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  • 51.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Är din dator intelligent? En snabborientering i artificiell intelligens1994Inngår i: UNG FORSKNING, Vol. 4/94, s. 52-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 52.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Banziger, Tanja
    Brunswikian lens model2009Inngår i: The Oxford companion to emotion and the affective sciences, New York: Oxford University Press , 2009, s. 80-81Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Goncalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music2015Inngår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 128, nr 3, s. 281-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

  • 54.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Goncalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    Manipulation of mechanisms underlying emotional reactions in music2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, 17-22 August 2015, Manchester, UK / [ed] J. Ginsborg, A. Lamont, & S. Bramley, Manchester, UK: The European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM) , 2015, s. 490-491Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and motives in music listening: A comparison of individualist and collectivist cultures2016Inngår i: Psychomusicology, ISSN 0275-3987, E-ISSN 2162-1535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Evans, Paul
    McPherson, Gary E
    L'interpretazione musicale e le emozioni2007Inngår i: Orientamenti per la didattica strumentale: Dalla ricerca all'insegnamento / [ed] Johannella Tafuri e Gary E. McPherson, Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana , 2007, s. 132-155Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Friberg, Anders
    Bresin, Roberto
    Toward a computational model of expression in music performance: The GERM model2002Inngår i: MUSICAE SCIENTIAE, ISSN 1029-8649, Vol. Special Issue 2001-2002, s. 63-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a computational model of expression in music performance: The GERM model. The purpose of the GERM model is to (a) describe the principal sources of variability in music performance, (b) emphasize the need to integrate different aspects of performance in a common model, and (c) provide some preliminaries (germ = a basis from which a thing may develop) for a computational model that simulates the different aspects. Drawing on previous research on performance, we propose that that performance expression derives from four main sources of variability: (1) Generative Rules, which function to convey the generative structure in a musical manner (e.g., Clarke, 1988; Sundberg, 1988); (2) Emotional Expression, which is governed by the performer’s expressive intention (e.g., Juslin, 1997a); (3) Random Variations, which reflect internal timekeeper variance and motor delay variance (e.g., Gilden, 2001; Wing & Kristofferson, 1973); and (4) Movement Principles, which prescribe that certain features of the performance are shaped in accordance with biological motion (e.g., Shove & Repp, 1995). A preliminary version of the GERM model was implemented by means of computer synthesis. Synthesized performances were evaluated by musically trained participants in a listening test. The results from the test support a decomposition of expression in terms of the GERM model. Implications for future research on music performance are discussed.

  • 58.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Friberg, Anders
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Feedback learning of musical expressivity2004Inngår i: Musical excellence: Strategies and techniques to enhance performance, New York: Oxford University Press , 2004, s. 247-270Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotion is of fundamental importance to the performance of music. However, recent research indicates that expressive aspects of performance are neglected in music education, with teachers spending more time and effort on technical aspects. Moreover, traditional strategies for teaching expressivity rarely provide informative feedback to the performer. In this chapter we explore the nature of expressivity in music performance and evaluate novel methods for teaching expressivity based on recent advances in musical science, psychology, technology, and acoustics. First, we provide a critical discussion of traditional views on expressivity, and dispel some of the myths that surround the concept of expressivity. Then, we propose a revised view of expressivity based on modern research. Finally, a new and empirically based approach to learning expressivity termed cognitive feedback is described and evaluated. The goal of cognitive feedback is to allow the performer to compare a model of his or her playing to an “optimal” model based on listeners’ judgments of expressivity. This method is being implemented in user-friendly software, which is evaluated in collaboration with musicians and music teachers.

  • 59.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Harmat, Laszlo
    Eerola, Tuomas
    What makes music emotionally significant?: Exploring the underlying mechanisms2014Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 599-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to study emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's response. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article, we propose an alternative approach, which seeks to explain musical emotions in terms of a set of underlying mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in musical events. We illustrate this approach by reporting a listening experiment, which manipulated a piece of music to activate four mechanisms: brain stem reflex; emotional contagion; episodic memory; and musical expectancy. The musical excerpts were played to 20 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 12 scales. Pulse rate, skin conductance, and facial expressions were also measured. Results indicated that target mechanisms were activated and aroused emotions largely as predicted by a multi-mechanism framework.

  • 60.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Harmat, László
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 105-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate). Unbeknownst to the listeners, the blocks consisted of two types of emotional speech: spontaneous and posed clips. As predicted, spontaneous clips yielded higher arousal levels than posed clips, suggesting that listeners implicitly distinguished between the two kinds of expression, even in the absence of any requirement to retrieve emotional information from the voice. We discuss the results with regard to theories of emotional contagion and the use of posed stimuli in studies of emotions.

  • 61.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Musical expression: An observational study of instrumental teaching.2008Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 309-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on expression and emotion. Lessons featuring five music teachers and 12 students were video-filmed, transcribed, content analyzed, and coded into categories of feedback and language use. Results suggested that the focus of teaching was mainly on technique and on the written score. Lessons were dominated by talk, with the teacher doing most of the talking. Issues concerning expression and emotion were mostly dealt with implicitly rather than explicitly, although some teachers used a variety of strategies to enhance expression. Although there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was the lack of clear goals, specific tasks, and systematic teaching patterns.

  • 62.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindström, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Friberg, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Play It Again With Feeling: Computer Feedback in Musical Communication of Emotions2006Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 79-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication of emotions is of crucial importance in music performance. Yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. This article presents and evaluates a computer program that automatically analyzes music performances and provides feedback to musicians in order to enhance their communication of emotions. Thirty-six semi-professional jazz/rock guitar players were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. Performance measures revealed the greatest improvement in communication accuracy for the computer program, but usability measures indicated that certain aspects of the program could be improved. Implications for music education are discussed.

  • 63.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: Different channels, same code?2003Inngår i: Psychological Bulletin, ISSN 0033-2909, Vol. 129, nr 5, s. 770-814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many authors have speculated about a close relationship between vocal expression of emotions and musical expression of emotions, but evidence bearing on this relationship has unfortunately been lacking. A review of 104 studies of vocal expression and 41 studies of music performance revealed similarities between the two channels concerning (a) the accuracy with which discrete emotions were communicated to listeners and (b) the emotion-specific patterns of acoustic cues used to communicate each emotion. The patterns are generally consistent with Scherer’s (1986) theoretical predictions. The results can explain why music is perceived as expressive of emotion and are consistent with an evolutionary perspective on vocal expression of emotions. Discussion focuses on hypotheses and directions for future research.

  • 64.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional expression in speech and music: Evidence of cross-modal similarities2003Inngår i: ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, Vol. 1000, s. 279-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 65.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Expression, perception, and induction of musical emotions: A review and a questionnaire study of everyday listening2004Inngår i: JOURNAL OF NEW MUSIC RESEARCH, ISSN 0929-8215, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 216-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of theory and research concerning expression, perception, and induction of emotion in music. We also provide a critique of this research, noting that previous studies have tended to neglect the social context of music listening. The most likely reason for this neglect, we argue, is that that most research on musical emotion has, implicitly or explicitly, taken the perspective of the musician in understanding responses to music. In contrast, we argue that a promising avenue toward a better understanding of emotional responses to music involves diary and questionnaire studies of how ordinary listeners actually use music in everyday life contexts. Accordingly, we present findings from an exploratory questionnaire study featuring 141 music listeners (between 17 and 74 years of age) that offers some novel insights. The results provide preliminary estimates of the occurrence of various emotions in listening to music, as well as clues to how music is used by listeners in a number of different emotional ways in various life contexts. These results confirm that emotion is strongly related to most people’s primary motives for listening to music.

  • 66.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impact of intended emotion intensity on cue utilization and decoding accuracy in vocal expression of emotion2001Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 381-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Actors vocally portrayed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust with weak and strong emotion intensity while reading brief verbal phrases aloud. The portrayals were recorded and analyzed according to 20 acoustic cues. Listeners decoded each portrayal by using forced-choice or quantitative ratings. The results showed that (a) portrayals with strong emotion intensity yielded higher decoding accuracy than portrayals with weak intensity, (b) listeners were able to decode the intensity of portrayals, (c) portrayals of the same emotion with different intensity yielded different patterns of acoustic cues, and (d) certain acoustic cues (e.g., fundamental frequency, high-frequency energy) were highly predictive of listeners' ratings of emotion intensity. It is argued that lack of control for emotion intensity may account for some of the inconsistencies in cue utilization reported in the literature.

  • 67.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impact of intended emotion intensity on cue utilization and decoding accuracy in vocal expression of emotion2004Inngår i: ISRE 2000: Proceedings of the 11th Meeting of the International Society for Research on Emotions, 2004, s. 278-281Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Improving emotional communication in music performance through cognitive feedback2000Inngår i: MUSICAE SCIENTIAE, ISSN 1029-8649, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 151-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether cognitive feedback (CFB) can improve the expressive skills of music performers. CFB involves providing performers with information about how their use of cues in the performance compares to an optimal model for emotional communication based on listeners’ judgments. Eight guitar players were asked to perform short pieces of music so as to communicate different emotions to listeners. Their performances were judged by fifty listeners. Multiple regression was used to model the cue utilization of both performers and listeners, and the two systems were related by means of the Lens Model Equation (Tucker, 1964). Then, the performers were given CFB and were asked to change their cue utilization on the basis of this feedback. The results indicated that (a) CFB yielded a fifty percent increase in communication accuracy after a single feedback session, (b) the performers reacted positively to the CFB, and (c) the performers showed limited insight with regard to their cue utilization prior to the CFB.

  • 69.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Mirror to Our Soul?: Comparisons of Spontaneous and Posed Vocal Expression of Emotion2018Inngår i: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 1-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been the subject of much debate in the study of vocal expression of emotions whether posed expressions (e.g., actor portrayals) are different from spontaneous expressions. In the present investigation, we assembled a new database consisting of 1877 voice clips from 23 datasets, and used it to systematically compare spontaneous and posed expressions across 3 experiments. Results showed that (a) spontaneous expressions were generally rated as more genuinely emotional than were posed expressions, even when controlling for differences in emotion intensity, (b) there were differences between the two stimulus types with regard to their acoustic characteristics, and (c) spontaneous expressions with a high emotion intensity conveyed discrete emotions to listeners to a similar degree as has previously been found for posed expressions, supporting a dose–response relationship between intensity of expression and discreteness in perceived emotions. Our conclusion is that there are reliable differences between spontaneous and posed expressions, though not necessarily in the ways commonly assumed. Implications for emotion theories and the use of emotion portrayals in studies of vocal expression are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How does music evoke emotions? Exploring the underlying mechanisms2010Inngår i: Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications. / [ed] P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010, s. 605-642Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Musical expression of emotions: Modeling listeners´ judgements of composed and performed features2010Inngår i: Music analysis, ISSN 0262-5245, E-ISSN 1468-2249, Vol. 29, nr 1-3, s. 334-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is commonly regarded as expressive of emotions that can be perceived by listeners. Nevertheless, the specific characteristics of this perceptual process are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the relationships between various features of musical structure and the emotions perceived by listeners, with a focus on the role of interactions among such features. Eight musical features (pitch, mode, melodic progression, rhythm, tempo, sound level, articulation and timbre) were systematically manipulated in a factorial design through synthesis. Ten musically trained listeners judged the resulting 384 pieces of music on five emotion scales. The relationships between musical features and listener judgements were modelled by means of multiple regression analysis. The results (1) confirmed empirically based predictions from previous post hoc analyses with respect to which musical features are associated with each emotion; (2) suggested that different musical features were important for different emotions; (3) indicated that some features (e.g. tempo) were more powerful than others overall; and (4) revealed that interactions made significant but small contributions to the predictive power of the regression models.

  • 72.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laukka, Petri
    Västfjäll, D
    Lundqvist, L-O
    Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults: prevalence and causal influences2011Inngår i: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 174-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have indicated that listeners value music primarily for its ability to arouse emotions. Yet little is known about which emotions listeners normally experience when listening to music, or about the causes of these emotions. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the prevalence of emotional reactions to music in everyday life and how this is influenced by various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to a random and nationally representative sample of 1.500 Swedish citizens between the ages of 18 and 65, and 762 participants (51%) responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-two items explored both musical emotions in general (semantic estimates) and the most recent emotion episode featuring music for each participant (episodic estimates). The results revealed several variables (e.g., personality, age. gender, listener activity) that were correlated with particular emotions. A multiple discriminant analysis indicated that three of the most common emotion categories in a set of musical episodes (i.e., happiness, sadness, nostalgia) could be predicted with a mean accuracy of 70% correct based on data obtained from the questionnaire. The results may inform theorizing about musical emotions and guide the selection of causal variables for manipulation in future experiments.

  • 73.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Silva, Ana Elizabete
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation2008Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 668-683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence.

  • 74.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindström, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotion in music performance.2016Inngår i: Oxford handbook of music psychology / [ed] S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut, New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, 2, s. 597-613Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Madison, Guy
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Do listeners use timing patterns to decode the emotional expression of music performances?1998Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, 1998, s. 293-298Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 76.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Madison, Guy
    The role of timing patterns in recognition of emotional expression from musical performance1999Inngår i: MUSIC PERCEPTION, ISSN 0730-7829, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 197-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether listeners can use timing patterns to decode the intended emotional expression of musical performances. We gradually removed different expressive cues (tempo, dynamics, timing, articulation) from piano performances rendered with various intended expressions (anger, sadness, happiness, fear) to see how such manipulations would affect a listener's ability to decode the emotional expression. The results show that (a) removing the timing patterns yielded a significant decrease in listeners' decoding accuracy, (b) timing patterns were by themselves capable of communicating some emotions with acuracy better than chance, and (c) timing patterns were less effective in communicating emotions than were tempo and dynamics. Implications for research on timing are discussed.

  • 77.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Persson, Roland S
    Emotional communication2002Inngår i: The science and psychology of music performance: Creative strategies for teaching and learning, New York: Oxford University Press , 2002, s. 219-236Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We review research which shows that performers are able to communicate specific emotions to listeners, and that they use a large number of musical features in the performance to accomplish a particular expression. The findings are organized according to a theoretical framework, which describes the communicative process in terms of E. Brunswik's (1956) lens model. We also discuss traditional strategies for teaching expression, including the use of metaphors, aural modeling, and felt emotion, and conclude that these strategies rarely provide informative feedback to the performer. A new and empirically based approach to teaching expression called cognitive feedback is outlined, and its efficacy evaluated. The goal is to provide performers with the tools they need to develop their own personal expression.

  • 78.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sakka, Laura S.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Idiographic modelling of aesthetic judgments of music2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Ninth Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music ESCOM, Manchester, 17-22 August, Manchester, UK. / [ed] J. Ginsborg, A. Lamont, & S. Bramley, Manchester, UK: The European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM) , 2015, s. 492-493Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 79.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sakka, Laura S.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Barradas, Gonçalo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    No accounting for taste? Idiographic models of aesthetic judgment in music2016Inngår i: Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, ISSN 1931-3896, E-ISSN 1931-390X, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 157-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is commonly regarded as one of the fine arts, but aesthetic responses to music are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated aesthetic judgments of music by using the tools of judgment analysis. The aim was to shed some light on the psychological process through which listeners use a set of subjective and differentially weighted criteria to assign aesthetic value to pieces of music. We used a stratified random sampling procedure to select 72 pieces of music from 12 genres. The pieces were divided across 2 groups of participants (N = 44), who rated each piece with regard to 7 aesthetic criteria (e.g., beauty, originality, expressivity) and overall aesthetic value. Both individual ("idiographic") and averaged ("nomothetic") multiple regression analyses were conducted on the listeners' judgments. The results revealed that (a) linear models provided a good fit to the listeners' aesthetic judgments (mean variance accounted for 76%), suggesting that the process is systematic and mainly additive; (b) some criteria (e.g., originality, skill) made a larger contribution to prediction than others overall; (c) there were wide individual differences between listeners concerning which criteria they used; (d) a nomothetic regression model did not adequately reflect the distinct judgment policies of individual listeners; (e) the trait openness to experience was not correlated with judgments of aesthetic value; and (f) listeners who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory generally provided higher ratings of aesthetic value (r = .40) than listeners who scored low.

  • 80.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Scherer, K R
    Speech emotion analysis2008Inngår i: Scholarpedia, Scholarpedia , 2008, 3, s. 4240-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Speech emotion analysis refers to the use of various methods to analyze vocal behavior as a marker of affect (e.g., emotions, moods, and stress), focusing on the nonverbal aspects of speech. The basic assumption is that there is a set of objectively measurable voice parameters that reflect the affective state a person is currently experiencing (or expressing for strategic purposes in social interaction). This assumption appears reasonable given that most affective states involve physiological reactions (e.g., changes in the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), which in turn modify different aspects of the voice production process. For example, the sympathetic arousal associated with an anger state often produce changes in respiration and an increase in muscle tension, which influence the vibration of the vocal folds and vocal tract shape, affecting the acoustic characteristics of the speech, which in turn can be used by the listener to infer the respective state (Scherer, 1986). Speech emotion analysis is complicated by the fact that vocal expression is an evolutionarily old nonverbal affect signaling system coded in an iconic and continuous fashion, which carries emotion and meshes with verbal messages that are coded in an arbitrary and categorical fashion. Voice researchers still debate the extent to which verbal and nonverbal aspects can be neatly separated. However, that there is some degree of independence is illustrated by the fact that people can perceive mixed messages in speech utterances – that is, that the words convey one thing, but that the nonverbal cues convey something quite different.

  • 81.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Scherer, Klaus R
    Vocal expression of affect2005Inngår i: The new handbook of methods in nonverbal behavior research, New york: Oxford University Press , 2005, s. 65-135Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, J A
    Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 83.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, J. A.
    Introduction: Aims, organization and terminology2010Inngår i: Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, application / [ed] P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda, New York: Oxford University Press , 2010, s. 3-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 84.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, J. A.
    Music and emotion2012Inngår i: The psychology of music / [ed] Deutsch, D., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012, 3, s. 583-645Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 85.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, J. A.
    The past, present and future of music and emotion reserch2010Inngår i: Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications / [ed] P. N. Juslin J. A. Sloboda, New York: Oxford University Press , 2010, s. 933-955Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 86.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, John
    Music and emotion: Theory and research2001Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sloboda, John A
    Music and emotion: Introduction2001Inngår i: Music and emotion: theory and research, New york: Oxford Unicersity Press , 2001, s. 3-20Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 88.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Timmers, R
    Expression and communication of emotion in music performance2010Inngår i: Handbook of music and emotion: Theory, research, applications / [ed] P. N. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda, New York: Oxford University Press , 2010, s. 453-489Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 89.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms2008Inngår i: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 559-575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the "default" mechanism for emotion induction, a cognitive appraisal. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework featuring six additional mechanisms through which music listening may induce emotions: (1) brain stem reflexes, (2) evaluative conditioning, (3) emotional contagion, (4) visual imagery, (5) episodic memory, and (6) musical expectancy. We propose that these mechanisms differ regarding such characteristics as their information focus, ontogenetic development, key brain regions, cultural impact, induction speed, degree of volitional influence, modularity, and dependence on musical structure. By synthesizing theory and findings from different domains, we are able to provide the first set of hypotheses that can help researchers to distinguish among the mechanisms. We show that failure to control for the underlying mechanism may lead to inconsistent or non-interpretable findings. Thus, we argue that the new framework may guide future research and help to resolve previous disagreements in the field. We conclude that music evokes emotions through mechanisms that are not unique to music, and that the study of musical emotions could benefit the emotion field as a whole by providing novel paradigms for emotion induction.

  • 90.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Zentner, Marcel R
    Current trends in the study of music and emotion: Overture2002Inngår i: MUSICAE SCIENTIAE, ISSN 1029-8649, Vol. Special Issue 2001-2002, s. 3-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of musical emotion is currently witnessing a renaissance. However, the literature on music and emotion still presents a confusing picture. The conceptual terrain is still being mapped, and considerable refinement is still needed in how we study music and emotion. With all the research currently devoted to this subject, it is all the more important that we have a good grasp of the current state of the art, so that we do not invent the wheel twice. With this aim in mind, the present authors organized a symposium at the Sixth International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition in Keele, UK, August, 2000. The intention was to bring together several researchers who have made theoretical and empirical contributions to the field in order to display “Current trends in the study of music and emotion”. This special issue presents extended and revised papers from that symposium, including a number of additional contributions. In this paper, we provide an introduction. We discuss the historical background, highlight the primary issues as they relate to the contents of the others contributions, and finally consider the gap that exists between art and science.

  • 91. Kantrowitz, Joshua T.
    et al.
    Leitman, David I.
    Lehrfeld, Jonathan M.
    Laukka, Petri
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Butler, Pamela D.
    Silipo, Gail
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Reduction in Tonal Discriminations Predicts Receptive Emotion Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder2013Inngår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 86-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Schizophrenia patients show decreased ability to identify emotion based upon tone of voice (voice emotion recognition), along with deficits in basic auditory processing. Interrelationship among these measures is poorly understood. Methods: Forty-one patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and 41 controls were asked to identify the emotional valence (happy, sad, angry, fear, or neutral) of 38 synthesized frequency-modulated (FM) tones designed to mimic key acoustic features of human vocal expressions. The mean (F0M) and variability (F0SD) of fundamental frequency (pitch) and absence or presence of high frequency energy (HF500) of the tones were independently manipulated to assess contributions on emotion identification. Forty patients and 39 controls also completed tone-matching and voice emotion recognition tasks. Results: Both groups showed a nonrandom response pattern (P < .0001). Stimuli with highest and lowest F0M/F0SD were preferentially identified as happy and sad, respectively. Stimuli with low F0M and midrange F0SD values were identified as angry. Addition of HF500 increased rates of angry and decreased rates of sad identifications. Patients showed less differentiation of response across frequency changes, leading to a highly significant between-group difference in response pattern to maximally identifiable stimuli (d = 1.4). The differential identification pattern for FM tones correlated with deficits in basic tone-matching ability (P = .01), voice emotion recognition (P < .001), and negative symptoms (P < .001). Conclusions: Specific FM tones conveyed reliable emotional percepts in both patients and controls and correlated highly with deficits in ability to recognize information based upon tone of voice, suggesting significant bottom-up contributions to social cognition and negative symptom impairments in schizophrenia.

  • 92.
    Karlsson, Jessika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljeström, Simon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Teaching Musical Expression: Effects of production and delivery of feedback by teacher vs. computer on rated feedback quality2009Inngår i: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 175-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that a computer program may improve performers' abilities to express emotions through their performance. Yet performers seem reluctant to embrace this novel technology. In this study we explored possible reasons for these negative impressions. Eighty guitarists performed a piece of music to express various emotions, received feedback on their performances, and judged the quality of the feedback they received on rating scales. In a 2 x 2 between-subjects factorial design, we manipulated (a) the performers’ belief about whether the feedback was produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback delivery) and (b) the feedback contents in terms of whether they were really produced by a teacher or a computer program (feedback production). Results revealed significant main effects of both production and delivery, but no interaction between the two. That is, the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. While both types of feedback were rated as equally easy to understand, feedback from teachers was rated as more detailed. Additional analyses revealed that teacher-produced feedback was appreciated because it offered encouragement, examples, and explanations. Implications for computer applications in music education are discussed.

  • 93.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Similar patterns of age-related differences in emotion recognition from speech and music2007Inngår i: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 182-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Young and old adults' ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions and music performances was compared. The stimuli consisted of (a) acted speech (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; each posed with both weak and strong emotion intensity), (b) synthesized speech (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness), and (c) short melodies played on the electric guitar (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness; each played with both weak and strong emotion intensity). The listeners' recognition of discrete emotions and emotion intensity was assessed and the recognition rates were controlled for various response biases. Results showed emotion-specific age-related differences in recognition accuracy. Old adults consistently received significantly lower recognition rates for negative, but not for positive, emotions for both speech and music stimuli. Some age-related differences were also evident in the listeners' ratings of emotion intensity. The results show the importance of considering individual emotions in studies on age-related differences in emotion recognition.

  • 94.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bresin, Roberto
    A dimensional approach to vocal expression of emotion2005Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, Vol. 19, s. 633-653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored a dimensional approach to vocal expression of emotion. Actors vocally portrayed emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness) with weak and strong emotion intensity. Listeners (30 university students and 6 speech experts) rated each portrayal on 4 emotion dimensions (activation, valence, potency, emotion intensity). The portrayals were also acoustically analyzed with respect to 20 vocal cues (e.g., speech rate, voice intensity, fundamental frequency, spectral energy distribution). The results showed that (a) there were distinct patterns of ratings of activation, valence, and potency for the different emotions, (b) all 4 emotion dimensions were correlated with several vocal cues, (c) listeners’ ratings could be successfully predicted from the vocal cues for all dimensions except valence, and (d) the intensity dimension was positively correlated with the activation dimension in the listeners’ ratings.

  • 95.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impact of intended emotion intensity on cue utilization and decoding accuracy in vocal expression of emotion.2000Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 35, s. 288-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96. Leitman, David I.
    et al.
    Laukka, Petri
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Saccente, Erica
    Butler, Pamela
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Getting the Cue: Towards a sensory basis of auditory emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia2010Inngår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 545-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with schizophrenia show reliable deficits in the ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions. Here, we examined emotion recognition ability in 23 schizophrenia patients relative to 17 healthy controls using a stimulus battery with well-characterized acoustic features. We further evaluated performance deficits relative to ancillary assessments of underlying pitch perception abilities. As predicted, patients showed reduced emotion recognition ability across a range of emotions, which correlated with impaired basic tone matching abilities. Emotion identification deficits were strongly related to pitch-based acoustic cues such as mean and variability of fundamental frequency. Whereas healthy subjects' performance varied as a function of the relative presence or absence of these cues, with higher cue levels leading to enhanced performance, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less variation in performance as a function of cue level. In contrast to pitch-based cues, both groups showed equivalent variation in performance as a function of intensity-based cues. Finally, patients were less able than controls to differentiate between expressions with high and low emotion intensity, and this deficit was also correlated with impaired tone matching ability. Both emotion identification and intensity rating deficits were unrelated to valence of intended emotions. Deficits in both auditory emotion identification and more basic perceptual abilities correlated with impaired functional outcome. Overall, these findings support the concept that auditory emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia reflect, at least in part, a relative inability to process critical acoustic characteristics of prosodic stimuli and that such deficits contribute to poor global outcome.

  • 97.
    Liljeström, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music: A listening experiment2011Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 98.
    Liljeström, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music2013Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 579-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Music may arouse intense emotions in listeners, but little is known about thecircumstances that contribute to such reactions. Here we report a listening experiment that investigated the roles of selected musical, situational, and individual factors in emotionalreactions to music. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we manipulated music choice (self-chosen vs. randomly sampled) and social context (alone vs. with a close friend or partner). Fifty university students (20-43 years old) rated their emotional responses to the music in terms of overall emotion intensity and 15 emotions. We also measured personality traits (NEO-PI-R) and psychophysiological responses (skin conductance, heart rate). Consistent with predictions based on previous field studies, listeners reported more intense emotions (1) to self-chosenmusic than to randomly selected music and (2) when listening with a close friend or partner than when listening alone. Moreover, listeners scoring high on the trait Openness toexperience experienced more intense emotions than listeners scoring low. All three factors correlated positively with the experience of positive emotions such as happiness and pleasure.

  • 99. Lindström, Erik
    et al.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bresin, Roberto
    Williamon, Aaron
    Expressivity comes from within your soul: A questionnaire study of students´ perspectives on musical expressivity.2003Inngår i: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, Vol. 20, s. 23-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Lindström, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Bresin, Roberto
    Williamon, Aaron
    Expressivity comes from your soul: A questionnaire study of music students' perspectives on expressivity2003Inngår i: RESEARCH STUDIES IN MUSIC EDUCATION, ISSN 1321-103X, nr 20, s. 23-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about expressivity by philosophers, composers, musicologists, and psychologists, but little is known about how the musicians of tomorrow – music students – approach this subject. This paper reports an exploratory study in which 135 students from music conservatories in three countries (England, Italy, Sweden) filled out a questionnaire that addressed four themes: (a) conceptualizing expressivity, (b) expressivity in everyday practice, (c) expressivity in music teaching, and (d) novel teaching strategies. The results suggest that students define expressivity mainly in terms of communicating emotions and "playing with feeling". Expressive skills are regarded as highly important by students, and they would like to practice more on expressivity than is currently the case. However, most students are skeptical toward using computers in teaching of expressivity since they cannot see how such applications could work. The results suggest that expressivity deserves more attention in music education than has hitherto been the case.

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