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  • 51. Nilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Egmar, Ann-Charlotte
    Florin, Jan
    Leksell, Janeth
    Lepp, Margret
    Lindholm, Christina
    Nordstrom, Gun
    Theander, Kersti
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Development and validation of a new tool measuring nurses self-reported professional competence-The nurse professional competence (NPC) Scale2014In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines. Design: A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric properties. Participants and settings: 1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges. Results: The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: "Nursing care", "Value-based nursing care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership in and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition, evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained. Conclusions: The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses.

  • 52.
    Rudberg, Lennart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Wikblad, Karin
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Testicular cancer and testicular self-examination: knowledge and attitudes of adolescent Swedish men.2005In: Cancer Nurs, ISSN 0162-220X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 256-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Röndahl, Gerd
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Innala, Sune
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Heterosexual assumptions in verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing2006In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper reports a study of what lesbian women and gay men had to say, as patients and as partners, about their experiences of nursing in hospital care, and what they regarded as important to communicate about homosexuality and nursing.

    Background: The social life of heterosexual cultures is based on the assumption that all people are heterosexual, thereby making homosexuality socially invisible. Nurses may assume that all patients and significant others are heterosexual, and these heteronormative assumptions may lead to poor communication that affects nursing quality by leading nurses to ask the wrong questions and make incorrect judgements.

    Method: A qualitative interview study was carried out in the spring of 2004. Seventeen women and 10 men ranging in age from 23 to 65 years from different parts of Sweden participated. They described 46 experiences as patients and 31 as partners.

    Findings: Heteronormativity was communicated in waiting rooms, in patient documents and when registering for admission, and nursing staff sometimes showed perplexity when an informant deviated from this heteronormative assumption. Informants had often met nursing staff who showed fear of behaving incorrectly, which could lead to a sense of insecurity, thereby impeding further communication. As partners of gay patients, informants felt that they had to deal with heterosexual assumptions more than they did when they were patients, and the consequences were feelings of not being accepted as a 'true' relative, of exclusion and neglect. Almost all participants offered recommendations about how nursing staff could facilitate communication.

    Conclusions: Heterosexual norms communicated unconsciously by nursing staff contribute to ambivalent attitudes and feelings of insecurity that prevent communication and easily lead to misconceptions. Educational and management interventions, as well as increased communication, could make gay people more visible and thereby encourage openness and awareness by hospital staff of the norms that they communicate through their language and behaviour.

  • 54.
    Skytt, Bernice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Reasons to leave: the motives of first-line nurse managers for leaving their posts2007In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 294-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To study the reasons for first-line nurse managers to resign, their perceptions of difficult situations, experience of support and satisfaction with work.

    Background The intentions of first-line nurse managers' to stay at their posts varied between 45% and 75% in different studies.

    Methods Data were collected by questionnaire and letters from 32 first-line nurse managers who had left their posts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the letters.

    Results Eleven first-line nurse managers resigned due to reorganization or other changes and 19 due to their own accord. Reasons to leave were personal, organizational, as well as lack of support from and relations to the head of department. Difficult situations were unclear conditions, lack of support from supervisors and, implementation of changes, staff matters and economy. Important support was personal, organizational, practical and to have opportunities for development and education. The perception of work satisfaction was higher after resignation.

    Conclusions The dominant reason to leave was reorganization and other changes. The relation to the head of department influenced the first-line nurse managers' overall work situation.

  • 55.
    Skytt, Bernice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Engström, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Different development programmes: does it make a difference?2011In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 29-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to examine whether two groups of first-line nurse managersperceived improvements in skills and knowledge regarding interpersonal skills and groupmanagement, achievement orientation, and organizational view and political savvy afterparticipation in two different development programmes, compared to participants in a comparisongroup. Further, to understand the first-line nurse managers’ expectations for and experiences of theprogramme as well as its strengths and weaknesses.Design/methodology/approach– A total of 13 first-line nurse managers participated in a trainingprogramme, 14 in a self-development programme, and 14 in a comparison group. Group interviewswere used to describe the managers’ expectations for and experiences of the programmes, theLeadership and Management Inventory were used to assess the impact of the programmes.Findings– The results of the interviews showed that the programmes met many of the participants’expectations. Participants perceived significant improvements – in organizational knowledge followingthe training programme and in achievement orientation following the self-development programme.

  • 56.
    Skytt, Bernice
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjödén, Per-Olow
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The roles of the first-line nurse manager: Perceptions from four perspectives2008In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 1012-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To study the perception of the first-line nurse managers (FLNMs), registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and head of departments (HDs) on the FLNM's current and desired roles. Background  In the process of decentralization, the role of FLNM has changed from having overall responsibility for patients to having responsibility for the management of the ward. Method  Interviews with five FLNMs, five RNs, five ANs, and one HD were used. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed text. Results  When describing the current roles, the FLNMs, RNs and ANs focused on the coordination of activities that contributed to a well-functioning service and care of patients as well as on the recruitment of, support to and development of the personnel. The HD focused on the FLNM's responsibilities towards the personnel, especially regarding empowerment and staff well-being. When describing desired roles, the FLNMs, RNs and ANs emphasized service on the ward while the HD underlined the development of services and co-operation with other nurse managers. Conclusion  The perception of the current and desired roles of the FLNM varied among the groups. The FLNMs, RNs and ANs reported a similar understanding which in turn differed from that of the HD who described fewer roles and focused on other areas.

  • 57.
    Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Borowiec, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Lindholm, C.
    Prediction of and risk factors for surgical wound infection in the Saphenous vein harvesting leg in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass2006In: The thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon, ISSN 0171-6425, E-ISSN 1439-1902, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgical wound infection (SWI) of the leg after saphenous vein harvesting is an important complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. SWIs may restrict mobility in the postoperative period and increase costs of postoperative hospitalisation and antibiotic treatment. Methods: A total of 356 patients were followed. Surgical risk factors were evaluated for SWI following saphenous vein harvesting, and the effectiveness of an occlusive glycerinated hydrogel dressing in reducing postoperative SWIs was assessed. In addition, the ability of postoperative clinical wound assessment to predict SWI following CABG 30 and 60 days after operation was investigated. Results: The most important risk factor for SWI after saphenous vein harvesting was the use of a monofilament suture for skin closure (glycomer 4-0 Biosyn® Tyco Healthcare, Stockholm, Sweden) (p > 0.001). The hydrogel dressing did not prevent the development of SWIs. The clinical wound assessment showed that wound gap was associated with leg infection, but other signs were poor predictors of SWI. Conclusion: The choice of suture and suturing technique is important to prevent SWI following saphenous vein harvesting. More precise definitions of wound signs are necessary if they are to be used as predictors of SWI.

  • 58.
    Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Lindholm, C.
    Borowiec, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Surgical-site infections within 60 days of coronary artery by-pass graft surgery2004In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgical wound infections (SWIs) after coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) within 30 and 60 days of operation were registered. Already known risk factors and possible risk factors for wound infection were studied. SWIs of sternal and/or leg wounds have been reported to occur in 2–20% of patients after CABG. Deep sternal infection, mediastinitis, occurs after 0.5–5% of CABG procedures. The duration and methods of follow-up, as well as definitions of SWI, vary in different studies. Previously known and possible new risk factors were registered for 374 patients. Patients were contacted by telephone 30 and 60 days after surgery and interviewed in accordance with a questionnaire about symptoms and signs of wound infections. Our definition of SWI was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition. SWIs were diagnosed in 114 of 374 (30.5%) of the patients. In total SWI were diagnosed in 120 surgical-site incisions. Almost all SWIs of the sternum (93.3%) were diagnosed within 30 days of surgery. Most of the SWIs of the leg (73%) were diagnosed within 30 days of surgery and 27% were diagnosed within 31 to 60 days of surgery. Being female was the most important risk factor for SWI of the leg. Low preoperative haemoglobin concentrations were the most important risk factor for superficial SWI on the sternum. Patients with mediastinitis had higher BMI and had more often received erythrocyte transfusions on postoperative day two or later than those without infections.

  • 59.
    Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Lindholm, C.
    Borowiec, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Schnell, A. E.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Peri-operative glucose control and development of surgical wound infections in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft2005In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated blood glucose following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is associated with an increased risk of surgical wound infection (SWI). It is unclear whether hyperglycaemia, the diabetic state, the longstanding vascular effects of diabetes, or the systematic inflammatory response confers the increased vulnerability to SWI. This study was designed to examine the significance of postoperative blood glucose control as a risk factor for SWI after vein graft harvesting on the leg and sternotomy. Patients with and without diabetes had a CABG within 60 days to be eligible. The present study was part of a larger protocol investigating SWI following CABG in a total of 374 patients. Potential risk factors, duration of diabetes, pre-operative glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and presence of long-term complications were recorded. All patient records were reviewed retrospectively to record 10% glucose infusions during the operation, and blood glucose concentrations and insulin therapy on postoperative days 0, 1 and 2. Patients were contacted by telephone 30 and 60 days after surgery and interviewed in accordance with a questionnaire about symptoms and signs of wound infection. In the present study, it was not possible to separate the effect of diabetes as a risk factor for SWI from that of hyperglycaemia. However, in the subgroup of patients without a pre-operative diagnosis of diabetes, increased blood glucose concentrations during postoperative days 0, 1 and 2 was associated with an increased risk of mediastinitis.

  • 60.
    Swenne, Christine Leo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Skytt, Bernice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindholm, C.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patients' experiences of mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft procedure2007In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have focussed on patients' experiences of and suffering due to mediastinitis following Coronary Artery by-pass Graft (CABG). Mediastinitis creates a complex and invasive experience for the patient with prolonged hospitalisation, and would be expected to be a significant stressor. The aim of the present study was to capture patients' experiences of the medical and nursing care they received for mediastinitis following CABG. Content analysis revealed three themes with regard to how the patients coped with the stress and threats of mediastinitis and its treatment and how they thought it would influence their future life. A first theme centred on physical and psychological discomfort and impact on autonomy. The staff's medical knowledge and the quality of nursing care as well as the patients' understanding of the situation influenced their experience. A second theme was how patients dealt with perceived danger and stress. Coping strategies such as problem solving, information seeking, dissociation, distraction, minimisation and expression of emotion were used to handle the situations. The third theme comprised the patients' belief that the mediastinitis would not affect the outcome of the CABG procedure, even though their confidence in this was influenced by uncertainty about the rehabilitation process.

  • 61.
    Theander, Kersti
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Hedmark Univ Coll, Dept Nursing & Mental Hlth, Fac Publ Hlth, Hedmark, Norway..
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences. Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Gavle, Sweden..
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden..
    Gardulf, Ann
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Unit Clin Nursing Res & Clin Res Immunotherapy,Di, Stockholm, Sweden.;Japan Red Cross Inst Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan..
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Unit Clin Nursing Res & Clin Res Immunotherapy,Di, Stockholm, Sweden.;Japan Red Cross Inst Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan..
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordstrom, Gun
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Hedmark Univ Coll, Dept Nursing & Mental Hlth, Fac Publ Hlth, Hedmark, Norway..
    Nilsson, Jan
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Fac Hlth Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Japan Red Cross Inst Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan..
    Adjusting to future demands in healthcare: Curriculum changes and nursing students' self-reported professional competence2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 37, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nursing competence is of significant importance for patient care. Newly graduated nursing students rate their competence as high. However, the impact of different designs of nursing curricula on nursing students' self-reported nursing competence areas is seldom reported. Objectives: To compare newly graduated nursing students' self-reported professional competence before and after the implementation of a new nursing curriculum. The study had a descriptive comparative design. Nursing students, who graduated in 2011, having studied according to an older curriculum, were compared with those who graduated in 2014, after a new nursing curriculum with more focus on person-centered nursing had been implemented. Setting: A higher education nursing program at a Swedish university. Participants: In total, 119 (2011 n = 69, 2014 n = 50) nursing students responded. Methods: Nursing students' self-reported professional competencies were assessed with the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) scale. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups of nursing students, who graduated in 2011 and 2014, respectively, with regard to age, sex, education, or work experience. Both groups rated their competencies as very high. Competence in value-based nursing was perceived to be significantly higher after the change in curriculum. The lowest competence, both in 2011 and 2014, was reported in education and supervision of staff and students. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that newly graduated nursing students- both those following the old curriculum and the first batch of students following the new one - perceive that their professional competence is high. Competence in value-based nursing, measured with the NPC scale, was reported higher after the implementation of a new curriculum, reflecting curriculum changes with more focus on person-centered nursing.

  • 62.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Adoption of an innovation based on the theory of gerotranscendence by staff in a Nursing home – Part III: 2007In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 302-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an intervention involving introduction of the theory of gerotranscendence and practical guidelines derived from the theory. A qualitative method was used with triangulation of methods in data collection and analysis. Both the theory of gerotranscendence and the theory of innovation were used as frameworks in the analysis. Introducing this new perspective constituted an abstract intervention. It involved nursing staff changing their interpretations and values with respect to ageing and their treatment of older people in ways not compatible with extant values. The 'early adopters' were staff members who felt acquainted with the essential ideas of the theory because they perceived in themselves a personal developmental process in line with the theory. The innovation attributes, described in the innovation theory, explained some of the problems associated with adopting the guidelines.

  • 63.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The theory of gerotranscendence in practice: guidelines for nursing – Part II2007In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 295-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Aim. The aims of this article were to describe both how guidelines were derived from the theory of gerotranscendence and the actual guidelines. It also discusses the relevance of guidelines to practice.

    Background. This article describes how guidelines were derived from the theory of gerotranscendence as well as the content of the guidelines and how they could be used. The view of ageing introduced by the theory may have several consequences for nursing staff members’ attitudes and treatment of older people, as it offers a new understanding of living in old age.

    Resultant guidelines. Concrete guidelines at three levels – focusing on the individual, activity and organization – were derived using focus groups. The guidelines describe different ways to support older people in their process towards gerotranscendence.

    Conclusion. The theory of gerotranscendence and the guidelines could help support nursing staff in their attitude towards older people and could be used as a supplement to enrich the present care.

12 51 - 63 of 63
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