [SEM] cad, va dad, nM, SEM cacln p = 0.002. The levels of KYNA were positively correlated with age among bipolar patients but not healthy volunteersa Limitations: The influence of ongoing drug treatment among patients cannot be ruled outa We conducted our study during the euthymic phase of the diseasea Conclusion: Brain KYNA levels are increased in euthymic men with bipolar disorder. In addition, KYNA levels increased with age in these patientsa These findings indicate shared mechanisms between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Elevated levels of brain KYNA may provide further insight to the pathophysiology and progression of bipolar disorder.

  • 62.
    Pontén, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Eriksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Theophylline causes dose dependent persistent behavioural changes in neonatal miceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background

    Theophylline is used in clinic to promote breathing in premature infants and in neonates. Caffeine, a compound also belonging to the group of xanthenes, is known to increase apoptosis and to cause behavioural defects. The present study was conducted to investigate whether theophylline can induce neuronal death and behavioural disturbances when administered to neonatal mice during a period of brain growth corresponding to premature infants and an approximately week 13 to 24.

    Methods

    Neonatal mice, three days old, were exposed to theophylline at doses 1, 5, or 25 mg/kg body weight twice daily for five consecutive days. Controls received in the same manner the vehicle, saline. Neuronal death was assessed in whole brain sections by Fluoro Jade 24 hours after the last exposure to theophylline. Adult mice, age 55 to 63 days old, were observed for spontaneous behavior in a novel home environment, learning and memory in a radial arm maze and for anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze.

    Results

    Adult mice neonatally exposed to theophylline showed significant dose-response changes in all three behavioural tests. The lowest dose to induce any behavioral defects was 5 mg/kg body weight. No significant alterations in neuronal death were observed in the neonatal brains.

    Conclusion

    The present study shows that neonatal exposure to theophylline can cause behavioural defects related to learning and memory impairments and reduced cognitive function in young adult mice.

     

  • 63.
    Pontén, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Viberg, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Eriksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Clonidine abolishes the adverse effects on apoptosis and behaviour after neonatal ketamine exposure in mice2012In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1058-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    An increasing amount of both experimental and epidemiological data indicates that neonatal anaesthesia causes disruption of normal brain development in rodents and primates, as manifested by acute increased apoptosis and long-lasting altered behaviour and learning. It is necessary to seek strategies that avoid the possible adverse effects after anaesthesia. Our purpose is to show that increased apoptosis and behavioural alterations after ketamine exposure during this period may be prevented by clonidine, a compound already used by paediatric anaesthetists for sedation.

    Methods

    To investigate the protective properties of clonidine pre-treatment, five groups of 10-day-old mice were injected with either ketamine 50 mg/kg, clonidine 40 μg/kg, ketamine 50 mg/kg 30 min after 10 μg/kg clonidine, ketamine 50 mg/kg 30 min after 40 μg/kg clonidine or saline (control). Apoptosis was measured 24 h after treatment using Flouro-Jade staining. Spontaneous activity in a novel environment was tested at an age of 55 days.

    Results

    Pre-treatment with 40 μg/kg clonidine, but not 10 μg/kg clonidine, 30 min before ketamine exposure abolished ketamine-induced apoptosis and the behavioural changes observed in the young adult mice. The mice exposed to clonidine alone showed no differences from the saline-treated (control) mice.

    Conclusion

    The administration of clonidine eliminated the adverse effects of ketamine in this mouse model, suggesting a possible strategy for protection. Alone, clonidine did not cause any adverse effects in these tests.

  • 64. Ruderfer, Douglas M.
    et al.
    Chambert, Kim
    Moran, Jennifer
    Talkowski, Michael
    Chen, Elizabeth S.
    Gigek, Carolina
    Gusella, James F.
    Blackwood, Douglas H.
    Corvin, Aiden
    Gurling, Hugh M.
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Kirov, George
    Magnusson, Patrick
    O'Donovan, Michael C.
    Owen, Michael J.
    Pato, Carlos
    St Clair, David
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    Purcell, Shaun M.
    Sklar, Pamela
    Ernst, Carl
    Mosaic copy number variation in schizophrenia2013In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1007-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reports suggest that somatic structural changes occur in the human genome, but how these genomic alterations might contribute to disease is unknown. Using samples collected as part of the International Schizophrenia Consortium (schizophrenia, n = 3518; control, n = 4238) recruited across multiple university research centers, we assessed single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays for evidence of chromosomal anomalies. Data from genotyping arrays on each individual were processed using Birdsuite and analyzed with PLINK. We validated potential chromosomal anomalies using custom nanostring probes and quantitative PCR. We estimate chromosomal alterations in the schizophrenia population to be 0.42%, which is not significantly different from controls (0.26%). We identified and validated a set of four extremely large (>10 Mb) chromosomal anomalies in subjects with schizophrenia, including a chromosome 8 trisomy and deletion of the q arm of chromosome 7. These data demonstrate that chromosomal anomalies are present at low frequency in blood cells of both control and schizophrenia subjects.

  • 65.
    Smedje, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Schwan, S.
    Hallberg, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Hallberg, P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Onset of Kleine-Levin Syndrome in association with isotretinoin treatment2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 6, p. 946-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic retinoid isotretinoin is an effective treatment option for severe forms of acne vulgaris. However, several reports indicate that some patients experience altered central nervous system functions in association with treatment. We present here the first description of the onset of Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS), a rare disorder characterised by periodic hypersomnia and cognitive and behavioural symptoms, in close temporal relation to the start of isotretinoin treatment. We also discuss the biological potential of retinoids to affect sleep. Conclusions: In light of a documented potential of retinoids to modulate sleep-wake regulation, the present case suggests that isotretinoin may rarely trigger the onset of KLS.

  • 66. Sommerfelt, K
    et al.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Skranes, J
    Andersson, H W
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Ellertsen, B
    Markestad, T
    Jacobsen, G
    Hoffman, H J
    Bakketeig, L S
    Neuropsychologic and Motor Function in Small-for-Gestation Preschoolers2002In: Pediatric Neurology, ISSN 0887-8994, E-ISSN 1873-5150, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neuropsychologic and motor performance in term small-for-gestation preschool children. A patient-based sample of 311 5-year-old children with birth weights less than the fifteenth percentile for gestation was compared with a random sample of 321 appropriate-for-gestation control subjects. The main assessment tools were subscales from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised, subscales from the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, tests of manual dexterity and figure copying, and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The small-for-gestation children had mean scores on tests of visuospatial and visuomotor abilities that were one fourth standard deviation lower than appropriate-for-gestation control subjects and slightly lower scores on manual dexterity. The small-for-gestation children were comparable to appropriate-for-gestation children regarding motor performance. We therefore conclude that the neuropsychologic and neuromotor performance in preschool years of term small-for-gestation children is reassuring.

  • 67.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Parental developmental assessment of 18-month-old children:: reliability and predictive value1987In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability and predictive validity of a parental screening instrument based on the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale was investigated in a Swedish population of 3245 18-month-old children. Parental and professional assessments were compared. 2 per cent of low-scoring children were tested with the Griffiths Scale, and correlation with parental assessment was 0.87. The prevalence of mental retardation and of learning disabilities were investigated in follow-up studies at eight and 14 years, and these studies identified all mentally retarded children at those ages among the low-scoring or attrition cases at 18 months. Other learning disabilities were reported for 51.2 per cent of low-scoring children, compared with 18.5 per cent of controls. A comparison between parental assessment scores and test scores at 18 months with follow-up results showed that the two assessment methods yielded similar predictions.

  • 68.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Utvecklingsstördas livskvalitet2000In: Perspektiv på funktionshinder och handikapp / [ed] Magnus Tideman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000, Ny utg.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Sonnander, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Ramund, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sweden2003In: Culture and Children's Intelligence: Cross-Cultural Analysis of the WISC-III / [ed] James Gerogas, Lawrence G Weiss, Fon J.R. van de Vijver, Donald h Saklofske, San Diego/London: Academic Press , 2003, p. 149-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Stålberg, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Haglund, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axelsson, Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Kieler, Helle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Prenatal ultrasound scanning and the risk of schizophrenia and other psychoses2007In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 577-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal ultrasound exposure has been associated with increased prevalence of left-hand or mixed-hand preference, and has been suggested to affect the normal lateralization of the fetal brain. Atypical lateralization is more common in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated possible associations of prenatal ultrasound with schizophrenia and other psychoses. METHODS: We identified a cohort of individuals born in Sweden 1973-1978. During this period, one Swedish hospital (Malmö University Hospital) performed prenatal ultrasound on a routine basis, and all individuals born at that hospital were considered exposed to ultrasound. Children born at hospitals where ultrasound was not used routinely or selectively were considered unexposed. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate the effect of ultrasound exposure on the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. RESULTS: In all, 370,945 individuals were included in the study, of whom 13,212 were exposed to ultrasound. The exposed group demonstrated a tendency toward a higher risk of schizophrenia (among men, crude incidence rate ratio = 1.58 [95% confidence interval = 0.99-2.51]; among women, 1.26 [0.62-2.55]). However, men and women born in several of the 7 tertiary level hospitals without ultrasound scanning also had higher risks of schizophrenia compared with those born in other hospitals. For other psychoses there were no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: No clear associations between prenatal ultrasound exposure and schizophrenia or other psychoses were found. Other factors related to place of birth might have influenced the results.

  • 71. Svensson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Sandin, Sven
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Fertility of first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: A three generation perspective2007In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 91, no 1-3, p. 238-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the fertility in three generations; fertility of parents, siblings and offspring to patients with schizophrenia, to test the hypothesis that the decreased reproductive rate in the patients is compensated by an increased rate in their first-degree relatives. A population-based national database was created by linking the Swedish Multi-Generation and Hospital Discharge Registers. To maximize follow-up time for schizophrenia and reproductive history, three birth cohorts were selected: parental generation, born 1918–1927 (n=274464); affected generation, born 1932–1941 (n=108502) and offspring to affected generation, born 1951–1960 (n=103105). Ratios of estimated mean number of offspring were measured (fertility ratios), comparing the study subjects to the general population. The fertility among males with schizophrenia was decreased by over 70% (fertility ratiopatients/population=0.29, 95% CI 0.25–0.35), whereas female patients had less than half as many offspring as the general female population (fertility ratiopatients/population=0.48, 95% CI 0.42–0.55). When accounting for selection bias of larger families, no statistically significant difference was found among parents of patients with and without a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Further, the fertility among siblings of schizophrenic patients did not differ from the general population. A reduction in fertility was found among offspring to patients with schizophrenia, male offspring had 12% fewer offspring (fertility ratiooffspring/population=0.88, 95%CI 0.77–1.01), while female offspring had 6% fewer offspring (fertility ratiooffspring/population=0.94, 95% CI 0.84–1.05). In conclusion, we found reduced fertility in patients with schizophrenia and among their offspring that was not compensated by higher parental or sibling fertility.

  • 72. Svensson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Sandin, Sven
    Oberg, Sara
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Familial aggregation of schizophrenia: The moderating effect of age at onset, parental immigration, paternal age and season of birth2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: An abundance of evidence has firmly established the familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine how age at onset, parental characteristics and season of birth modify the familiality in schizophrenia.

    Methods: A population-based cohort was created by linking the Swedish Multi-Generation and Hospital Discharge Registers. Among 5,075,998 full siblings born between 1932 through to 1990, 16,346 cases of schizophrenia were identified. Familial aggregation was measured by the sibling recurrence-risk ratio, defined as the risk of schizophrenia among full siblings of schizophrenia patients compared with the risk among siblings of unaffected people.

    Results: We found a statistically significantly lower recurrence-risk ratio in siblings of later onset cases (7.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.7-7.9) than of early onset cases (10.8; 95% CI 9.4-12.2). A lower recurrence-risk ratio was observed among offspring to fathers above 40 years (6.3; 95% CI 5.3-7.3) as compared with offspring of younger fathers (8.6; 95% CI 8.0-9.3). Further, among offspring to parents born outside Sweden the recurrence-risk ratio was statistically significantly lower (maternal immigrants 4.8; 95% CI 4.0-5.7, paternal immigrants 5.7; 95% CI 4.6-6.9) than among offspring to parents born in Sweden.

    Conclusions: The familial aggregation of schizophrenia was reduced by higher age at onset, advancing paternal age and immigrant status of parents.

  • 73.
    Sylvén, Sara M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Papadopoulos, Fotios C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Mpazakidis, Vassilios
    Helena Venizelos, Maternity Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Newborn gender as a predictor of postpartum mood disturbances in a sample of Swedish women2011In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition that affects about 10% of newly delivered women. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between offspring gender and risk for development of PPD in Sweden. The study was undertaken as part of the UPPSAT project, a population-based longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. From May 2006 to June 2007, women who gave birth at Uppsala University Hospital and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were asked to participate. The participating women filled out, at three points during the first 6 months after delivery, questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as well as questions concerning various lifestyle factors, medical history, breast feeding habits, social support parameters, and diet factors. No significant difference in risk of PPD in relation to baby gender could be shown 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery. However, women who gave birth to a male offspring had a significantly higher risk of self-reported depressive symptomatology 5 days after delivery. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for possible confounders in a logistic regression model. This longitudinal study demonstrates that, in Sweden, the gender of the offspring is not associated with a higher risk for self-reported postpartum depression in the mother 6 weeks or 6 months after delivery. The birth of a baby boy, however, gives the mother a higher risk of postpartum blues 5 days after delivery.

  • 74.
    Toll, Anna-Ma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Case Study on the Attitudes of Drug Addicts to Treatment1970In: British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol & Other Drugs, ISSN 0952-0481, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 139-158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Umb-Carlsson, Õie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Living Conditions of People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Study of Health, Housing, Work, Leisure and Social Relations in a Swedish County Population2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to describe mortality, health and living conditions in an administratively defined county population of people with intellectual disabilities born between 1959 and 1974 (N=213). The living conditions of persons with intellectual disabilities were compared with those of the general population. Moreover, the reports of relatives and staff were compared on the living conditions of people with intellectual disabilities. Information on the living conditions of persons with intellectual disabilities was provided by proxy (relative and staff) questionnaire reports and national welfare statistics conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB). Medical examination and medical case records were used to obtain data on health and medical services.

    People with intellectual disabilities lived in the community and took part in numerous common recreational and cultural activities. However, the comparison with the general population indicated clear differences in living conditions, particularly regarding employment and social life. In contrast, surprisingly little variation in living conditions was found in people with intellectual disabilities, despite varying ages and a wide range of level of disabilities. In addition, gender related differences of persons with intellectual disabilities were few when compared with those found in the general population. A wide range of physical and mental health problems were identified in the group with intellectual disabilities.

    Although a majority of persons with intellectual disabilities had access to a family doctor and attended regular health checks, a number of needs of specialist examinations were identified indicating shortcomings in the quality of health care.

    Analyses indicated differences in the reports of relatives and staff on living conditions of most domains included in the questionnaire. In general, disagreement was higher on subjective than on objective items. Relative and staff responders contribute dissimilar information that is related to varying viewpoints and different types of information.

    List of papers
    1. Comparison of the living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish County and in the general population
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of the living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish County and in the general population
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) as compared to the general population. People with ID born in Uppsala County between 1959 and 1974 constituted the study population (n = 213). Proxy questionnaire reports and national welfare statistics were used to collect data. The results demonstrated differences in living conditions between the two groups, particularly regarding employment and social life. Whereas people in general had paid employment, most people with ID were provided supported daily activities and their main income source was a disability benefit from the social insurance system. Typically, people with ID lived in a more restricted social environment and had more limited social life than the general population. The social network of people with ID was mainly bulit on family ties (parents and siblings); caregiver-care receiver relations and included few chosen friends (with or without disability). The authors suggest that the way in which help and support is provided by professionals using the special and generic help systems may actually prevent or restrain individuals with ID from influencing their own life course.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley Periodicals, 2005
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93773 (URN)10.1111/j.1741-1130.2005.00036.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-11-25 Created: 2005-11-25 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of reports by relatives and staff on living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of reports by relatives and staff on living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities
    2006 (English)In: Mental retardation (Washington, D.C. Print), ISSN 0047-6765, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Proxies typically serve as information providers in studies of persons with intellectual disabilities. However, little is known about the concordance between different proxy categories and how proxy characteristics influence the information provided. We compared 89 pairs of relative and staff reports on the living conditions of persons with intellectual disabilities, using percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa statistics. Results demonstrate differences between relative and staff reports for most of the domains investigated, with moderate agreement for objective items and fair agreement for subjective items. Relative and staff proxies contributed different information related to diverse viewpoints and varying types of information. Thus, we suggest that information provided by proxies should not be treated as being interchangeable but, rather, as complementary.

    Keywords
    Activities of Daily Living/*classification, Adult, Aged, Disability Evaluation, Female, Group Homes/*legislation & jurisprudence, Humans, Male, Mentally Disabled Persons/*legislation & jurisprudence/psychology, Middle Aged, Observer Variation, Proxy/*legislation & jurisprudence, Reproducibility of Results, Residence Characteristics, Social Environment, Socioeconomic Factors, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-23236 (URN)10.1352/0047-6765(2006)44[120:CORBRA]2.0.CO;2 (DOI)16689612 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-01-26 Created: 2007-01-26 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    3. A follow-up study of mortality, health conditions and associated disabilities of people with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish county
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A follow-up study of mortality, health conditions and associated disabilities of people with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish county
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 905-914Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the planning of services and health care for individuals with intellectual disability (ID), information is needed on the special requirements for habilitation and medical service and associated disabilities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An unselected consecutive series of 82 adult persons with ID was studied. The medical examination consisted of the individual's health condition, associated impairments and disabilities. Medical and habilitation services and support were studied. RESULTS: The results indicated that 71% of the persons in the series had severe and 29% mild ID. Forty-seven per cent of the persons with severe ID and 35% of those with mild ID had one or more additional central nervous system (CNS) disabilities. Of the persons with ID, 99% had access to a family doctor and 84% attended regular health visits. Notably, half of persons were referred to a specialist examination as a consequence of their present medical examination. Half of the persons with mental health problems were previously undiagnosed and only a few of these had access to a psychiatrist. CONCLUSION: Our study clearly demonstrates the magnitude and importance of neurological and psychiatric impairments in ID. The findings suggest a strong need for multidisciplinary health service.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104194 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00728.x (DOI)16287479 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    4. Living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities from a gender perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities from a gender perspective
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The role of gender has been a neglected issue in research on intellectual disability (ID). People with ID are generally treated as a homogenous group that are largely categorized by their level of ID. This study compared living conditions of women and men with ID and related the results to similarities and differences among the general population in corresponding age groups. METHODS: Persons with ID born in Uppsala County between 1959 and 1974 constituted the study sample. Information on the living conditions of 110 persons with ID was collected using questionnaires completed by relatives and staff. Information on living conditions of the general population was obtained through national welfare statistics conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB). RESULTS: In both samples corresponding diversities were revealed for type of employment/daily activities, where women worked in traditional female job sectors and men were occupied with traditional male jobs. Women and men with ID participated to about the same extent in recreational and cultural activities and on only four of the 19 activities listed in the questionnaire (visits to the cinema and library, reading books and practising hobbies alone) significant differences were observed. Among women and men in the general population, we found gender-related differences in 13 of the activities listed. However, with the exception of women more frequently visiting the library and reading books, the two samples demonstrated no corresponding gender-related differences. For the remaining six domains (finances, family and social relations, housing, transport, community participation and personal safety), no differences were noted between women and men with ID. This finding contrasted sharply with the differences found between women and men in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Surprisingly, the comparison yielded few differences in living conditions between women and men with ID compared with those found in women and men of the general population. This finding suggests that people with ID were treated as gender-neutral persons rather than as women and men with individual preferences and needs. Thus, it appears that having ID is a more important determinant than gender regarding living conditions for women and men with ID.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2006
    Keywords
    gender, intellectual disability, living conditions
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-104192 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00779.x (DOI)000237226600002 ()16629926 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
  • 76.
    Umb-Carlsson, Õie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Habilitation and Disability.
    Jansson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Support in Housing: A Comparison Between People with Psychiatric Disabilities and People with Intellectual Disabilities2009In: Community mental health journal, ISSN 0010-3853, E-ISSN 1573-2789, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study was to compare type of housing and support in housing in two groups (people with psychiatric disabilities and people with intellectual disabilities) typically dependent on support in everyday life. A second objective was to examine whether type of housing and support in housing were related to gender within the two groups. Information was obtained by available questionnaire reports provided by staff members. The results indicate unequal accessibility of support in housing in relation to the two groups. Moreover, the findings suggest that type of disability is a more determining factor than gender regarding support in housing.

     

  • 77.
    Umb-Carlsson, Õie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Comparison of the living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities in a Swedish County and in the general population2005In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) as compared to the general population. People with ID born in Uppsala County between 1959 and 1974 constituted the study population (n = 213). Proxy questionnaire reports and national welfare statistics were used to collect data. The results demonstrated differences in living conditions between the two groups, particularly regarding employment and social life. Whereas people in general had paid employment, most people with ID were provided supported daily activities and their main income source was a disability benefit from the social insurance system. Typically, people with ID lived in a more restricted social environment and had more limited social life than the general population. The social network of people with ID was mainly bulit on family ties (parents and siblings); caregiver-care receiver relations and included few chosen friends (with or without disability). The authors suggest that the way in which help and support is provided by professionals using the special and generic help systems may actually prevent or restrain individuals with ID from influencing their own life course.

  • 78.
    Umb-Carlsson, Õie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Habilitation and Disability.
    Living conditions of adults with intellectual disabilities from a gender perspective2006In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The role of gender has been a neglected issue in research on intellectual disability (ID). People with ID are generally treated as a homogenous group that are largely categorized by their level of ID. This study compared living conditions of women and men with ID and related the results to similarities and differences among the general population in corresponding age groups. METHODS: Persons with ID born in Uppsala County between 1959 and 1974 constituted the study sample. Information on the living conditions of 110 persons with ID was collected using questionnaires completed by relatives and staff. Information on living conditions of the general population was obtained through national welfare statistics conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB). RESULTS: In both samples corresponding diversities were revealed for type of employment/daily activities, where women worked in traditional female job sectors and men were occupied with traditional male jobs. Women and men with ID participated to about the same extent in recreational and cultural activities and on only four of the 19 activities listed in the questionnaire (visits to the cinema and library, reading books and practising hobbies alone) significant differences were observed. Among women and men in the general population, we found gender-related differences in 13 of the activities listed. However, with the exception of women more frequently visiting the library and reading books, the two samples demonstrated no corresponding gender-related differences. For the remaining six domains (finances, family and social relations, housing, transport, community participation and personal safety), no differences were noted between women and men with ID. This finding contrasted sharply with the differences found between women and men in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Surprisingly, the comparison yielded few differences in living conditions between women and men with ID compared with those found in women and men of the general population. This finding suggests that people with ID were treated as gender-neutral persons rather than as women and men with individual preferences and needs. Thus, it appears that having ID is a more important determinant than gender regarding living conditions for women and men with ID.

  • 79. Valdimarsdottir, Unnur
    et al.
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Harlow, Bernard
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Sparén, Pär
    Psychotic Illness in First-Time Mothers with No Previous Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study2009In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 194-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. Methods and Findings We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n=745,596). Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years) were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years) had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after) the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7); high birth weight (>= 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0); and diabetes (hazard ratio 0). Conclusions The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  • 80. Yip, Benjamin H
    et al.
    Björk, Camilla
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Hultman, Christina M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Pawitan, Yudi
    Covariance component models for multivariate binary traits in family data analysis2008In: Statistics in Medicine, ISSN 0277-6715, E-ISSN 1097-0258, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1086-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For family studies, there is now an established analytical framework for binary-trait outcomes within the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). However, the corresponding analysis of multivariate binary-trait (MBT) outcomes is still limited. Certain diseases, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have similarities in epidemiological features, risk factor patterns and intermediate phenotypes. To have a better etiological understanding, it is important to investigate the common genetic and environmental factors driving the comorbidity of the diseases. In this paper, we develop a suitable GLMM for MBT outcomes from extended families, such as nuclear, paternal- and maternal-halfsib families. We motivate our problem with real questions from psychiatric epidemiology and demonstrate how different substantive issues of comorbidity between two diseases can be put into the analytical framework.

  • 81.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Disentangling the web of fear: amygdala reactivity and functional connectivity in spider and snake phobia2009In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study effects of fear on brain activity, functional connectivity and brain-behavior relationships during symptom provocation in subjects with specific phobia. Positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O water was used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 16 women phobic of either snakes or spiders but not both. Subjects watched pictures of snakes and spiders serving either as phobic or fear-relevant, but non-phobic, control stimuli depending on phobia type. Presentation of phobic as compared with non-phobic cues was associated with increased activation of the right amygdala and cerebellum as well as the left visual cortex and circumscribed frontal areas. Activity decreased in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and ventromedial cortices as well as in the primary somatosensory cortex and auditory cortices. Furthermore, amygdala activation correlated positively with the subjective experience of distress. Connectivity analyses of activity in the phobic state revealed increased functional couplings between voxels in the right amygdala and the periamygdaloid area, fusiform gyrus and motor cortex. During non-phobic stimulation, prefrontal activity correlated negatively with amygdala rCBF, suggesting a phobia-related functional decoupling. These results suggest that visually elicited phobic reactions activate object recognition areas and deactivate prefrontal areas involved in cognitive control over emotion-triggering areas like the amygdala, resulting in motor readiness to support fight or flight.

  • 82. Öhlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Patterns of deviant career in the history of female methadone clients: an exploratory study2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe the drug career of 71 severely opioid-dependent women who had a history of selling sex and were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, from medical records and reports from social agencies and correctional institutions. The sequential pattern could be described in the following order: initiation of the first drug of abuse, opioid onset, initiation of selling sex, first non-methadone treatment episode, first sentence and, finally, methadone maintenance treatment. There were significant age differences and correlations between most of the events. The main correlation (r = 0.70) was the one between debut of opioid use and selling sex, which was confirmed in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition, a history of running away from home advanced the age at which the women started selling sex for those with an onset of opioid use at an older age than the mean of 18.4 years.

  • 83.
    Östergren, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Norharman-induced motoric impairment in mice: Neurodegeneration and glial activation in substantia nigra2006In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 313-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The beta-carboline norharman is present in cooked food and tobacco smoke and show structural resemblance to the neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously with norharman (3 and 10 mg/kg) twice per day for five consecutive days. Eighteen hours after the last dose an increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and fluoro-jade staining were demonstrated whereas the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were unchanged in the substantia nigra. Two weeks after the last treatment a decreased motor activity was observed whereas cognitive functions remained intact. In cultured PC12 cells norharman treatment induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased the number of caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells. The results demonstrate that norharman induced apoptosis in cultured cells as well as early neurodegeneration, glial activation and sustained motor deficits in mice and suggest that exposure to norharman may contribute to idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

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