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  • 51.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudice: The Interplay of Personality, Cognition, and Social Psychology2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Three main theoretical approaches to the study of the causation of prejudice can be distinguished within psychological research. The cognitive approach suggests that prejudice is a function of cognitive processes where stereotypic information about social groups, stored in memory, is automatically activated and affects people’s judgements and behavior toward members of the target group. The personality approach suggests that prejudice is a function of people’s personality characteristics. Finally, the social psychological approach emphasizes people’s group membership and group identification as the as major source of causation.

    Previous research has almost entirely focused on only one approach of causation at a time. The focus has also shifted periodically – with attention paid to one approach at each period of time. The present thesis is an attempt to integrate these approaches and suggests an integrative model where the relative contribution of each approach could be assessed. The underlying assumption is that all three approaches are meaningful and that prejudice is a complex phenomenon that is best explained by taking into account all approaches jointly.

    Examining the cognitive approach, Paper I revealed that people are knowledgeable of the cultural stereotypes and that stereotypic information is automatically activated and affects people’s judgments. Paper II (and Paper III) supported the personality approach and revealed that prejudice is highly related to primary personality characteristics and, in line with a central idea in this approach, different types of prejudice (ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and prejudice toward disabled people) are highly correlated. The results of Paper III revealed the importance of group membership and group identification, supporting the social psychology approach.

    The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the necessity to integrate various approaches and disciplines to explain psychological phenomena in general and prejudice in particular. Also, implications of the findings for prejudice prevention are discussed.

    Delarbeid
    1. Category and stereotype activation revisited
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Category and stereotype activation revisited
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 513-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

    Emneord
    Category activation, Explicit prejudice, Implicit prejudice, Stereotype activation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93025 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00523.x (DOI)000242725900009 ()17107500 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-04-22 Laget: 2005-04-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
    2004 Inngår i: European Journal of Personality, Vol. 18, s. 463-482Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93026 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-04-22 Laget: 2005-04-22bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93027 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2005-04-22 Laget: 2005-04-22bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 52.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Category and Stereotype Activation Revisited: The Intimate Relation between Category and Stereotypes2004Inngår i: The 6th European Social Cognition Network Meeting, Lisboa, Portugal, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants’ explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N = 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people’s explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype activation condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and Immigrants as primes, showed that participants’ implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to previous research, the distinction between category and stereotype activation, and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 53.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ethnic Prejudice: The Explanatory Power of Personality and Social Psychology2005Inngår i: the Conference on Personality, Group and Social Psychology, 2005, s. 7-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 54.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudice: A question of personality or social psychology, or both?2005Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, Vol. 39, nr 5-6, s. 380-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining prejudice. In Study 1, examining the relation between Big-Five basic personality and generalised prejudice (a factor based on ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and negative attitudes to mentally disabled people), we found Openness to experience and Agreeableness to be the only basic personality variables to be related to generalised prejudice. In Study 2, in addition to basic personality and generalised prejudice we included Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) and examined various causal models of the relationships among these variables. The best-fitting causal model showed that basic personality had no direct effect on generalised prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO. Study 3 examined whether prejudice (sexism) is better explained by personality variables (Big-Five, SDO, and RWA) or social group membership (gender). Based on the outcome of Study 2, causal models were proposed and tested. The results showed that the best causal model to explain prejudice was the one that included the personality as well as social group membership variables. This outcome, also supported by multiple regression analyses, suggests that an integration of the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining prejudicial beliefs would be the best option. The findings in the three studies are discussed against the background of recent research based on the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice.

  • 55.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation: Their roots in big five personality factors and facets2006Inngår i: Journal of Individual Differences, Vol. 27, s. 117-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending previous research on the relation of Big-Five personality with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation, we examined the relationships of Big Five facet scores rather than factor scores. The results (N = 332) of stepwise regression analyses showed that Openness to Experience was the only significant predictor of RWA on factor level, whereas Values and Ideas were significant predictors on facet level. A similar analysis of SDO showed that Agreeableness and Openness to Experience contributed significantly to the prediction on factor level, whereas Tender-Mindedness and Values were the best significant predictors on facet level. The prediction based on facet scores showed to be more accurate that the prediction based on factor scores. A random split of the sample confirmed the robustness of the findings. The results are discussed against the background of the personality and the social psychology approaches to explaining individual differences in prejudice.

  • 56.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Category and stereotype activation revisited2006Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 513-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 57.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the basis of personality-prejudice relations2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Decomposing prejudice: Identifying the Basis of Personality-Prejudice Relations2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 59.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components2011Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 57-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dahlstrand, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Malmsten, Sanna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prejudice: the person in the situation2009Inngår i: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 890-897Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experimental studies, we created situational conditions (social norm and social threat) that altered the level of expressed prejudice in two different directions (decrease or increase). Then, we examined the stability of the relation between personality and prejudice across conditions and found that personality variables were related to prejudice in a similar way regardless of variations in prejudice level and situations. Thus, whereas situational factors affect the level of people's prejudice, personality factors stand for the rank-order stability of prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the current debate on whether prejudice is best explained by personality or situational factors.

  • 61.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Personality and Social Psychology Factors Explaining Sexism2011Inngår i: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 153-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has almost exclusively examined sexism (negative attitudes toward women) from either a personality or a social-psychology perspective. In two studies (N = 379 and 182, respectively), we combine these perspectives and examine whether sexism is best explained by personality (Big-Five factors, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism) or by social-psychological (group membership and group identification) variables - or by a combination of both approaches. Causal modeling and multiple regression analyses showed that, with the present set of variables, sexism was best explained by considering the combined influence of both personality- and social-psychology constructs. The findings imply that it is necessary to integrate various approaches to explain prejudice.

  • 62.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hedlund, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Personality scale response latencies as self-schema indicators: The inverted-U effect revisited2007Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 611-618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between participants’ responses to the items in the NEO-PI Big Five personality inventory and their response latencies to the same items. Extending previous research, we used polynomial regression analysis to examine if the relation between participants’ position on each of the Big Five factors and their average response latencies (regarded as self-schema indicators) across items on the same factors is characterised by a curvilinear (inverted-U) trend or not. The analyses in both studies yielded consistent support for a quadratic (curvilinear) relation between personality scores and response latencies for all Big Five factors. Those scoring high or low on a factor responded faster than those scoring around the mean, which lends support to the notion that the relation between personality scores and response latencies is characterised by an inverted-U effect. The results are discussed in the light of previousattempts to examining the inverted-U effect as self-schema evidence. Further, we discuss the potential of using response latency data to improve precision in personality assessment and prediction.

  • 63.
    Alaie, Iman
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Behavioral activation: Distinctive features2010Inngår i: Clinical Psychologist, ISSN 1328-4207, E-ISSN 1742-9552, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 27-28Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 64.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marteinsdottir, I
    Hartvig, P
    Tillfors, M
    Eriksson, E
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65. Alfonsson, S
    et al.
    Maathz, P
    Hursti, T
    Inter Format Reliability ofQuestionnaires used in ICBT2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impulsivity, Negative Mood, and Disordered Eating in Obesity2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bariatric surgery is a life-altering procedure that leads to substantial weight loss for most patients with obesity. Psychiatric conditions that may interfere with eating behavior and other behavioral prescriptions after surgery are common. Disordered eating is an established risk factor for inferior weight loss but the effects of negative mood and impulsivity are largely unknown. This thesis aims to investigate the prevalence of and associations between these potential risk factors and eating behavior in bariatric surgery patients.

    Study I assessed the prevalence of adult Attention Deficits/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in bariatric surgery patients. Symptoms of adult ADHD were elevated compared to the normal population and associated with symptoms of disordered eating, anxiety, and depression.

    Study II investigated whether treatment with Behavioral Activation (BA) could ameliorate binge eating and other symptoms of disordered eating in patients with obesity and Binge Eating Disorder. The results showed that BA was effective in increasing activity levels and improving mood but not in ameliorating binge eating in these patients.

    Study III was a prospective study on disordered eating, symptoms of depression and anxiety, symptoms of adult ADHD, and alcohol risk consumption before surgery and at follow-up after 12 months. After controlling for age, no variable measured before surgery could predict weight loss after surgery. Disordered eating after surgery was associated with inferior weight loss in men and a subgroup of older female participants.

    The present thesis concludes that symptoms of adult ADHD are common among bariatric surgery patients and associated with disordered eating. There is no indication that symptoms of adult ADHD are associated with short-term inferior weight loss after surgery. However, adult ADHD may be a risk factor for postsurgical alcohol abuse. The treatment study showed no direct association among activity, mood, and binge eating. BA, while effective in improving mood, was found not to be an effective treatment for BED, at least in the short group format investigated.

    Delarbeid
    1. Screening of Adult ADHD Among Patients Presenting for Bariatric Surgery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Screening of Adult ADHD Among Patients Presenting for Bariatric Surgery
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 918-926Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of bariatric surgery, research on symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their interrelationships with other psychological risk factors such as depression and anxiety is scarce. The symptoms of adult ADHD seem to be common in the obese population, but they are rarely investigated before bariatric surgery. ADHD-related symptoms such as impulsivity have at the same time been identified as potential risk factors for less successful weight loss among bariatric surgery patients. The aims of the current study were to screen for symptoms of adult ADHD and to investigate their relationships with other psychological risk factors. Candidates for bariatric surgery ( = 187) were anonymously screened for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and adult ADHD, in addition to disordered eating patterns, by means of questionnaires. The relations between these symptoms were investigated. In the current sample, 10% of patients screened positively for adult ADHD, and the symptoms of adult ADHD were significantly correlated with those of anxiety, depression, and disordered eating. The results show that adult ADHD is more common in this clinical group than in the general population (4%) and that adult ADHD is associated with disordered eating patterns, depression, and anxiety. Further prospective research, using multivariate analysis, is needed to investigate whether the symptoms of adult ADHD, and their interaction with anxiety, depression, or disordered eating, may possibly constitute a risk factor in terms of difficulties in adhering to the post-surgery regime and its potential unfavorable outcome.

    Emneord
    Bariatric surgery, Adult ADHD, Anonymous screening, Disordered eating, Binge eating disorder
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-175606 (URN)10.1007/s11695-011-0569-9 (DOI)000304117100013 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-06-12 Laget: 2012-06-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Group Behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and Binge eating disorder: A randomized controlled trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Group Behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and Binge eating disorder: A randomized controlled trial
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behavior modification, ISSN 0145-4455, E-ISSN 1552-4167, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 270-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-226371 (URN)10.1177/0145445514553093 (DOI)000349992100002 ()25268019 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-06-16 Laget: 2014-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Is age a better predictor of weight loss one year after Gastric bypass than symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD, and alcohol consumption?
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Is age a better predictor of weight loss one year after Gastric bypass than symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD, and alcohol consumption?
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 644-647Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Findings regarding psychological risk factors for low weight loss after bariatric surgery have been inconsistent. The association between gender and weight outcome is unclear while younger age has been consistently shown to be associated with better weight outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactions between gender and age on the one hand and symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD and alcohol consumption on the other hand in regard to weight loss after gastric bypass.

    METHODS:

    Bariatric surgery patients were recruited and asked to fill out self-report questionnaires regarding behavioral risk factors before and twelve months after surgery. Data from one hundred and twenty-nine patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    After controlling for age, no psychological variable measured prior to surgery could predict weight loss after twelve months. After surgery, there was an interaction effect between age, gender and specific eating disorder symptoms. Specifically, loss of control over eating was a risk factor for low weight loss among older, but not among younger, female participants. Symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with elevated alcohol consumption after surgery.

    DISCUSSION:

    These results indicate that age and gender may moderate the effects of potential risk factors for inferior weight outcome. This interaction could potentially be one of the reasons behind the mixed findings in this field. Thus, there are important gender differences in the bariatric population that should be considered. The present study is the first to show that symptoms of adult ADHD may not be a risk factor for inferior weight loss but for alcohol risk consumption after gastric bypass.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-226377 (URN)10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.08.024 (DOI)000345402700025 ()25260133 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-06-16 Laget: 2014-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-08bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 67.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Treatment Adherence in Internet-Based CBT: The Effects of Presentation, Support and Motivation2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Homework assignments that patient work with between sessions is a key component in both face-to-face and Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, adherence to assignments is often low and it is largely unclear what factors predict or affect treatment adherence, and in the end, treatment outcomes. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if treatment presentation and therapist support can affect adherence and treatment outcome in internet-based CBT, whether adherence can be predicted by motivation variables and to compare differences in face-to-face and online conditions in this regard.

    A randomized controlled trial with a brief online relaxation program for people with stress and anxiety symptoms was conducted (n = 162). Participants in the enhanced support conditions completed a larger proportion of the online treatment but adherence was not affected by enhanced treatment presentation (Study I). Participants reported reduced symptoms of stress and anxiety after the relaxation program but there were no significant additional effects of enhanced presentation or support (Study II). Participants who adhered to the prescribed assignments reported lower symptom levels at study end, regardless of treatment conditions. Adherence to the online treatment was predicted by subject factors such as treatment credibility prior to the treatment and intrinsic motivation during the treatment (Study III). To further elucidate how motivation may affect adherence, an experiment with a one-session psychotherapy model was subsequently conducted (n = 100). Participants who were randomized to the face-to-face condition reported higher motivation for the assignment and completed significantly more of the homework compared to participants in the online condition (Study IV). Self-reported intrinsic motivation could predict adherence in both conditions while new motivational variables were identified specifically for the online condition.

    The results from these studies confirm that adherence to assignments in Internet-based CBT is difficult to affect with treatment features but can be predicted early in treatment by subject factors such as treatment credibility and motivation. How such motivational variables can be affected to improve treatments is still unclear.

    Delarbeid
    1. Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 60, s. 550-558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In both face to face and Internet based Cognitive Behavior Therapy, patients' adherence can be improved by different means such as by using motivational techniques or automatic reminders. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether enriched treatment material presentation and/or increased frequency and quality of support would increase participants' adherence to an online relaxation program. One hundred and sixty-two participants with mild to moderate symptoms of stress or worry were included in this study. Participants were randomized to either Normal or Enhanced intervention presentation and Normal or Enhanced support in a full factorial design. Main outcome variables were progress through the online intervention and adherence to prescribed exercises. Participants in the Enhanced support group progressed further through the program than participants in the Normal support group (Z = 2.11, p = .035, r = .17) but there were no significant differences found between the Normal and Enhanced presentation groups. Participants registered a mean of 60% of the prescribed exercises with no significant differences between groups. This study shows that adherence to online interventions can be increased by increased frequency and quality of therapeutic contact. Future studies may investigate how to increase adherence to prescribed homework assignments and whether parts of the therapeutic support may be substituted with automatic systems with retained effects.

    Emneord
    Internet; Psychotherapy; Stress; Adherence
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279739 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.035 (DOI)000375811900056 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-03 Laget: 2016-03-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 289-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of stress are common in the general population and associated with health risks and economic costs. Applied relaxation training has shown to be effective for reducing stress and worry both as a self-help treatment and as an internet-based intervention with therapist support. However, what factors may affect the outcome of internet based relaxation training is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of a brief internet based relaxation program for people with symptoms of stress or worry and to assess whether enhancing the quality of intervention presentation or therapist support had an impact on outcomes.

    Participants were randomized in a full factorial design to either Normal or Enhanced treatment Presentation and either Normal or Enhanced therapist Support in a four-week online program with applied relaxation. The main outcome measures were self-report instruments of stress and worry.

    A total of 162 participants were included in the study and 94 and 84 participants completed the post and follow-up measurements respectively. Participants in all conditions improved significantly on the main outcome measures, and the different levels of Presentation or therapist Support did not significantly affect treatment outcome. Registered number of completed exercises was a predictor of better treatment outcome, but this effect was independent of treatment condition. Enhancing internet based interventions by improving presentations and the quality of support may thus not be the best way to further improve the effect of internet based interventions. More specific knowledge of the mechanisms that affect outcomes in online psychotherapy is needed.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260069 (URN)10.1016/j.invent.2015.07.005 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-14 Laget: 2015-08-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikkel-id e52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279736 (URN)10.2196/jmir.5352 (DOI)000380777800004 ()26957354 (PubMedID)
    Eksternt samarbeid:
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-03 Laget: 2016-03-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

    Emneord
    Adherence, Motivation, Psychoeducation, Internet, Homework assignments
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280799 (URN)10.1186/s40359-017-0172-5 (DOI)28126022 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-15 Laget: 2016-03-15 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-08bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 68.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Uddling, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment2017Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

  • 69.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Maathz, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Interformat Reliability of Digital Psychiatric Self-Report Questionnaires: A Systematic Review2014Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, nr 12, s. 86-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research.

    METHODS: Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales.

    RESULTS: From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats.

    CONCLUSIONS: When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue. Future studies should preferably provide information about the transformation of the instrument into digital format and the procedure for data collection in more detail.

  • 70.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikkel-id e52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

  • 71.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program2015Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 289-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of stress are common in the general population and associated with health risks and economic costs. Applied relaxation training has shown to be effective for reducing stress and worry both as a self-help treatment and as an internet-based intervention with therapist support. However, what factors may affect the outcome of internet based relaxation training is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of a brief internet based relaxation program for people with symptoms of stress or worry and to assess whether enhancing the quality of intervention presentation or therapist support had an impact on outcomes.

    Participants were randomized in a full factorial design to either Normal or Enhanced treatment Presentation and either Normal or Enhanced therapist Support in a four-week online program with applied relaxation. The main outcome measures were self-report instruments of stress and worry.

    A total of 162 participants were included in the study and 94 and 84 participants completed the post and follow-up measurements respectively. Participants in all conditions improved significantly on the main outcome measures, and the different levels of Presentation or therapist Support did not significantly affect treatment outcome. Registered number of completed exercises was a predictor of better treatment outcome, but this effect was independent of treatment condition. Enhancing internet based interventions by improving presentations and the quality of support may thus not be the best way to further improve the effect of internet based interventions. More specific knowledge of the mechanisms that affect outcomes in online psychotherapy is needed.

  • 72.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Høyer Lundh, Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Department of Nursing, Metropolitan University College, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress one and three years after a breast cancer diagnosis2016Inngår i: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 4017-4023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: A large group of women (20-30%) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological distress in this patient group. METHODS: Women with breast cancer (n=833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. RESULTS: The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28%) at T1 and 231 (28%) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14%) women at T1 and 92 (11%) at T2. Despite non-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15%) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7%) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reporting high levels of fatigue was the variable most strongly associated with increased psychological distress over time. CONCLUSION: Most participants reported decreased psychological distress over time, but there were subgroups of women who experienced sustained or increased symptoms of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions.

  • 73.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Linderman, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Winnerhed, Sara
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial2016Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 60, s. 550-558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In both face to face and Internet based Cognitive Behavior Therapy, patients' adherence can be improved by different means such as by using motivational techniques or automatic reminders. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether enriched treatment material presentation and/or increased frequency and quality of support would increase participants' adherence to an online relaxation program. One hundred and sixty-two participants with mild to moderate symptoms of stress or worry were included in this study. Participants were randomized to either Normal or Enhanced intervention presentation and Normal or Enhanced support in a full factorial design. Main outcome variables were progress through the online intervention and adherence to prescribed exercises. Participants in the Enhanced support group progressed further through the program than participants in the Normal support group (Z = 2.11, p = .035, r = .17) but there were no significant differences found between the Normal and Enhanced presentation groups. Participants registered a mean of 60% of the prescribed exercises with no significant differences between groups. This study shows that adherence to online interventions can be increased by increased frequency and quality of therapeutic contact. Future studies may investigate how to increase adherence to prescribed homework assignments and whether parts of the therapeutic support may be substituted with automatic systems with retained effects.

  • 74.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Group Behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and Binge eating disorder: A randomized controlled trial2015Inngår i: Behavior modification, ISSN 0145-4455, E-ISSN 1552-4167, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 270-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  • 75.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Self-€reported symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among obese patients seeking bariatric surgery and its relation to alcohol consumption, disordered eating and gender2013Inngår i: Clinical Obesity, ISSN 1758-8103, E-ISSN 1758-8111, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 124-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What is already known about this subject

    • Symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common among people with obesity.
    • Symptoms of ADHD are associated with other impulsive behaviours.
    • Impulsivity can manifest differently in women and men.

    What this study adds

    • The prevalence of ADHD symptoms was equal in both sexes in this patient group.
    • ADHD symptoms were associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in men but not in women.
    • It may be important to investigate several comorbid conditions simultaneously instead of a single diagnosis.

    Eating disorders and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), both characterized by deficits in impulse control, are common among bariatric surgery patients. Previous studies in other groups have found gender differences in how symptoms of ADHD and eating disorders manifest as women show more disordered eating and men show more risk consumption of alcohol. In the present study, the association between symptoms of adult ADHD, eating disorders and hazardous alcohol consumption was investigated, while considering gender differences. Self-report questionnaires were obtained from 276 bariatric surgery patients 3–6 months before surgery. The prevalence rates of adult ADHD and binge eating disorder (BED) were 8.6% and 6.3%, respectively, with no evidence of gender difference in the prevalence rates. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by a significantly larger portion of men (16.9%) than women (8.6%). There was an association between adult ADHD and both BED and hazardous alcohol consumption. However, symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in men but not in women. Our results suggest gender differences in hazardous alcohol consumption and self-reported symptoms of disordered eating despite similar prevalence rate of BED, but no gender difference in symptoms of adult ADHD. Finally, as the associations between these variables seem to be different in women and men, future

  • 76.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 206-228Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists’ competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 77.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Sewall, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lidholm, Henning
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The meal pattern questionnaire: A psychometric evaluation using the eating disorder examination2016Inngår i: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 21, s. 7-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Meal pattern is an important variable in both obesity treatment and treatment for eating disorders. Momentary assessment and eating diaries are highly valid measurement methods but often cumbersome and not always feasible to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a self-report instrument for measuring meal patterns.

    Method

    The Pattern of eating item from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview was adapted to self-report format to follow the same overall structure as the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The new instrument was named the Meal Patterns Questionnaire (MPQ) and was compared with the EDE in a student sample (n = 105) and an obese sample (n = 111).

    Results

    The individual items of the MPQ and the EDE showed moderate to high correlations (rho = .63–89) in the two samples. Significant differences between the MPQ and EDE were only found for two items in the obese sample. The total scores correlated to a high degree (rho = .87/.74) in both samples and no significant differences were found in this variable.

    Discussion

    The MPQ can provide an overall picture of a person's eating patterns and is a valid way to collect data regarding meal patterns. The MPQ may be a useable tool in clinical practice and research studies when more extensive instruments cannot be used. Future studies should evaluate the MPQ in diverse cultural populations and with more ecological assessment methods.

  • 78.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Parling, Thomas
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Lundgren, Tobias
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review2017Inngår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, nr 94, s. 1-6Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees ’ competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees ’ patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically. Discussion: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

  • 79.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Is age a better predictor of weight loss one year after Gastric bypass than symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD, and alcohol consumption?2014Inngår i: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 644-647Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Findings regarding psychological risk factors for low weight loss after bariatric surgery have been inconsistent. The association between gender and weight outcome is unclear while younger age has been consistently shown to be associated with better weight outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactions between gender and age on the one hand and symptoms of disordered eating, depression, adult ADHD and alcohol consumption on the other hand in regard to weight loss after gastric bypass.

    METHODS:

    Bariatric surgery patients were recruited and asked to fill out self-report questionnaires regarding behavioral risk factors before and twelve months after surgery. Data from one hundred and twenty-nine patients were analyzed.

    RESULTS:

    After controlling for age, no psychological variable measured prior to surgery could predict weight loss after twelve months. After surgery, there was an interaction effect between age, gender and specific eating disorder symptoms. Specifically, loss of control over eating was a risk factor for low weight loss among older, but not among younger, female participants. Symptoms of adult ADHD were associated with elevated alcohol consumption after surgery.

    DISCUSSION:

    These results indicate that age and gender may moderate the effects of potential risk factors for inferior weight outcome. This interaction could potentially be one of the reasons behind the mixed findings in this field. Thus, there are important gender differences in the bariatric population that should be considered. The present study is the first to show that symptoms of adult ADHD may not be a risk factor for inferior weight loss but for alcohol risk consumption after gastric bypass.

  • 80.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Centre for Psychiatry Research Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Maathz, Pernilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factor structure and validity of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation2017Inngår i: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 24, nr 2-3, s. 154-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS-21 was assessed by confirmatory factor analyses and the convergent validity by investigating its unique correlations with other psychiatric instruments. Results A bifactor structure with depression, anxiety, stress and a general factor provided the best fit indices for the DASS-21. The convergent validity was adequate for the Depression and Anxiety subscales but more ambiguous for the Stress subscale. Discussion The present study overall supports the validity and factor structure of the DASS-21. Implications for practice The DASS-21 can be used to measure symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as overall distress. It can be useful for mental health nurses, and other first-line psychiatric professionals, in need of a short, feasible and valid instrument in everyday care

  • 81.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Weineland-Strandskov, Sandra
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Gastrointestinalkirurgi.
    Self-Reported Hedonism Predicts 12-Month Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass2017Inngår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 2073-2078Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Research regarding psychological risk factors for reduced weight loss after bariatric surgery has yielded mixed results, especially for variables measured prior to surgery. More profound personality factors have shown better promise and one such factor that may be relevant in this context is time perspective, i.e., the tendency to focus on present or future consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of time perspective for 12-month weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Methods A total of 158 patients were included and completed self-report instruments prior to surgery. Weight loss was measured after 12 months by medical staff. Background variables as well as self-reported disordered eating, psychological distress, and time perspective were analyzed with regression analysis to identify significant predictors for 12-month weight loss.

    Results The mean BMI loss at 12 months was 14 units, from 45 to 30 kg/m(2). Age, sex, and time perspective could significantly predict weight loss but only male sex and self-reported hedonism were independent risk factors for reduced weight loss in the final regression model.

    Conclusion In this study, self-reported hedonistic time perspective proved to be a better predictor for 12-month weight loss than symptoms of disordered eating and psychological distress. It is possible that a hedonistic tendency of focusing on immediate consequences and rewards is analogous to the impaired delay discounting seen in previous studies of bariatric surgery candidates. Further studies are needed to identify whether these patients may benefit from extended care and support after surgery.

  • 82.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whose Side is Technology on Really?: On the Interdependence of Work and Technology.2017Inngår i: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] N. Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017, 3, s. 121-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 83.
    Alm, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dyslexia: Relevance of Concepts, Validity of Measurements, and Cognitive Functions2004Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis opens with an exposition of different uses of the term dyslexia. In that context its conceptual relevance is discussed. The empirical studies investigate a) different aspects of validity of cognitive and achievement instruments often used in diagnostic assessment of dyslexia, b) different cognitive profiles for adults with dyslexia, and c) the relationship between cognitive and achievement measures.

    Study I demonstrated the factor structure of the Swedish WAIS-R to be in close agreement with results of comparable analyses on normal and clinical groups in many countries world-wide, giving strong support for the construct validity of the Swedish WAIS-R for a group of adults diagnosed with dyslexia. The results from the three-factor solution were interpreted in terms of theoretical constructs, notably those posited by Carroll (1993) and Horn (1989).

    The cognitive profiles of a sample of Swedish adults diagnosed with dyslexia—when using the three factors, the ACID profile, and the four-category Bannatyne profile—all resemble closely the profiles observed for a wide array of U.S. samples of children and adults diagnosed with dyslexia or learning disabilities. Gender differences on Digit Symbol, favoring females, were substantial in magnitude for the present sample, consistent with a bulk of research on gender differences for samples of normal individuals and of those identified with learning problems.

    In Study II, factor analysis of nine Swedish achievement tests often used for dyslexia assessment yielded five meaningful factors in a group of adults diagnosed with dyslexia. Factors appeared to measure decoding, visual speed, reading comprehension, reading fluency, and phonological ability. The relationship between the five achievement factors and WAIS-R variables was subsequently examined. The Visual Speed and Reading Comprehension factors each correlated significantly with four of six global WAIS-R scores (two of three IQs and two of three factor scores). Visual Speed tended to correlate significantly with nonverbal scores and Reading Comprehension with verbal scores. Although the Phonological Ability factor did not correlate significantly with any verbal or nonverbal global score, it did correlate significantly with the Freedom from Distractibility factor and with all its component subtests—Digit Span, Arithmetic, and Digit Symbol. Decoding (technical reading skill) showed no significant relationship to any WAIS-R variable studied. More surprisingly, the Reading Fluency factor failed to show significant relationships to the WAIS-R.

    Study III examined the validity of The Word Chain Test, a frequently used instrument in Swedish screening and diagnostic assessments of dyslexia. Different sources of validity evidence were evaluated. In summary, the results failed to support validity both for the WRI-index and the Wordchain subtest, suggesting that the instrument seems to be of questionable value in screening or diagnostic assessment of dyslexia.

    Delarbeid
    1. The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia
    2002 Inngår i: Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 0022-2194, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 321-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91479 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2004-03-24 Laget: 2004-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Achivement Factors in Dyslexia Assessment: Relations to Cognitive Factors
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Achivement Factors in Dyslexia Assessment: Relations to Cognitive Factors
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91480 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2004-03-24 Laget: 2004-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. A Validation Study of the Swedish Word Chain Test
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Validation Study of the Swedish Word Chain Test
    Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91481 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2004-03-24 Laget: 2004-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 84.
    Alm, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaufman, Alan, S.
    The Swedish WAIS-R Factor Structure and Cognitive Profiles for Adults with Dyslexia2002Inngår i: Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 321-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Factor analysis of the Swedish WAIS-R on a group of 88 adult individuals with dyslexia showed a three-factor structure with a Verbal Comprehension (VC) factor, a Perceptual Organization (PO) factor, and a third Freedom from Distractibility (FD) factor. Th

  • 85.
    Alm, Per A
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety:: a critical review2004Inngår i: Journal of fluency disorders, ISSN 0094-730X, E-ISSN 1873-801X, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 123-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation to stressful speech situations indicate that adults who stutter tend to show a paradoxical reduction of heart rate compared with nonstuttering persons. Reduction of heart rate has also been observed in humans and mammals during anticipation of an unpleasant stimulus, and is proposed to be an indication of anticipatory anxiety resulting in a “freezing response” with parasympathetic inhibition of the heart rate. It is suggested that speech-related anticipatory anxiety in persons who stutter is likely to be a secondary, conditioned reaction based on previous experiences of stuttering.

  • 86. Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Lif, Patrik
    The value of spatial cues in 3D air traffic displays2007Inngår i: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 109-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in implementing 3D pictorial displays for traffic information in aircraft has been prevalent for decades without any obvious implementation in the cockpit. Our research is focused on design issues for these displays. The purpose of the experiments discussed here was to investigate where and when additional spatial cues, e.g., drop-lines, could contribute to better performance and whether such additions could replace shifts between 2D and 3D presentation for different tasks. Our results show that drop-lines are beneficial in focused attention tasks but are not necessarily beneficial in more integrated tasks. This speaks to the need for an adaptive approach to the presentation of flight situation displays.

  • 87.
    Ander, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cancer during adolescence: Psychological consequences and development of psychological treatment2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to examine long-term psychological distress following cancer during adolescence and to develop a tailored psychological intervention to reduce cancer-related distress experienced by young survivors of adolescent cancer that was feasible and acceptable.

    Study I adopted a longitudinal design, assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents diagnosed with cancer from shortly after diagnosis (n=61) up to 10 years after diagnosis (n=28). Findings suggest that development of HRQOL and anxiety and depression is not linear and whilst the majority adjust well, a subgroup report long-term elevated distress. In Study II, experiences of cancer-related psychological distress were explored using unstructured interviews. Participants described cancer treatment as a mental challenge, felt marked and hindered by the cancer experience, and struggled with feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, existential issues, and difficulties handling emotions. Study III was a preliminary investigation of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), alongside the identification and conceptualisation of cancer-related concerns using cognitive-behavioural theory. Significant difficulties with recruitment were encountered. Participants reported cancer-related concerns conceptualised as social avoidance, fear and avoidance of emotions and bodily symptoms, imbalance in activity, and worry and rumination. In Study IV, the acceptability and feasibility of an internet-administered CBT based self-help intervention (ICBT) for young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence was examined using an uncontrolled design and embedded process evaluation. The study protocol for Study IV was included in this thesis along with preliminary findings demonstrating significant difficulties with recruitment.

    Overall, findings suggest that whilst the majority of survivors of adolescent cancer adjust well over time a subgroup report elevated levels of distress and a range of distressing cancer-related experiences. A number of cancer-related difficulties were identified in Study II and III, which may be used to inform the development of future psychological treatments for the population. Preliminary investigation of the psychological interventions examined within this thesis further highlights the need for future development work to enhance the feasibility and acceptability of psychological support for the population. 

    Delarbeid
    1. Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 582-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-262514 (URN)10.1002/pon.3965 (DOI)000374494700014 ()26361085 (PubMedID)
    Eksternt samarbeid:
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Cancer Society, 99 0347 01 0235 02 0690 03 0227 05 0189 10 0649 11 0649 12 0649Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 1999/021 02/002 04/011 07/044 10/086
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-16 Laget: 2015-09-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Exploration of psychological distress experienced by survivors of adolescent cancer reporting a need for psychological support
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Exploration of psychological distress experienced by survivors of adolescent cancer reporting a need for psychological support
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikkel-id e0195899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to provide an in-depth exploration of cancer-related psychological distress experienced by young survivors of cancer during adolescence reporting a need for psychological support.

    Methods

    Two individual interviews were held with ten young survivors of cancer diagnosed in adolescence. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis followed the guidelines for inductive qualitative manifest content analysis.

    Results

    The survivors described distress experienced during and after the end of treatment. Five categories comprising 14 subcategories were generated. The categories included: A tough treatment, Marked and hindered, Not feeling good enough, Struggling with the fragility of life, and finally, An ongoing battle with emotions.

    Conclusion

    Young survivors of adolescent cancer reporting a need for psychological support described feeling physically, socially, and mentally marked by the cancer experience. They struggled with powerlessness, insecurity, social disconnection, loneliness, and feelings of being unimportant and a failure, and had difficulties understanding and managing their experiences. These concerns should be addressed in psychological treatments for the population irrespective of which approach or model is used to understand survivors’ difficulties. A transdiagnostic approach targeting processes that underpin different manifestations of distress may be effective.

    Emneord
    adolescence, cancer, psychological distress, psychological treatment, survivorship, qualitative methods
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Medicinsk vetenskap; Psykologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330127 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0195899 (DOI)000430262300041 ()29664926 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    U‐Care: Better Psychosocial Care at Lower Cost? Evidence-based assessment and Psychosocial Care via Internet, a Swedish ExampleSwedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 2013-0039; 2016-0004Swedish Research Council
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-26bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. A preliminary open trial of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy for young survivors of cancer during adolescence: initial findings and conceptualisation of distress
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A preliminary open trial of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy for young survivors of cancer during adolescence: initial findings and conceptualisation of distress
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer in adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. Empirically-supported treatments tailored to the concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary evaluation of an individualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence and (2) identify and conceptualise cancer-related psychological concerns using cognitive-behavioural theory.

    Methods: A single-arm trial in which ten AYA (17-25 years) survivors of cancer during adolescence were offered up to 15 sessions of individualised CBT guided by behavioural case formulations was undertaken. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and three months follow-up. Before commencing treatment, two individual qualitative interviews were conducted with each participant. Analysis of cancer-related concerns was guided by qualitative framework analysis and theoretical thematic analysis, and cognitive-behavioural theory was used to inform identification of themes.

    Results: Ten of 201 potential participants invited to participate were included resulting in an overall participation rate of 5%. Nine participants completed treatment and eight completed the follow-up assessment. The majority of concerns reported were cancer-related and conceptualised as social avoidance, fear and avoidance of emotions and bodily symptoms, low mood and unbalance in activity, and worry and rumination.

    Conclusions: Given significant difficulties with recruitment, further research is needed to examine barriers and the impact of mental health literacy and stigma on help seeking in the AYA cancer survivor population. Internet-administered CBT self-help tailored towards the main presenting concerns of AYA cancer survivors may be a promising solution.

    Emneord
    Adolescence, Cancer, Cognitive behaviour therapy, Psychological treatment, Tonår, Cancer, Kognitiv beteendeterapi, Psykologisk behandling
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330126 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    U‐Care: Better Psychosocial Care at Lower Cost? Evidence-based assessment and Psychosocial Care via Internet, a Swedish ExampleSwedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, 2016-0004, 2013-0039
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-10-31 Laget: 2017-10-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-31
    4. Guided Internet-Administered Self-Help to Reduce Symptoms Of Anxiety and Depression Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer During Adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): study protocol for a feasibility trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Guided Internet-Administered Self-Help to Reduce Symptoms Of Anxiety and Depression Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer During Adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): study protocol for a feasibility trial
    Vise andre…
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id e013906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15-25years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive-behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Uppsala, Sweden (ref: 2016/210). Findings will be disseminated to relevant research, clinical, health service and patient communities through publications in peer-reviewed and popular science journals and presentations at scientific and clinical conferences.

    Emneord
    adolescence, cognitive behavioural therapy, feasibility study, neoplasms, psychological treatment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-313898 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013906 (DOI)000395590300138 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation, PR2013-0039
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-25 Laget: 2017-01-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-19bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 88.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Hedström, Mariann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Mattsson, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study2016Inngår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 582-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

  • 89.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Ljungman, Gustaf ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn ()
    Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet.
    Ljungman, Lisa ()
    Cernvall, Martin ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Alfonsson, Sven ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Norlund, Fredrika ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Toft, Teolinda ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Arlinger Karlsson, Cecilia ()
    Grönqvist, Helena ()
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Stjernqvist, Claes ()
    Nordenstam, Lisa ()
    Boger, Marike
    Skogseid, Ellen ()
    U-CARE: UngaKan: Ett internet-administrerat guidat självhjälsprogram för unga som diagnosticerats med cancer under tonåren2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 90.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Losing your context - Exploration of emotional suffering after cancer during adolescence2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hovén, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Karolinska institutet.
    Exploration of psychological distress experienced by survivors of adolescent cancer reporting a need for psychological support2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikkel-id e0195899Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to provide an in-depth exploration of cancer-related psychological distress experienced by young survivors of cancer during adolescence reporting a need for psychological support.

    Methods

    Two individual interviews were held with ten young survivors of cancer diagnosed in adolescence. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis followed the guidelines for inductive qualitative manifest content analysis.

    Results

    The survivors described distress experienced during and after the end of treatment. Five categories comprising 14 subcategories were generated. The categories included: A tough treatment, Marked and hindered, Not feeling good enough, Struggling with the fragility of life, and finally, An ongoing battle with emotions.

    Conclusion

    Young survivors of adolescent cancer reporting a need for psychological support described feeling physically, socially, and mentally marked by the cancer experience. They struggled with powerlessness, insecurity, social disconnection, loneliness, and feelings of being unimportant and a failure, and had difficulties understanding and managing their experiences. These concerns should be addressed in psychological treatments for the population irrespective of which approach or model is used to understand survivors’ difficulties. A transdiagnostic approach targeting processes that underpin different manifestations of distress may be effective.

  • 92.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Wikman, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Woodford, Joanne
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, CEDAR, Psychol, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Lindahl Norberg, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Guided Internet-Administered Self-Help to Reduce Symptoms Of Anxiety and Depression Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer During Adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): study protocol for a feasibility trial2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id e013906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15-25years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive-behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Uppsala, Sweden (ref: 2016/210). Findings will be disseminated to relevant research, clinical, health service and patient communities through publications in peer-reviewed and popular science journals and presentations at scientific and clinical conferences.

  • 93.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Woodford, Joanne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska institutet.
    A preliminary open trial of individualised cognitive behavioural therapy for young survivors of cancer during adolescence: initial findings and conceptualisation of distressManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer in adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. Empirically-supported treatments tailored to the concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary evaluation of an individualised cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence and (2) identify and conceptualise cancer-related psychological concerns using cognitive-behavioural theory.

    Methods: A single-arm trial in which ten AYA (17-25 years) survivors of cancer during adolescence were offered up to 15 sessions of individualised CBT guided by behavioural case formulations was undertaken. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and three months follow-up. Before commencing treatment, two individual qualitative interviews were conducted with each participant. Analysis of cancer-related concerns was guided by qualitative framework analysis and theoretical thematic analysis, and cognitive-behavioural theory was used to inform identification of themes.

    Results: Ten of 201 potential participants invited to participate were included resulting in an overall participation rate of 5%. Nine participants completed treatment and eight completed the follow-up assessment. The majority of concerns reported were cancer-related and conceptualised as social avoidance, fear and avoidance of emotions and bodily symptoms, low mood and unbalance in activity, and worry and rumination.

    Conclusions: Given significant difficulties with recruitment, further research is needed to examine barriers and the impact of mental health literacy and stigma on help seeking in the AYA cancer survivor population. Internet-administered CBT self-help tailored towards the main presenting concerns of AYA cancer survivors may be a promising solution.

  • 94.
    Anders, Carlberg
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sigmund Freud och bisexualiteten2016Inngår i: Matrix, ISSN 0109-646X, E-ISSN 2387-600X, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 74-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) använder bisexualiteten under hela sin psykoanalytiska teoriutveckling och begreppet finns med från Drömtydning (1900) till Den ändliga och oändliga analysen (1937). Det var Freuds tidiga kollega Wilhelm Fliess som initierade begreppet bisexualitet på det mänskliga, psykologiska området och Freud fann detta mycket användbart i sina försök att förklara människan både som sexuell varelse och i vidare mening. Freud såg bisexualiteten som något medfött, hos alla människor, oavsett senare sexuell inriktning. Bisexualiteten finns med som ett av fundamenten i Freuds teori samtidigt som han inte slutgiltigt lyckas binda samman bisexualiteten med driftsläran.

  • 95.
    Andersson, Arne W
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Tschirner, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Recognizing complexity: Visualization for skilled professionals in complex work situations2014Inngår i: Building Bridges: HCI, Visualization, and Non-formal Modeling / [ed] Achim Ebert, Gerrit C. van den Veer, Gitta Domik, Nahum D. Gershon, & Inga Scheler, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, s. 47-66Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96. Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Enander, J.
    Andren, P.
    Hedman, E.
    Ljotsson, B.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergstrom, J.
    Kaldo, V.
    Lindefors, N.
    Andersson, G.
    Ruck, C.
    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012Inngår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 2193-2203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial.

    Method. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors.

    Results. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up.

    Conclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

  • 97.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wadstrom, Olle
    Psykologinsats, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Boberg, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Emil Yaroslav
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Axelsson, Erland
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjureberg, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-Based Extinction Therapy for Worry: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017Inngår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 391-402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Worry is a common phenotype in both psychiatric patients and the normal population. Worry can be seen as a covert behavior with primary function to avoid aversive emotional experiences. Our research group has developed a treatment protocol based on an operant model of worry, where we use exposure -based strategies to extinguish the catastrophic worry thoughts. The aim of this study was to test this treatment delivered via the Internet in a large-scale randomized controlled trial. We randomized 140 high-worriers [PSWQ]) to either Internet-based extinction therapy (IbET) or to a waiting-list condition (WL). Results showed that IbET was superior to WL with an overall large between-group effect size of d 1.39 (95% confidence interval [1.04,1.73]) on the PSWQ. In the IbET group, 58% were classified as responders. The corresponding figure for WL participants was 7%. IbET was also superior to the WL on secondary outcome measures of anxiety, depression, meta-cognitions, cognitive avoidance, and quality of life. Overall treatment results were maintained for the IbET group at 4- and 12-month follow-up. The results from this trial are encouraging as they indicate that worry can be targeted with an accessible and novel intervention for worry. Replication trials with active control group are needed.

  • 98.
    Andersson, G.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlbring, P.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ström, L.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaldo-Sandström, V.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekselius, L.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Treatment of mental disorders via the Internet2002Inngår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, nr S1, s. 69-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 99.
    Andersson, G. E. T.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hirvelä, C
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Changes in cerebral blood flow during cognitive distraction in tinnitus patients2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Andersson, G., Lindvall, N., Hursti, T., & Carlbring, P
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis). A prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post2002Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, Vol. 41, s. 545-554Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
1234567 51 - 100 of 2268
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