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  • 51.
    Anker, A.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA;Natl Res Nucl Univ, MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
    Bingefors, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Gaswint, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Glaser, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Hanson, J. C.
    Whittier Coll, Dept Phys, Whittier, CA 90602 USA.
    Lahmann, R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Latif, U.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Nam, J.
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Phys, Taipei 10617, Taiwan;Natl Taiwan Univ, Leung Ctr Cosmol & Particle Astrophys, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
    Novikov, A.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA;Natl Res Nucl Univ, MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
    Klein, S. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Kleinfelder, S. A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Nelles, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Humbolt Univ Berlin, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Paul, M. P.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Persichilli, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Shively, S. R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA;Univ Calif Irvine, Res Cyberinfrastruct Ctr, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Wang, S-H
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Targeting ultra-high energy neutrinos with the ARIANNA experiment2019Inngår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 64, nr 12, s. 2595-2609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos (E > 10(16) eV) opens a new field of astronomy with the potential to reveal the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays especially if combined with observations in the electromagnetic spectrum and gravitational waves. The ARIANNA pilot detector explores the detection of UHE neutrinos with a surface array of independent radio detector stations in Antarctica which allows for a cost-effective instrumentation of large volumes. Twelve stations are currently operating successfully at the Moore's Bay site (Ross Ice Shelf) in Antarctica and at the South Pole. We will review the current state of ARIANNA and its main results. We report on a newly developed wind generator that successfully operates in the harsh Antarctic conditions and powers the station for a substantial time during the dark winter months. The robust ARIANNA surface architecture, combined with environmentally friendly solar and wind power generators, can be installed at any deep ice location on the planet and operated autonomously. We report on the detector capabilities to determine the neutrino direction by reconstructing the signal arrival direction of a 800 m deep calibration pulser, and the reconstruction of the signal polarization using the more abundant cosmic-ray air showers. Finally, we describe a large-scale design - ARIA - that capitalizes on the successful experience of the ARIANNA operation and is designed sensitive enough to discover the first UHF neutrino.

  • 52.
    Barwick, S. W.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Berg, E. C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Natl Res Nucl Univ, Moscow Engn Phys Inst, 31 Kashirskoye Highway, Moscow 115409, Russia;Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, 1082 Malott Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Gaswint, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Glaser, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Hanson, J. C.
    Whittier Coll, Dept Phys, 13406 E Philadelphia St, Whittier, CA 90602 USA.
    Klein, S. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Kleinfelder, S.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, 5200 Engn Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kravchenko, I.
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, Dept Phys & Astron, Theodore Jorgensen Hall 208, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Lahmann, R.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Latif, U.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, 1082 Malott Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Nam, J.
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Leung Ctr Cosmol & Particle Astrophys, 1 Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd Taipei, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
    Nelles, A.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Persichilli, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Sandstrom, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Thomas C Chamberlin Hall, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Thomas C Chamberlin Hall, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Res Cyberinfrastruct Ctr, 100 Campus Dr, Irvine, CA 92697 USA;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Observation of classically 'forbidden' electromagnetic wave propagation and implications for neutrino detection2018Inngår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, nr 7, artikkel-id 055Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing experimental efforts in Antarctica seek to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos by measurement of radio-frequency (RF) Askaryan radiation generated by the collision of a neutrino with an ice molecule. An array of RF antennas, deployed either in-ice or in-air, is used to infer the properties of the neutrino. To evaluate their experimental sensitivity, such experiments require a refractive index model for ray tracing radio-wave trajectories from a putative in-ice neutrino interaction point to the receiving antennas; this gives the degree of signal absorption or ray bending from source to receiver. The gradient in the density profile over the upper 200 meters of Antarctic ice, coupled with Fermat's least-time principle, implies ray "bending" and the existence of "forbidden" zones for predominantly horizontal signal propagation at shallow depths. After re-deriving the formulas describing such shadowing, we report on experimental results that, somewhat unexpectedly, demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic wave transport modes from nominally shadowed regions. The fact that this shadow-signal propagation is observed both at South Pole and the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica suggests that the effect may be a generic property of polar ice, with potentially important implications for experiments seeking to detect neutrinos.

  • 53.
    Barwick, S. W.
    et al.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.;Natl Res Nucl Univ, MEPhI Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia..
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Chiem, E.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Hanson, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys CCAPP, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Klein, S. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kleinfelder, S. A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Nelles, A.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Persichilli, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Phillips, S.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Prakash, T.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA..
    Reed, C.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Shively, S. R.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Off Informat Technol, Res Comp, Irvine, CA USA..
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Walker, J.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Radio detection of air showers with the ARIANNA experiment on the Ross Ice Shelf2017Inngår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 90, s. 50-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ARIANNA hexagonal radio array (HRA) is an experiment in its pilot phase designed to detect cosmogenic neutrinos of energies above 10(16) eV. The most neutrino-like background stems from the radio emission of air showers. This article reports on dedicated efforts of simulating and detecting the signals of cosmic rays. A description of the fully radio self-triggered data-set, the properties of the detected air shower signals in the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and the consequences for neutrino detection are given. 38 air shower signals are identified by their distinct waveform characteristics, are in good agreement with simulations and their signals provide evidence that neutrino-induced radio signals will be distinguishable with high efficiency in ARIANNA. The cosmic ray flux at a mean energy of 6.5(-1.0)(+1.2) x 10(17) eV is measured to be 1.1(-0.7)(+1.0) x 10(-16) eV(-1) km(-2) sr(-1) yr(-1) and one five-fold coincident event is used to illustrate the capabilities of the ARIANNA detector to reconstruct arrival direction and energy of air showers.

  • 54.
    Garrappa, S.
    et al.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Buson, S.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany;Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Baltimore, MD 21228 USA.
    Franckowiak, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Shappee, B. J.
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
    Beacom, J. F.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Dong, S.
    Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, 5 Yiheyuanlu, Haidian Dist Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.
    Holoien, T. W-S
    Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA.
    Kochanek, C. S.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Prieto, J. L.
    Univ Diego Portales, Nucleo Astron, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile;Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.
    Stanek, K. Z.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Thompson, T. A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alispach, C.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Andeen, K.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ansseau, I
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Axani, S.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Backes, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Bagherpour, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Barbano, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Baum, V
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Becker, K-H
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Bourbeau, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Bradascio, F.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Bretz, H-P
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bron, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brostean-Kaiser, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Busse, R. S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Carver, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Chen, C.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Clark, K.
    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24,Creighton Mine 9, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2, Canada.
    Classen, L.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Coppin, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Correa, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Cross, R.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Dave, P.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    DeLaunay, J. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Deoskar, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Diaz, A.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Dujmovic, H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dvorak, E.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Eberhardt, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Eller, P.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Friedman, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fritz, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Ganster, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Glauch, T.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Grant, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Guender, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Guenduez, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Aastron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Halve, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Henningsen, F.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hoinka, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huennefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA.
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Kappes, A.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Karl, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Keivani, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kopper, C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kowalski, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kulacz, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Lazar, J. P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Lohfink, E.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Makino, Y.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Mallot, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Maris, I. C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Medina, A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Meighen-Berger, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Nagai, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Pankova, D. , V
    Park, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Pizzuto, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Raissi, A.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rauch, L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Renzi, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Robertson, S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Safa, I
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PQ, England.
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Schaufel, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Schneider, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Silva, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Snihur, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stein, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Taboada, I
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Aastron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Tomankova, L.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Aastron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Tonnis, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Turcotte, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Elorrieta, M. A. Unland
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Watson, T. B.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Weldert, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Whitehorn, N.
    UCLA, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wolf, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Wrede, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube2019Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 880, nr 2, artikkel-id 103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multiwavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (<= 2 sigma) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multiwavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.

  • 55.
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    Queens Univ Belfast, Astrophys Res Ctr, Sch Math & Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland;Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku 20014, Finland.
    Huber, M.
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Queens Univ Belfast, Astrophys Res Ctr, Sch Math & Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Queens Univ Belfast, Astrophys Res Ctr, Sch Math & Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
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    Queens Univ Belfast, Astrophys Res Ctr, Sch Math & Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Chen, T-W
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbach Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Flewelling, H.
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
    Lowe, T.
    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
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    Univ Minnesota, Minnesota Inst Astrophys, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA.
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    Queens Univ Belfast, Astrophys Res Ctr, Sch Math & Phys, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
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    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
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    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
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    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
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    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24,Creighton Mine 9, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2, Canada.
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    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
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    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
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    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
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    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Phys Dept, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
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    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franckowiak, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Friedman, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fritz, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Ganster, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Garrappa, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Glauch, T.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Glsenkamp, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Guenduez, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
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    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
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    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
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    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
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    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
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    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
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    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huennefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA.
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Kalaczynski, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
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    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Karl, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kopper, C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kulacz, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Lazar, J. P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Lohfink, E.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Lucarelli, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Makino, Y.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Mallot, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mari, I. C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Medina, A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Meighen-Berger, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Nagai, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Pankova, D. , V
    Park, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Pérez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Pizzuto, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Raissi, A.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rauch, L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Renzi, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Robertson, S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Safa, I
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PQ, England.
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Schaufel, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Schneider, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Silva, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Snihur, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stein, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Taboada, I
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Tomankova, L.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Tonnis, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 16419, South Korea.
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Turcotte, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    Elorrieta, M. A. Unland
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Watson, T. B.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Weldert, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Whitehorn, N.
    UCLA, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wolf, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Wrede, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Nordin, J.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Search for transient optical counterparts to high-energy IceCube neutrinos with Pan-STARRS12019Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 626, artikkel-id A117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify the sources of the observed diffuse high-energy neutrino flux, it is crucial to discover their electromagnetic counterparts. To increase the sensitivity of detecting counterparts of transient or variable sources by telescopes with a limited field of view, IceCube began releasing alerts for single high-energy (E-v > 60 TeV) neutrino detections with sky localisation regions of order 1 degrees radius in 2016. We used Pan-STARRS1 to follow-up five of these alerts during 2016-2017 to search for any optical transients that may be related to the neutrinos. Typically 10-20 faint m(ip1) less than or similar to 22.5 mag) extragalactic transients are found within the Pan-STARRS1 footprints and are generally consistent with being unrelated field supernovae (SNe) and AGN. We looked for unusual properties of the detected transients, such as temporal coincidence of explosion epoch with the IceCube timestamp, or other peculiar light curve and physical properties. We found only one transient that had properties worthy of a specific follow-up. In the Pan-STARRS1 imaging for IceCube-160427A (probability to be of astrophysical origin of similar to 50%), we found a SN PS16cgx, located at 10.0' from the nominal IceCube direction. Spectroscopic observations of PS16cgx showed that it was an H-poor SN at redshift z = 0.2895 +/- 0.0001. The spectra and light curve resemble some high-energy Type Ic SNe, raising the possibility of a jet driven SN with an explosion epoch temporally coincident with the neutrino detection. However, distinguishing Type Ia and Type Ic SNe at this redshift is notoriously difficult. Based on all available data we conclude that the transient is more likely to be a Type Ia with relatively weak Sin absorption and a fairly normal rest-frame r-band light curve. If, as predicted, there is no high-energy neutrino emission from Type Ia SNe, then PS16cgx must be a random coincidence, and unrelated to the IceCube-160427A. We find no other plausible optical transient for any of the five IceCube events observed down to a 5 sigma limiting magnitude of mip1 approximate to 22 mag, between 1 day and 25 days after detection.

  • 56.
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Högenergifysik.
    The Extremes of Neutrino Astronomy: From Fermi Bubbles with IceCube to Ice Studies with ARIANNA2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fermi bubbles are extended regions of hard gamma-ray emission which were discovered with Fermi-LAT data to exist above and below the Galactic Center. In order to explain the origin of the gamma-rays, different theories are proposed. In particular, within hadronic models, highly-accelerated cosmic rays interact with interstellar matter and create the observed gamma-rays and in addition neutrinos. Data from the neutrino detector IceCube was analyzed using a maximum likelihood method. An upper limit on the possible neutrino flux from the Fermi bubbles at energies between 10 GeV and 200 GeV was determined.

    While this analysis is performed with the lowest energies IceCube can reach, the ARIANNA (Antarctic Ross Ice-shelf ANtenna Neutrino Array) experiment has the goal to detect the highest energy neutrinos by measuring radio wave radiation produced by their interaction products in the ice. With ARIANNA the propagation of radio waves in the firn (packed snow) of the Ross Ice Shelf was investigated. According to the classical approach the radio waves, produced in the firn, are supposed to bend down because of the changing density, and therefore changing refractive index, an effect which is called “shadowing”. Evidence that the waves can travel horizontally over a long distance will be presented. The horizontally propagating signals between two boreholes and to the ARIANNA stations were analyzed and characterized. Analyses were performed under two hypotheses to determine attenuation lengths for horizontal propagation signals. The results showed attenuation lengths between 310 m ± 83 m and 651 m ± 270 m, depending on the assumed hypothesis and performed analysis. In addition unexpected signals consistent with radio waves propagating along the firn surface, here called pre-pulses, were observed and characterized.

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