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  • 51.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Religious Remnants of War?: The Role of Religious Disputes in the Global Decline of Armed Conflicts2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Research on Bias in Mediation: Policy Implications2013In: Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, ISSN 2168-7951, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 17-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important and disputed questions within the field of international mediation concerns the issue of bias. The question of bias cuts to the core of what mediation is and the ways in which mediators can help the parties reach peace. Focusing on research on the role of neutrality and bias in international peace diplomacy in civil wars, this article draws out the policy implications of my own empirically-based work on the role of bias in the mediation of internal armed conflicts. This article suggests that neutrality should not be part of the definition of mediators, and that instead type and degree of bias should be treated as independent variables. In fact, my research has shown that biased mediators, under some conditions, outperform neutral mediators, and also importantly, that it matters in civil wars to which side the mediator is biased: for the government or for the rebel-side. This does not imply that neutral mediators have no role to play in peacemaking processes around the globe: this article discusses explicitly the implications of my research on how neutral mediators should engage themselves in order to bring about peace in civil wars. The article also discusses the notion of “insider-partial”, that is, third party actors within the conflict societies and it suggested that it is important to tap these domestic resources for peace

  • 53.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sisk, Timothy D, 2009.International Mediation in Civil Wars:Bargaining with Bullets. London: Routledge. xiþ253 pp.ISBN 97804154770552010In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 257-257Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Missing Jihad: The East Asian Peace and the Global Patterns of Religious Conflicts2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Vad utrikesministern kan lära av Norge2006In: Internationella Studier, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 56.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Vem får fredspriset?2013In: Upsala Nya Tidning, ISSN 1104-0173, no 2013-10-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Aggestam, Karin
    Lund University.
    Karin Aggestam & Isak Svensson: Where Are the Women in International Mediation?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Brounéus, Karen
    University of Otago.
    Dialogue and Interethnic Trust: A Randomized Field Trial of ‘Sustained Dialogue’ in Ethiopia2013In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 563-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing field of peacebuilding has tried to mitigate interethnic conflicts by creating various sorts of dialogue programs, aiming to build social bonds and bridges between individuals from groups with a history of violent interaction. Yet, little is known of the effect of dialogue initiatives on interethnic relations and peacebuilding. Previous research on dialogue programs has suffered from the serious problem of selection bias: in other words, by not having comparable control groups it has not been possible to separate selection effects (that a program attracts certain types of people) from process effects (that programs have an effect on people). The present study is the first to examine the effects of a dialogue process in a context of political tension and ethnic violence through a randomized field experiment, thereby eliminating this problem. Using a stratified randomization process, participants were selected to a two-term Sustained Dialogue program at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, in 2009-10. Immediately following the dialogue intervention, an attitudinal survey and a behavioral trust game were conducted with a group of 716 participants and non-participants. We found that the program had a positive effect on participants' attitudes: it worked for decreasing mistrust and increasing the level of trust between people of different ethnic origins. Concurrently, however, participation in the dialogue program increased the sense of importance of ethnic identities as well as the perception of being ethnically discriminated - a somewhat counter-intuitive finding. Participation in dialogue processes had no significant effect on game behavior: participants in Sustained Dialogue were neither more trusting nor trustworthy than non-participants. This study shows the fruitfulness of randomized field-experiments in the area of peace and conflict research and finishes by identifying some important paths for future research.

  • 59.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Butcher, Charles
    University of Otago.
    “Manufacturing Dissent: Economic Structure and the Onset of Major Nonviolent Resistance Campaigns”,2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Butcher, Charles
    University of Otago.
    To Arms or To The Streets?: Explaining the Choice of Religious Groups between Nonviolent and Violent Insurrection Strategies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Buther, Charles
    University of Otago.
    To Arms or To The Streets? : Explaining the Choice of Religious Groups between Nonviolent and Violent Insurrection Strategies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Dursmaa, Allard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peacemaking in Who’s Authority?: Exploring Mandates in International Mediation of Civil Wars2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Harding, Emily
    University of Otago.
    How Holy Wars End: Exploring the Termination Patterns of Conflicts with Religious Dimensions in Asia2011In: Terrorism and Political Violence, ISSN 0954-6553, E-ISSN 1556-1836, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 133-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional wisdom suggests that armed conflicts with religious dimensions are inherently difficult to end. Religious appeals seem to make conflict issues indivisible. Yet, religious conflicts do end. In order to understand this puzzle, there is a need to examine the empirical records of the termination process of these types of armed conflicts. In this study, we argue that there is a potential for conflict resolution of religious conflicts without necessarily requiring concessions on the core beliefs and aspirations. We explore this proposition by examining the empirical pattern of Asian armed conflicts with explicit religious dimensions as stated incompatible positions and scrutinize how they are ended. Our empirical analysis reveals that none of the parties raising religious demands has made concessions on those demands. Yet, in about half of the cases, there are accommodations that do not imply concessions on the religious goals. Based on these findings, the study draws out the potential implications for the debate about the role of religion, armed conflicts, and peaceful resolution.

  • 64.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Schizophrenic Soothers: The International Community and Contrast Strategies for Peacemaking in Sri Lanka2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Community and Consent: Unarmed insurrections in non-democracies2011In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 97-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores popular challenges against the state through nonviolent means. Although previous research has started to examine the effect of these 'unarmed insurrections', the relationship between challenging the state apparatus (vertical legitimacy) and the state identity (horizontal legitimacy) has not been adequately addressed. We argue that unarmed insurrections are most likely to be successful when challenging the vertical, rather than the horizontal, legitimacy of the state. Studying data for 287 years of protests in 57 non-democratic countries during the period of 1946-2006, we find support for three implications of this proposition: 1) campaigns that demand governmental regime change are more successful than campaigns for territorial changes; 2) success is less likely when the identity of the insurgents and the government is split along ethnic lines; and 3) success is less likely when society is highly polarized along ethnic lines rather than being ethnically homogeneous. Thus, when the community is divided, the efforts to withdraw consent will be less effective. The study discusses the implications of these findings for policymakers and scholars interested in nonviolent strategic action.

  • 66.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From Bombs to Banners?: The Decline of Wars and the Rise of Unarmed Uprisings in East Asia2011In: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 219-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important debates in the field of peace and conflict research concerns whether wars andarmed conflicts are declining over time. The region where this plays out most markedly is East Asia: havingsuffered some of the world’s most brutal wars in the period prior to 1979, the region has since witnessed anera of relative peacefulness. This article asks whether the decline in the level of war in the region reflects achange in the means used to pursue conflicts: are conflicts that previously were fought with arms increasinglymanifested through unarmed uprisings based on strategic nonviolent actions? Examining the empiricalpatterns of armed conflicts and unarmed uprisings in the region, the article shows that there has been asubstantial increase in the number of unarmed uprisings in East Asia that runs parallel with a decrease in theintensity and frequency of warfare. Yet, the article also shows that these nonviolent uprisings do not follow onfrom previous armed campaigns, and that armed and unarmed campaigns differ in terms of aims, nature andoutcome. Thus, the article concludes that there is little support for the hypothesis that those who formerlyused violence have shifted to new nonviolent, unarmed tactics, and that we are rather witnessing two parallel,unrelated processes. These insights call for an enlargement of the research agenda of the ‘East Asian peace’.

  • 67.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lindgren, Mathilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Peace from the Inside: Exploring the Role of the Insider-Partial Mediator2013In: International Interactions, ISSN 0305-0629, E-ISSN 1547-7444, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 698-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous quantitative research on mediation in intrastate and interstate conflicts has highlighted the role of external mediators. This study represents the first effort to systematically explore the role of internal—insider-partial—mediators. We suggest that the insider-partial mediators bring important indigenous resources to a peace process and that they can complement external mediators by mitigating the bargaining problem of information failure. Exploring new data on the occurrence and effect of mediation in unarmed insurrections from 1970–2006, we find that the insider-partial mediators significantly increase the likelihood of negotiated agreements. This applies even after controlling for so-called selection effects, where external mediators are selected, or self-selected, into the most difficult conflict situations, whereas insider-partial mediators are utilized in conflict situations that are less severe; and where insider-partial mediators have a substantially higher frequency of activity in unarmed as compared to armed insurrections. We therefore conclude that the insider-partial mediators play an important and positive role in peacemaking that merits further exploration.

  • 68.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    From Revolution to Resolution:: Exploring Third‐Party Mediation in Nonviolent Uprisings2018In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 271-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonviolent protest movements have been prevalent in the last decades. While such movements aim for peaceful change, they are frequently followed by civil war. Previous research has shown that outcomes of nonviolent protests can be influenced by mediation, but because most previous research on conflict mediation has predominately examined armed conflicts, little is known about when and how mediation occurs. We argue that mediation in nonviolent uprisings is more likely when social conflicts generate negative externalities for the outside world, incentivizing third parties to act and conflict parties to accept their terms. After assessing the scope of the empirical field and identifying anchoring points for future research, we examine data on nonviolent campaigns between 1970 and 2014, investigating patterns in mediation incidence across time and space by situational characteristics, and by the origins of the mediator. We find that protest movements with a higher risk of violent escalation, marked by radicalism or state repression, are more likely to be mediated, and that mediation of nonviolent disputes has shifted from domestic to international mediators. We conclude by discussing theoretical implications for the field as well as suggesting some important policy and practice implications for the mediation of nonviolent conflicts.

  • 69.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Mediation and peace agreements2014In: SIPRI yearbook: armaments, disarmament and international security : 2014, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 43-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Patterns of Peacemaking: ” , 2015 (4),: When do we see international mediation, and what are the impacts?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Testing the Effect of the “ASEAN-way”: A Statistical Analysis of State Repression and Intrastate Armed Conflict2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Disputes over the Divine: Introducing the Religion and Armed Conflict (RELAC) data, 1975–20152018In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, ISSN 0022-0027, E-ISSN 1552-8766, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 1127-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the Religion and Armed Conflict (RELAC) data, 1975 to 2015, which is a new data set suitable for analyzing the causes, dynamics, and resolution of religious conflicts. It contains information about key religious dimensions of conflicts: whether the issue at stake is religious, the actors’ religious identity, and fine-grained data about the type and salience of religious claims. The article presents the major features of the data set and describes patterns and trends that shed new light on religious conflicts, for example, by demonstrating that conflicts over Islamist claims have become more prevalent. We also illustrate the utility of the data. For instance, we show that there is great variation in lethality across conflicts with different types of Islamist claims, thereby offering a more nuanced understanding of the deadliness of religious conflicts. RELAC should be a valuable resource for scholars, examining religious dimensions of intrastate armed conflicts.

  • 73.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    O´ Dochartaigh, Niall
    School of Political Science and Sociology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    The Exit Option: Mediation and the Termination of Negotiations in the Northern Ireland Conflict2013In: International Journal of Conflict Management, ISSN 1044-4068, E-ISSN 1758-8545, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 40-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the mediation exit option, which is one of the most important tactics available to any third party mediator.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper analyzes a crucial intermediary channel between the Irish Republican Army (hereafter IRA) and the British Government utilizing unique material from the private papers of the intermediary, Brendan Duddy, including diaries that cover periods of intensive communication, extensive interviews with the intermediary and with participants in this communication on both the British Government and Irish Republican sides as well as recently released official papers from the UK National Archives relating to this communication.

    Findings – The study reveals how the intermediary channel was used in order to get information, how the third party and the primary parties traded in asymmetries of information, and how the intermediary utilized the information advantage to increase the credibility of his threats of termination.

    Research limitations/implications – The study outlines an avenue for further research on the termination dynamics of mediation.

    Practical implications – Understanding the conditions for successfully using the exit-option is vital for policy-makers, in particular for peace diplomacy efforts in other contexts than the Northern Ireland one.

    Originality/value – The paper challenges previous explanations for why threats by mediators to call off further mediation attempts are successful and argues that a mediator can use the parties' informational dependency on him in order to increase his leverage and push the parties towards settlement.

  • 74.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Onken, Monika
    Global trends of peace negotiations and conflict mediation2015In: Global Trends 2015: Prospects for World Society / [ed] Michèle Roth, Cornelia Ulbert, and Tobias Debiel, Bonn/Duisburg: Development and Peace Foundation, Institute for Development and Peace/Käte Hamburger Kolleg - Centre for Global Cooperation Research , 2015, p. 65-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderbergh-Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Return of Victories?: The Growing Trend of Militancy in Ending Armed Conflicts2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Tønnesson, Stein
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    From People’s War to People Power: Unarmed insurgencies in East Asia2012In: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Svensson, Isak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Talking Peace: International Mediation in Armed Conflicts2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Söderbergh-Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Krisen kräver medling2014In: Dalademokraten, ISSN 1103-9183Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 79.
    Tønnesson, Stein
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Melander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Bjarnegård, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Schaftenaar, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The fragile peace in East and South East Asia2013In: SIPRI yearbook: Armaments, disarmament and international security. 2013, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 28-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Talking Peace: International Mediation in Armed Conflicts2014In: Journal of Peace Research, ISSN 0022-3433, E-ISSN 1460-3578, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 315-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediation, as a means to end armed conflicts, has gained prominence particularly in the past 25 years. This article reviews peace mediation research to date, with a particular focus on quantitative studies as well as on significant theoretical and conceptual works. The growing literature on international mediation has made considerable progress towards understanding the conditions under which mediation processes help bring armed conflicts to peaceful ends. Still, the field of international mediation faces a number of problems. In this article, we aim to identify findings on mediation frequency, strategies, bias, and coordination as well as on trends in defining success. Although previous research has generated important insights, there are still unresolved issues and discrepancies which future mediation research needs to explore. Many of the challenges that the field faces could be managed by giving greater attention to accumulative knowledge production, more disaggregated analysis, and a closer dialogue between policy and research.

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