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  • 51.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Georén, Peter
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Characterization and Modeling of Poly (ethylene imine)-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes2011Other (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Goerén, Peter
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Impedance Spectroscopy of [PEI-SiO2] Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes2010In: 9th International Meeting on Electrochromism, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, Peter
    Characterization of PEI-LiTFSI Electrolytes by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Viscosity Measurements2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    ChromoGenics AB.
    Pehlivan, Esat
    ChromoGenics AB.
    Runnerstrom, E. L.
    Milliron, D. J.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic device application of PEI:LiTFSI-based polymer electrolytes with added SiO2 and In2O3:Sn nanoparticles.2012In: IME-10. Tenth International meeting on Electrochromism, Holland, MI USA, August 12-16, 2012., 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Georen, Peter
    Electrical Modeling of PEI-LiTFSI Polymer Electrolytes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Runnerstrom, E.
    Milliron, D.J.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Near-infrared absorption in PEI-LiTFSI polymer electrolytes with added nanoparticles2012In: 2nd International Advances in Applied Physics and Materials Science Congress (2012) Antalya, Turkey, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Azens, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Polaron Absorption in Amorphous Tungsten Oxide Films2001In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 90, p. 1860-1863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous thin films of tungsten oxide were deposited by sputtering onto glass substrates covered by conductive indium–tin oxide. The density and stoichiometry were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Lithium ions were intercalated electrochemically into the films. The optical reflectance and transmittance were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 2.5 μm, at a number of intercalation levels. The polaron absorption peak becomes more symmetric and shifts to higher energies until an intercalation level of 0.25 to 0.3 Li+/W, where a saturation occurs. The shape of the polaron peak is in very good agreement with the theory of Bryksin [Fiz. Tverd. Tela 24, 1110 (1982)]. Within this model, the shift of the absorption peak is interpreted as an increase in the Fermi level of the material as more Li ions are inserted.

  • 58.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ederth, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrical Conductivity as a Function of Temperature in Amorphous Lithium Tungsten Oxide2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 329-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten oxide is a widely used electrochromic material for smart windows. In order to study the charge carriers involved in the electrochromic process, it is important to characterize the electrical transport in tungsten oxide. Substoichiometric amorphous tungsten oxide films were prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering. The films were electrochemically intercalated with lithium. The Li/W intercalation ratios for the tungsten oxide films were in the range 0.15–0.53. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements were performed in the temperature range 77–300 K for samples at different lithium intercalation levels. It was found that the data are consistent with the variable range hopping model.

  • 59.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, Jacob C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical absorption in lithiated tungsten oxide thin films: Experiment and theory2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 102, no 8, p. 083538-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous tungsten oxide exhibits electrochromism when intercalated with protons, lithium, sodium, and other ions. Thin films of the material were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering and then electrochemically intercalated with lithium. The optical absorption in the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm was measured for a number of lithium concentrations. The optical absorption shows a maximum for lithium/tungsten ratios of 0.3-0.5. The optical spectra can be fitted by a superposition of three Gaussian peaks, representing the three possible electronic transitions between W6+, W5+, and W4+ sites. The variation of the peak strength with lithium concentration is consistent with an extended site-saturation theory.

  • 60.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Influence of sputtering conditions on the solar and luminous optical properties of amorphous LixWoy thin films2005In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 573-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of amorphous tungsten oxide were deposited by sputtering onto glass substrates coated by conductive indium–tin oxide. The films were sputtered at different oxygen-to-argon flow ratios with different pressure and power. Elastic recoil detection analysis determined the density and the stoichiometry. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the films were amorphous. The films were electrochemically intercalated with lithium ions. At several intercalation levels of each film, the optical reflectance and transmittance were measured in the wavelength range 0.3–2.5 μm. We study the effect of various sputtering conditions on the coloration efficiency of the films and on the luminous and solar optical properties. The O2/Ar ratio and the sputter pressure determine to a large extent the optical absorption. As-deposited sputtered tungsten oxide with sufficiently little oxygen exhibits an absorption peak similar to the case of lithium intercalation.

  • 61.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Optical Absorption and Durability of Sputtered Amorphous Tungsten Oxide Films2003In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 165, no 1-4, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous tungsten oxide films were made by sputtering onto glass substrates that were coated with conductive tin doped indium oxide (ITO). The films were deposited at different O2/Ar gas flow ratios and different substoichiometric compositions was determined by Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Substoichiometric as-deposited tungsten oxide is transparent above a particular oxygen content and is blue below that content. This indicates that there are at least two kinds of defects in the substoichiometric films. The oxygen vacancies may be coupled to W5+ sites, giving rise to strong absorption, or to (W–W)10+ complexes in the transparent films. Lithium ions were electrochemically intercalated at several charge levels. At each level the transmittance and reflectance were measured in the wavelength range between 0.3 and 2.5 μm. We show that as-deposited blue films and intercalated transparent films display similarly shaped optical absorption bands. Electrochromic devices were made by laminating the tungsten oxide films with sputtered Ni–V oxide deposited on ITO-coated plastic substrates. The durability under electrochemical cycling was best for the case of very substoichiometric WO2.63 films.

  • 62.
    Berggren, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Optical Charge Transfer Absorption in Lithium-intercalated Tungsten Oxide Thin Films2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, no 88, p. 081906-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous tungsten oxide exhibits electrochromism when intercalated with protons or lithium ions.Thin films of the material were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering and subsequentlyelectrochemically intercalated with lithium. The optical absorption in the wavelength range300 to 2500 nm was measured for a number of lithium concentrations. All the spectra can be fittedby a superposition of three Gaussian peaks, representing the three possible electronic transitionsbetween W6+, W5+, and W4+ sites. The variation of the peak strength with lithium concentration isconsistent with the predictions of a statistical theory.

  • 63.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lansåker, Pia C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sputter-Deposited Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing2016In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In-Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 degrees C or 500 degrees C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 degrees C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 degrees C.

  • 64.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sputter deposited thermochromic VO2 thin films for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde sensing.2014In: 5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12-17 October 2014, Chania, Crete, Greece, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Characterization of nanocrystalline-nanoporous nickel oxide thin films prepared by reactive advanced gas deposition2019In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 227, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline-nanoporous Ni oxide is of much interest for gas sensors and other applications. Reactive advanced gas deposition (AGD) stands out as a particularly promising technique for making thin films of this material owing to the techniques ability to separate between the growth of individual nanoparticles and their subsequent deposition to create a consolidated material on a substrate. Here we report on the characterization of Ni oxide films, made by reactive AGD, by several methods. X-ray diffractometry showed that the films had a face centered cubic NiO structure, and scanning electron microscopy indicated a compact nanoparticulate composition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of Ni3+ and demonstrated that these states became less prominent upon heat treatment in air. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis elucidated the local atomic structure; in particular, data on interatomic distances and effects of annealing on local disorder showed that the Ni oxide nanoparticles crystallize upon annealing while maintaining their nanoparticle morphology, which is a crucial feature for reproducible fabrication of Ni oxide thin films for gas sensors. Importantly, several techniques demonstrated that grain growth remained modest for annealing temperatures as high as 400 degrees C for 1700-nm-thick films. The present article is a sequel to an earlier one [U. Cindemir et al., Sensors and Actuators B 242 (2017) 132-139] in which we reported on fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with Ni oxide films prepared by AGD.

  • 66.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Österlund, Lars
    Gunnar, Niklasson
    Characterization of porous Nickel Oxide Films produced with Advanced Reactive Gas DepositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gunnar, Niklasson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde2014In: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices / Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics, 2014, p. UNSP 012012-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 degrees C.

  • 68.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Porous Nickel Oxide Sensor for Formaldehyde Detection2014In: European Materials Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, Lille, France, May 26-30, 2014.: Symposium B: Advanced functional materials for environmental monitoring and applications., 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound, which is a harmful indoor pollutant, causing sick building syndrome (SBS) and is released from household and building materials. Since higher concentrations of formaldehyde are considered to be carcinogenic, monitoring them indoors is of great importance. Advanced gas deposition has here been used to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes, and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology of the films was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, and the porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The particle size was found to be less than 10 nm, as determined by x-ray diffraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the NiO films was also done. Gas sensing measurements were done using a total gas flow rate of 200 ml/min. Resistivity values of sensors were recorded with formaldehyde diluted in synthetic air. Sensor resistances were recorded at 50 ppm, 25ppm, 10ppm and 5 ppm formaldehyde concentration. NiO films showed promising formaldehyde gas sensing properties implying lower levels of detection limit.

  • 69.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Trawka, Maciej
    Smulko, Janusz
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Österlund, Lars
    Gunnar, Niklasson
    Fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with nanocrystalline NiO thin films: A comparisonArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Trawka, Maciej
    Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland.
    Smulko, Janusz
    Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, poland.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric gas sensing with nanocrystalline NiO thin films: A comparison2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline thin films of NiO were prepared by advanced reactive gas deposition, and their responses to formaldehyde, ethanol and methane gases were studied via fluctuation-enhanced and conductometric methods Thin films with thicknesses in the 200–1700-nm range were investigated in as-deposited form and after annealing at 400 and 500◦C. Morphological and structural analyses showed porous deposits with NiO nanocrystals having face-centered cubic structure. Quantitative changes in frequency-dependent resistance fluctuations as well as in DC resistance were recorded upon exposure to formaldehyde, ethanol and methane at 200◦C. The response to formaldehyde was higher than that to ethanol while the response to methane was low, which indicates that the NiO films exhibit significant selectivity towards different gaseous species. These results can be reconciled with the fact that formaldehyde has a nucleophilic group, ethanol is an electron scavenger, and methane is hard to either reduce or oxidize. The gas-induced variations in DC resistance and resistance fluctuations were in most cases similar and consistent.

  • 71.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Trawka, Maciej
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Gdansk, Poland.
    Smulko, Janusz M.
    Gdansk Univ Technol, Fac Elect Telecommun & Informat, Gdansk, Poland.
    Nickel oxide thin film sensor for fluctuation-enhanced gas sensing of formaldehyde2015In: 2015 IEEE Sensors, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline nickel-oxide-based thin films were prepared by advanced reactive gas deposition, and the response of these films to formaldehyde was studied by fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Morphological and structural analyses showed porous deposits of nickel oxide particles with face-centered cubic structure. Resistance fluctuations were measured upon exposure to ethanol, formaldehyde and methane at 200 degrees C. Power density spectra were used to quantify the response. The response to formaldehyde was higher than to ethanol at 200 degrees C, and no significant response was observed for methane thus demonstrating some gas-species selectivity.

  • 72.
    Coll, M.
    et al.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fontcuberta, J.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Althammer, M.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Bibes, M.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Boschker, H.
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Heisenbergstr 1, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Calleja, A.
    OXOLUTIA SL, Avda Castell Barbera 26,Tellers 13,Nau 1, Barcelona 08210, Spain.
    Cheng, G.
    Univ Sci & Technol China, CAS Key Lab Microscale Magnet Resonance, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China;Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Cuoco, M.
    Univ Salerno, CNR SPIN, IT-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy;Univ Salerno, Dipartimento Fis ER Caianiello, IT-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy.
    Dittmann, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst PGI 7, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
    Dkhil, B.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS UMR 8580, Cent Supelec, Lab Struct Proprietes & Modelisat Solides, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    El Baggari, I
    Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Fanciulli, M.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Mat Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Fina, I
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fortunato, E.
    Univ NOVA Lisboa UNL, FCT, Dept Ciencia Mat, CENIMAT i3N, Lisbon, Portugal;CEMOP UNINOVA, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Frontera, C.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fujita, S.
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto 6158520, Japan.
    Garcia, V
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Goennenwein, S. T. B.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Inst Festkorperphys, D-01062 Dresden, Germany;Tech Univ Dresden, Ctr Transport & Devices Emergent Mat, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Grollier, J.
    Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris Saclay, Thales, Unite Mixte Phys,CNRS, F-91767 Palaiseau, France.
    Gross, R.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany;NIM, D-80799 Munich, Germany.
    Hagfeldt, A.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Herranz, G.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Hono, K.
    NIMS, Res Ctr Magnet & Spintron Mat, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050047, Japan.
    Houwman, E.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Huijben, M.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Kalaboukhov, A.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, MC2, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keeble, D. J.
    Univ Dundee, Sch Sci & Engn, Carnegie Lab Phys, SUPA, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland.
    Koster, G.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Kourkoutis, L. F.
    Kavli Inst Cornell Nanoscale Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Sch Appl & Engn Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Levy, J.
    Bayer Akad Wissensch, Walther Meissner Inst, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Lira-Cantu, M.
    CSIC, Catalan Inst Nanosci & Nanotechnol ICN2, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain;BIST, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
    MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Mat Sci & Met, 27 Charles Babbage Rd, Cambridge CB3 0FS, England.
    Mannhart, Jochen
    Max Planck Inst Solid State Res, Heisenbergstr 1, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Martins, R.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Mat Sci, Milan, Italy;IMM CNR, MDM Lab, Agrate Brianza, Italy.
    Menzel, S.
    Pittsburgh Quantum Inst, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Mikolajick, T.
    NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzer Str 64, D-01187 Dresden, Germany;Tech Univ Dresden, Chair Nanoelect Mat, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Napari, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Mat Sci & Met, 27 Charles Babbage Rd, Cambridge CB3 0FS, England.
    Nguyen, M. D.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Paillard, C.
    Univ Arkansas, Phys Dept, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Panigrahi, S.
    Univ NOVA Lisboa UNL, FCT, Dept Ciencia Mat, CENIMAT i3N, Lisbon, Portugal;CEMOP UNINOVA, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Rijnders, G.
    Univ Twente, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Sanchez, F.
    CSIC, Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB, Campus UAB, Cerdanyola Del Valles 08193, Catalonia, Spain.
    Sanchis, P.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Nanophoton Technol Ctr, Camino Vera S-N, E-46022 Valencia, Spain.
    Sanna, S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Energy Storage & Convers, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Schlom, D. G.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Lab Atom & Solid State Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Schroeder, U.
    NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzer Str 64, D-01187 Dresden, Germany.
    Shen, K. M.
    Kavli Inst Cornell Nanoscale Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA;Cornell Univ, Dept Phys, Lab Atom & Solid State Phys, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Siemon, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Werkstoffe Elektrotech IWE 2, D-52066 Aachen, Germany.
    Spreitzer, M.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Adv Mat Dept, Jamova Cesta 39, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Sukegawa, H.
    NIMS, Res Ctr Magnet & Spintron Mat, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050047, Japan.
    Tamayo, R.
    OXOLUTIA SL, Avda Castell Barbera 26,Tellers 13,Nau 1, Barcelona 08210, Spain.
    van den Brink, J.
    IFW Dresden, Inst Theoret Solid State Phys, Helm Holtzstr 20, D-01069 Dresden, Germany.
    Pryds, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Energy Storage & Convers, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Granozio, F. Miletto
    CNR SPIN, Naples Unit, Complesso Univ Monte St Angelo,Via Cinthia, IT-80126 Naples, Italy.
    Towards Oxide Electronics: a Roadmap2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 482, p. 1-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of a rush lasting over half a century, in which CMOS technology has been experiencing a constant and breathtaking increase of device speed and density, Moore's law is approaching the insurmountable barrier given by the ultimate atomic nature of matter. A major challenge for 21st century scientists is finding novel strategies, concepts and materials for replacing silicon-based CMOS semiconductor technologies and guaranteeing a continued and steady technological progress in next decades. Among the materials classes candidate to contribute to this momentous challenge, oxide films and heterostructures are a particularly appealing hunting ground. The vastity, intended in pure chemical terms, of this class of compounds, the complexity of their correlated behaviour, and the wealth of functional properties they display, has already made these systems the subject of choice, worldwide, of a strongly networked, dynamic and interdisciplinary research community. Oxide science and technology has been the target of a wide four-year project, named Towards Oxide-Based Electronics (TO-BE), that has been recently running in Europe and has involved as participants several hundred scientists from 29 EU countries. In this review and perspective paper, published as a final deliverable of the TO-BE Action, the opportunities of oxides as future electronic materials for Information and Communication Technologies ICT and Energy are discussed. The paper is organized as a set of contributions, all selected and ordered as individual building blocks of a wider general scheme. After a brief preface by the editors and an introductory contribution, two sections follow. The first is mainly devoted to providing a perspective on the latest theoretical and experimental methods that are employed to investigate oxides and to produce oxide-based films, heterostructures and devices. In the second, all contributions are dedicated to different specific fields of applications of oxide thin films and heterostructures, in sectors as data storage and computing, optics and plasmonics, magnonics, energy conversion and harvesting, and power electronics.

  • 73.
    Ederth, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Hultåker, A
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Heszler, P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    van Doorn, A R
    Jongerius, M J
    Burgard, D
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Thin Porous Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle Films: Effects of Annealing in Vacuum and Air2005In: Appl. Phys., Vol. A 81, p. 1363-1368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Ederth, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Smulko, J.M.
    Kish, Laszlo
    Heszler, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gas Sensing by Resistance Fluctuations in PdxWO3 Nanoparticle Films2004In: Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Engr. 5472, 2004, p. 191-199Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Ederth, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Smulko, J.M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Kish, Laszlo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Heszler, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Highly Sensitive and Selective WO3 Nanoparticle Gas Sensor Operating in Thermally Modulated Dynamic Mode2004In: Proc IME-6, International Meeting on Electrochromism, Brno, Czech, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76. Etherden, N
    et al.
    Tesfamichael, Tuquabo
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Wäckelgård, Ewa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. fasta tillståndets fysik.
    A theoretical feasibility study of pigments for thickness-sensitive spectrally selective paints2004In: Journal of Physics D: Appl Phys, Vol. 37, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Frenning, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Engelmark, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Li conduction in sputtered amorphous Ta2O52001In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 148, no 5, p. A418-A421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron and Li ion conducting properties of room temperature sputtered amorphous tantalum oxide (a-Ta2O5) films were studied in order to evaluate the feasibility of using a-Ta2O5 in electrochromic device applications. The films were investigated using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, impedance spectroscopy, and isothermal transient ionic current measurements. It was found that the a-Ta2O5 met two out of three requirements posed on a Li ion conductor in a WO3 based electrochromic device. There was a negligible intercalation in the potential window used in WO3-based electrochromic devices (above 2.4-2.5 V vs. Li/Li+). Furthermore, in this potential region, the chemical diffusion coefficient for Li was larger than the corresponding quantity in WO3. However, there was a nonzero electron conductivity in the a-Ta2O5 films, not observed in the chemical vapor deposition-made β-Ta2O5 investigated earlier. Still, the ionic conductivity was approximately one order of magnitude larger than the electronic one.

  • 78.
    Frenning, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Nilsson, M
    Westlinder, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Strømme Mattsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Dielectric and Li transport properties of electron conducting and non-conducting sputtered amorphous Ta2O5 films2001In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 46, no 13-14, p. 2041-2046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of sputtered thin film amorphous tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) were studied: one electron conducting Ta2O5 (ec-Ta2O5) and the other non-conducting Ta2O5 (nc-Ta2O5). The as-deposited films were characterized by impedance spectroscopy (IS) and isothermal transient ionic current (ITIC) measurements. From IS, the dc conductivity 2×10−14 S/cm was obtained for the ec-Ta2O5 film at an applied ac potential of 50 mV whereas a value ≤1×10−17 S/cm was obtained for the nc-Ta2O5 film. Li conducting properties were studied using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique and ITIC measurements on the intercalated samples. Despite the very dissimilar dc conductivities of the as-deposited films, the two Ta2O5 samples showed surprisingly similar Li ion conducting properties for small Li/Ta2O5 ratios. The Li ion mobility was in the range 1.1×10−9–3.0×10−9 cm2/V s for both films. However, the Li storage behaviour as well as the chemical diffusion coefficient differed. For the nc-Ta2O5 film a plateau was observed in the equilibrium potential vs. composition curve for Li/Ta2O5 ratios between 7×10−5 and 2×10−3. This plateau was likely to have been caused by attractive interactions between the intercalated ions, possibly large enough to cause phase separation. The attractive interactions were shown to suppress the chemical diffusion coefficient in this composition range.

  • 79. Furlani, M
    et al.
    Carlson, J
    Fredriksson, M
    Niklasson, Gunna A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Impedance Spectroscopy on Polymer Electrolytes Containing Li- and Mg Ions2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Furlani, Maurizio
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Carlson, Johanna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fredriksson, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Impedance spectroscopy on polymer electrolytes containing Lithium and Magnesium ions2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed impedance spectroscopy study, together with thermal analysis, was carried out on polymer electrolytes composed of low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) 400 with added lithium or magnesium triflate salts. Glass transition temperatures were always far below room temperature. The ion conductivity exhibits a maximum at intermediate salt concentrations and is significantly higher in the case of Li triflate addition. When the ion conductivity contribution was subtracted, a prominent dielectric loss peak in the MHz region was observed. Its relaxation strength scales with ion concentration, as appropriate for an ion pair relaxation in systems above the glass transition. We present evidence that this relaxation is due to the same species that give rise to the ion conductivity. The complex impedance due to the composite ion conductivity – ion pair relaxation process was found to exhibit good agreement with the Davidson-Cole [D.V. Davidson and R.H. Cole, J. Chem. Phys., 19 (1951) 1484-1490] relaxation function. The relaxation process is characterized by a power-law exponent below 0.5, which signifies an anomalous diffusion process at high frequencies crossing over to a constant conductivity at low frequencies.

  • 81. Furlani, Maurizio
    et al.
    Stappen, Christopher
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Concentration dependence of ionic relaxation in lithium doped polymer electrolytes2010In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 356, no 11-17, p. 710-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed impedance spectroscopy study at ambient temperature was carried out on polymer electrolytes based on low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) 400, poly(propylene oxide) 400 and a random copolymer of molecular weight 600, to which were added LiN(CF3SO2)(2) (LiTFSI) salt. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at intermediate salt concentrations and is significantly higher for poly(ethylene oxide) and the copolymer. A dielectric relaxation was found in a frequency region above the one, where the ion conductivity dominates the dielectric response, and below the region of the relaxations of the polymer host. The relaxation strength scales with ion concentration, as appropriate for an ion pair relaxation in systems above the glass transition. The frequency of this relaxation, multiplied by the relaxation strength, has been found to be proportional to the ion conductivity, and the relaxation has therefore been assigned to short-range ionic motion in the polymer. It exhibits characteristics similar to conductivity relaxations in inorganic solid ion conductors, and is considered to be due to the same species that give rise to the ion conductivity.

  • 82.
    Gesheva, Kostadinka
    et al.
    Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bodurov, Georgij
    Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Ivanova, Tatiana
    Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Iliev, M
    Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Vlakhov, T
    Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Terzijska, P
    Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Popkirov, G
    Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Abrashev, M
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Bulgaria.
    Boyadjiev, Stefan
    Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Jagerszki, G
    MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.
    Szilagyi, I M
    MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.
    Marinov, Yordan
    Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Optical, structural and electrochromic properties of sputter deposited W-Mo oxide thin films2016In: INERA CONFERENCE: VAPOR PHASE TECHNOLOGIES FOR METAL OXIDE AND CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016, Vol. 764, article id 012010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin metal oxide films were investigated by a series of characterization techniques including impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thin film deposition by reactive DC magnetron sputtering was performed at the Ångström Laboratory. W and Mo targets (5 cm diameter) and various oxygen gas flows were employed to prepare samples with different properties, whereas the gas pressure was kept constant at about 30 mTorr. The substrates were 5×5 cm2 plates of unheated glass pre-coated with ITO having a resistance of 40 ohm/sq. Film thicknesses were around 300nm as determined by surface profilometry. Newly acquired equipment was used to study optical spectra, optoelectronic properties, and film structure. Films of WO3 and of mixed W–Mo oxide with three compositions showed coloring and bleaching under the application of a small voltage. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded with a scan rate of 5 mV s–1. Ellipsometric data for the optical constants show dependence on the amount of MoOx in the chemical composition. Single MoOx film, and the mixed one with only 8% MoOx have the highest value of refractive index, and similar dispersion in the visible spectral range. Raman spectra displayed strong lines at wavenumbers between 780 cm–1 and 950 cm–1 related to stretching vibrations of WO3, and MoO3. AFM gave evidence for domains of different composition in mixed W-Mo oxide films.

  • 83. Gonzalez-Borrero, P. P.
    et al.
    Sato, F.
    Medina, A. N.
    Baesso, M. L.
    Bento, A. C.
    Baldissera, G.
    Persson, C.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    da Silva, A. Ferreira
    Optical band-gap determination of nanostructured WO3 film2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 061909-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical band-gap energy of a nanostructured tungsten trioxide film is determined using the photoacoustic spectroscopy method under continuous light excitation. The mechanism of the photoacoustic signal generation is discussed. The band-gap energy is also computed by other methods. The absorption coefficient as well as the band-gap energy of three different crystal structures of tungsten trioxide is calculated by a first-principles Green's function approach using the projector augmented wave method. The theoretical study indicates that the cubic crystal structure shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  • 84.
    Granqvist, C G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Electrochromics for Smart Windows: Thin Films of Tungsten Oxide and Nickel Oxide, and Devices Based on These2005In: The Materials Research Society Flaa Meeting, 2005, p. 111-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, S. V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lansåker, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Oxide-based electrochromics: Advances in materials and devices2011In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1328, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.- X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Pehlivan, E.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and Thermochromics for Energy Efficient Fenestration: New Applications Based on Transparent Conducting Nanoparticles2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Online Library, Vol. 1558, p. 12 p.-, article id mrs13-1558-z09Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.-X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics and Thermochromics for Energy Efficient Fenestration: New Applications Based on Transparent Conducting Nanoparticles2013In: MRS Proceedings Library, p. 1-12, article id mrs13-1558-z09Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.-X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Transparent Conducting Nanoparticle Coatings for Energy Efficient Fenestration: Applications in Electrochromics and Thermochromics2013In: Soc. Vacuum Coaters 56th Ann. Techn. Conf. Proc., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, S. V.
    Li, S. -Y.
    Mlyuka, N. R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Avendano, E.
    Advances in Electrochromics and Thermochromics: Applications to Sustainable Energy2011In: Advances in Nanotechnology / [ed] Z. Bartul, J. Trenor, Hauppauge, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 449-460Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, S. V.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mlyuka, N. R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Progress in chromogenic materials and devices: New data on thermochromic VO2-based materials and on electrochromic nickel-tungsten-oxide films2010In: Book of Abstracts: Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2010, 2010, p. 24-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, S. V.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mlyuka, N. R.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Avendano, E.
    Chromogenics for sustainable energy: Some advances in thermochromics and electrochromics2010In: International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN 2229-5216, Vol. 75, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Chromogenic materials are able to change their optical properties in response to external stimuli such as temperature (in thermochromic materials) and electrical charge insertion (in electrochromic materials). Below we review some recent advances for these types of materials. Specifically we first discuss the limitations of thermochromic VO2 films for energy efficient fenestration and show from calculations that nanocomposites containing VO2 can have superior properties and display high luminous transmittance and large temperature-dependent solar transmittance modulation. Even better results may be found for nanoparticles of VO2:Mg. In the second part of the paper we survey some recent progress for electrochromic devices and show that W oxide films have increased coloration efficiency when some Ni oxide is added. We also present initial results for flexible electrochromic foils produced by roll-to-roll coating and continuous lamination.

    Article · Oct 2010 · Advances in Science and Technology

  • 92.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Y.- X.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thermochromic Fenestration Based on VO2: Finally a Technology of Practical Interest?2015In: Society of Vacuum Coaters 59th Ann. Techn. Conf. Proc., Albuquerque, NM, USA: Society of Vacuum Coaters , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Li, S.-Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Progress in chromogenic materials and devices: New data on electrochromics and thermochromics2013In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, ISSN 0272-9172, E-ISSN 1946-4274, Vol. 1492, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Granqvist, Claes G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Azens, A
    Fundamentals and Energy-Related Applications of Oxide-Based Devices2007In: Fundamentals and Energy-Related Applications of Oxide-Based Devices, Appl. Phys. A 89 , 2007, p. 29-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, Harbin, China.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromic materials and devices for energy efficiency and human comfort in buildings: A critical review2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 259, p. 1170-1182Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) materials can be integrated in thin-film devices and used for modulating optical transmittance. The technology has recently been implemented in large-area glazing (windows and glass facades) in order to create buildings which combine energy efficiency with good indoor comfort. This critical review describes the basics of EC technology, provides a case study related to EC foils for glass lamination, and discusses a number of future aspects. Ample literature references are given with the object of providing an easy entrance to the burgeoning research field of electrochromics.

  • 96.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Advances in electrochromic device technology: Multiple roads towards superior durability2019In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 357, p. 619-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most electrochromic (EC) devices must have a service lifetime of many years, and this is particularly so for“smart windows” in buildings with good energy efficiency and indoor comfort. The central part of oxide-based EC devices contains thin films based on W oxide and Ni oxide together with an interposed electrolyte. Depending on operating conditions, these films may show degradation at a slower or faster pace, and means to prevent or reverse this phenomenon, or as a minimum allow reliable lifetime prediction, have been sought ever since the beginnings of EC technology. Here we survey recent endeavors related to EC films of W oxide and Ni oxide and show that (i) electrochemical pretreatment of films in a liquid electrolyte can significantly improve durability, (ii)electrochemical posttreatment in a liquid electrolyte can rejuvenate degraded films, (iii) mixed oxides can have better durability and optical performance than corresponding pure oxides, and (iv) lifetime prediction is possible.

  • 97.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Arvizu, Miguel A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Qu, Hui-Ying
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Wen, Rui-Tao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Advances in electrochromic device technology: Multiple roads towards superior durability2018In: Proceedings SVC, 2018, article id 9 pagesConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most electrochromic (EC) devices must have a service lifetime of many years, and this is particularly so for “smart windows” in buildings with good energy efficiency and indoor comfort. The central part of oxide-based EC devices contains thin films based on W oxide and Ni oxide together with an interposed electrolyte. Depending on operating conditions, these films may show degradation at a slower or faster pace, and means to prevent or reverse this phenomenon, or as a minimum allow reliable lifetime prediction, have been sought ever since the beginnings of EC technology. Here we survey recent endeavors related to EC films of W oxide and Ni oxide and show that (i) electrochemical pretreatment of films in a liquid electrolyte can significantly improve durability, (ii) electrochemical posttreatment in a liquid electrolyte can rejuvenate degraded films, (iii) mixed oxides can have better durability and optical performance than corresponding pure oxides, and (iv) lifetime prediction is possible.

  • 98.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bayrak Pehlivan, Ilknur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Electrochromics on a roll: Web-coating and lamination for smart windows2018In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 336, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices can vary the throughput of solar energy and visible light in glazing for buildings, which are then able to combine improved energy efficiency with enhanced indoor comfort and convenience. The technology can be implemented in different ways; here the focus is on web-coated devices which can be delivered, on a roll or in the form of large sheets, as foil for glass lamination. The present paper introduces the technology, discusses web-coating versus in-line glass coating, mentions lamination, and touches on possibilities to combine electrochromism with other functionalities such as thermochromic control of solar energy transmittance. The purpose of the paper is to give a tutorial overview of a technology that is currently introduced in buildings.

  • 99.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Green, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Jonsson, E K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Marsal, Roser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Topalian, Zareh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Azens, A
    Georen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Gustavsson, G
    Karmhag, R
    Smulko, J
    Kish, L B
    Electrochromic foil-based devices: Optical transmittance and modulation range, effect of ultravioled irradiation, and quality assessment by 1/f current noise2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, no 17, p. 5921-5926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce electrochromic (EC) technology for modulating the transmittance of visible light and solar radiation in window apertures, with focus on recent work on foil-type devices embodying sputter deposited WO3 and NiO films joined by a polymer electrolyte. The purpose of this paper is to present a number of new and preliminary results showing that (i) double-sided antireflection coatings based on dip coating can enhance the transmittance significantly, (ii) tandem foils can yield a ratio between bleached-state and colored-state transmittance exceeding fifty, (iii) solar irradiance onto the EC device can enhance its charge insertion dynamics and thereby its optical modulation, and (iv) electromagnetic noise spectroscopy may serve as quality assessment of EC devices.

  • 100.
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Ji, Yuxia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Thermochromic Fenestration Based on VO2: Finally a Technology of Practical Interest?2016In: Society Of Vacuum Coaters 59th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, 2016 / [ed] Lampert, J Marken, K, 2016, p. 62-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium-dioxide-based thermochromic thin films and nanoparticle composites can have significant transmittance for visible light, Tlum, while they are able to transmit more near-infrared solar radiation at τ < τc than at τ > τc, where τ denotes temperature and τc ≈ 68 °C. It has been understood for many years that these properties are of principle interest for energy efficient fenestration, but the technology has been slow to mature. The present paper summarizes the state of the art of VO2-based thermochromics and points at the many advances that have been made during recent years. Specifically, the paper discusses how to employ doping to adjust τc to room temperature and to increase Tlum, how to use nano materials to enhance the solar energy transmittance modulation and Tlum, and how to prepare nanoparticle composites by sputtering. A brief discussion is given on thermochromic light scattering, which is a recently discovered phenomenon.

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