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  • 51.
    Aydin, Zeynep
    et al.
    Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap, Göteborgs universitet, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dicle.
    Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dicle.
    Långström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Oxelman, Bengt
    Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    A new section of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) including a new species from South Anatolia, Turkey2014Ingår i: Phytotaxa, ISSN 1179-3155, E-ISSN 1179-3163, Vol. 178, nr 2, s. 98-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silene section Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae) and S. ertekinii from Western Antalya, Turkey, are described as new taxa onthe basis of morphological and molecular investigations. Nuclear ITS and chloroplast rps16 DNA sequences clearly supportthe recognition of the new section. Inclusiveness and characterization of the new section is discussed and described, and akey for the included species is provided. Diagnostic characters of the new species S. ertekinii are given and its relation to theother species of the section is discussed.

  • 52.
    Bagge, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Hedman, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Smedsrud, Sabina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Svärdström, Cornelia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Söderberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Valdés, Fernando
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Utveckling av metodik för påvisning och typning av Listeria i livsmedelskedjan2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 53.
    Baho, Didier
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Resistance and resilience of microbial communities - temporal and spatial insurance against perturbations2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial communities are fundamental components of many processes occurring in aquatic ecosystems, since through microbial activities substantial amount of matter and energy is transferred from a pool of DOC to higher trophic levels. Previous studies highlighted the beneficial effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning, however studies on the resistance and resilience in microbial communities are scarce. Similarly, studies focusing on factors that might improve resistance or resilience of communities such as the influence of refuges are equally missing, although an understanding of the underlying mechanisms could be very useful in the field of conservation management. In this study, chemostat cultures were used to investigate the influence of a spatial and a temporal refuge on bacterioplankton communities’ resistance and resilience measured in terms of functioning and community composition after applying a salinity pulse disturbance. Respiration rate and substrate utilization were used to estimate bacterial functioning while community composition was determined by using T-RFLP. The perturbation was found to affect bacterial functioning and community composition. Moreover our findings indicate that the resistance and resilience measured in terms of bacterial functioning and community composition were significantly influenced by the provision of refuges.  

  • 54.
    Balck, Marianne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Phthalates in preschool dust: the relation between phthalates and parameters in the preschool environment2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Children are constantly exposed to many chemicals via the products they come in contactwith in their everyday life. One chemical group is phthalates, the most commonly usedplasticisers in the world. Phthalates are used mainly in PVC plastic products like floors, toys,food containers and wallpaper but they are also used in rubber, glue, paint, cables etc. Sincethese chemicals are weakly chemically bound to the PVC they can leak and migrate to the air,food, water and skin. Children are exposed to phthalates mainly through food, but because ofthe hand to mouth behaviour they are also exposed via dust inhalation and dust ingestion.About ten years ago regulations of the most toxic phthalates in toys and child care productswere implemented in the EU and from February 2015 it is a general prohibition for the use ofDEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate), DiBP (diisobutyl phthalate) andBBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate). DiNP (diisononyl phthalate) is a relatively new phthalate andit has replaced DEHP to some extent in floors and toys. In phthalate free products DINCH(1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester) is one of the plasticizer replacingphthalates. The banned phthalates have been shown to cause adverse effects on reproductionand recent research also investigates links between phthalate exposure and asthma and allergysymptoms in children. More experimental animal studies are needed to further investigate theasthma and allergy correlation.

    In the present project dust samples were collected from 30 preschool indoor environments inthe Stockholm city area to evaluate the levels of the six substances mentioned and thephthalate DEP (diethyl phthalate). The main aim of this thesis project was to search forrelations and links between the phthalate concentrations in dust and parameters from theindoor environment in preschools. Studied parameters are e.g. construction year, floor type,cleaning routines and quantity of toys and furniture made of plastic or foam. The project wascommissioned by the Swedish EPA and performed at the Institute of Environmental Medicine(IMM) at Karolinska Institutet.

    A negative relation was found between dust phthalate (DEHP and DnBP) concentrationand construction year. Also rooms with old PVC floors had higher concentrations of DEHPand DnBP in dust than rooms with new PVC floors. There was also a trend that dust frompreschools with PVC floors had higher DiNP concentration than dust from preschools withother floor types. The preschools that used foam mattresses for resting had higher DiNPconcentrations than those with no foam mattresses. Most preschools had new foammattresses, which could indicate a more common use of DiNP in new mattresses or mattress2covers compared to old mattresses that contains more DEHP. The four Waldorf preschoolsthat participated had lower DiNP dust concentrations than the other preschools, which wasexpected since Waldorf orientation includes using as little plastic material as possible. Norelation was found between the phthalate dust concentrations and the quantity of toys made ofsoft plastic in the sampled area.

    Many preschools had made a plastic inventory where they removed old and soft plastic toysand material. Also many preschools recently replaced old foam mattresses used for resting.This could be due to the big chemical focus in the media and authorities and the brochuresthat have been sent out the last couple of years about what preschool can do to decrease thechemical exposure of children. This interest and awareness seen in the preschools waspositive and hopefully the trend spreads to more preschools. Since children spend a big part oftheir time at preschools it is an important mission for society and the government to decreasethe exposure to hazardous chemicals there. Hopefully what has been done so far is just thebeginning.

  • 55.
    Balck, Marianne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Utgör användning av p-piller ett hot mot livskraftiga grodpopulationer?: Etinylöstradiols och levonorgestrels effekter hos arterna Xenopus leavis, Xenopus tropicalis och Rana temporaria2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En eskalerande minskning hos grodpopulationer och grodarter har skett världen över sedan 1980. Minskningen har påverkats av flera faktorer, bland annat utsläpp av endokrina ämnen till vattendrag. Endokrina ämnen är naturliga och syntetiska hormoner och kemikalier som stör människors och djurs hormonsystem. Syntetiska hormoner finns i p-piller och andra preventivmedel och hormonerna släpps ut i vattendrag via urinen. Det har visats att grodor påverkas av de syntetiska hormonerna etinylestradiol och levonorgestrel som finns i p-piller. Den här litteraturstudien syftar till att undersöka vilka effekter de två hormonerna har på modellarterna Xenopus laevis och Xenopus trolpicalis och på svenska grodarter såsom Rana temporaria. Effekterna är främst förändrad könskvot, med honor i majoritet, samt minskad fertilitet. Fertiliteten försämras genom missbildade könsorgan, genom att äggen mognar långsammare och honor kan bli sterila med avsaknad av äggledare. Hormonexponering kan leda till försenad metamorfos och det kan bli en högre mortalitet hos juvenila grodor. Även hormonuttryck kopplade till reproduktion och fertilitet kan påverkas av hormonexponering. Dock behövs mer forskning, särskilt i fält då mestadels experimentella studier gjorts hittills i laboratorier. Hormonutsläpp är en bidragande faktor till att sex av Sveriges åtta grodarter är rödlistade och i världen handlar det om tusentals arter. Även den så kallade cocktail effekten, det vill säga de effekter flera olika ämnen skapar tillsammans, bör undersökas närmare.

  • 56.
    BALTEKIN, ÖZDEN
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Experimental Evolution of Persister Fractions in Escherichia coli2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 57.
    Bampalikis, Dimitrios
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Recognizing biological and technical differences in scRNAseq: A comparison of two protocols2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have given access to information extracted on a single cell level. Single cell RNA sequencing enables for transcriptomes to be sequenced, allowing for studies within and between cell types. A recently developed protocol, based on Smart-seq2, and the Proximity ligation essay, allows for the detection of protein data from single cells, in parallel with RNA. The combination of the transcriptomic and proteomic data will enhance researchers’ ability to explore cell states. In this study, we are comparing a new pulldown protocol with the widely-used Smart-seq2, as well as against FACS sorted cells. Our results show differences in the RNA sequenced between the two protocols, as well the prediction of cell cycle state based on their data. Using RNA extracted from the pulldown protocol in different time points, we also calculate the direction of development for the cells. We expect that the incorporation of proteomic data will shed light to relevant biological questions related to the cell function.

  • 58.
    Barkenäs, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Automation of a solid-phase proximity ligation assay for biodefense applications2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent of devastation caused by a biological warfare attack is highly correlated to the time from release to detection. As a step towards lowering the detection time the international project TWOBIAS was launched. Here, the main goal is to develop an automated, specific and sensitive combined detection and identification instrument capable of identifying a biological threat within an hour. The identification unit is comprised of a sample preparation module, an amplification module and a detection module and utilizes a proximity ligation assay in combination with circle-to-circle amplification in order to detect a biological threat. This thesis describes the automation of the sample preparation steps of the assay and the integration with the downstream units. The functionality of the sample preparation module was verified by subjecting it to biological samples in a laboratory and at a real-life location. The results showed that the sample preparation module was capable of preparing a sample collected in a complex environment with the same results as a sample prepared in a laboratory. 

  • 59.
    Bartish, Margarita
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Establishing iPSCs as a method to model neurodevelopment in Down’s syndrome2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The derivation of pluripotent stem cells (now termed induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSC) from mature somatic cells was a finding of seminal importance to fundamental cell biology. Thus established iPSC technology has been predicted to advance fields that previously relied on the ethically disputed use of embryonic stem cells. Being pluripotent (able to differentiate into every cell type present in the human body) and sharing most other characteristics with embryonic stem cells, but being much readier obtainable and their derivation free from ethical restraints, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) provide access to cell types and insights into cell processes previously unattainable to researches. For this thesis, a hiPSC line was established from a skin biopsy donated by a Down’s syndrome patient. Most of what is known today about the molecular neurobiology behind this disease has been gathered from mice models or human post mortem studies, but this has a limited extrapolation potential to early human brain development in DS patients, as Down’s syndrome is an inherently human disease whose defining phenotype is established early during embryonic development. Having access to human pluripotent cells able to recapitulate the events of early neurogenesis is thus invaluable to the understanding of the mechanisms of this disorder. In parallel, work has been performed on optimizing iPSC reprogramming protocol. By exchanging one of the transcription factors used for reprogramming with a reporter gene, genomic integration of reprogramming factors has become possible to be traced visually, enabling more efficient selection of reprogrammed iPSC colonies.  

  • 60.
    Basu, Alex
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Relation between hydrogen production and photosynthesis in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The modernized world is over-consuming low-cost energy sources that strongly contributes to pollution and environmental stress. As a consequence, the interest for environmentally friendly alternatives has increased immensely. One such alternative is the use of solar energy and water as a raw material to produce biohydrogen through the process of photosynthetic water splitting. In this work, the relation between H2-production and photosynthesis in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied with respect to three main aspects: the establishment of prolonged H2-production, the involvement of PSII in H2-production and the electron pathways associated with PSII during H2-production. For the first time, this work reveals that PSII plays a crucial role throughout the H2-producing phase in sulfur deprived C. reinhardtii. It further reveals that a wave-like fluorescence decay kinetic, before only seen in cyanobacteria, is observable during the H2-producing phase in sulfur deprived C. reinhardtii, reflecting the presence of cyclic electron flows also in green algae. 

  • 61.
    Basu, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Hedén Gynnå, Arvid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Nordin, Jessika
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Reivant Munters, Arielle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Åslin, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Framtidens bioinformatikstöd för forskargrupper: En studie av SciLifeLabs användarstöd2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Science for Life Laboratory:s (SciLifeLabs) användarstöd inom bioinformatik brister inom en del områden som användarutbildning, organisation och kommunikation. För att kunna tillgodose den snabba utvecklingen av biotekniken (till exempel nästa generations sekvensering) och inte minst SciLifeLab är det viktigt att dessa brister åtgärdas. 

    Efter att ha utfört en serie intervjuer med användare och leverantörer av SciLifeLabs sekvenseringstjänster har vi kommit fram till sex förslag för att täcka problemen inom de olika områdena. Förslagen sträcker sig från att vara enkla till mer omfattande att implementera. 

    Resultaten är riktade mot SciLifeLabs sekvenseringsplattform och är utformade för att kunna implementeras i dagsläget samt anpassas till framtida utvecklingar. Vi tror också att förslagen kan, med enkla modifieringar, användas av andra plattformar hos SciLifeLab.

  • 62.
    Bate Holmberg, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    En skogsträdgårds näringspotential2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I agroforestry brukas marken genom att kombinera vedartade växter, perenner och annueller.Skogsträdgårdar, som är en typ av agroforestry, vilka besitter flera olika nyttoegenskaper som tillexempel bevarandet av biologiska mångfalden, är en markanvändning av delvis eller endast perennaväxter, som ibland kompletteras av annueller. Några av skogsträdgårdars positiva egenskaper är attväxterna gynnar varandra och producerar/bidrar med livsmedelsproduktion, kolbindning ochkvävefixering. Intressant är att ta reda på huruvida livsmedlen som en skogsträdgård i Sverige kanbidra med kan täcka en människas dagliga näringsintag och även hur växternas kulinariskaegenskaper fungerar. Genom att besöka och samla in växter från två av tretton skogsträdgårdar, medgemensam odlingsdesign, som deltagit i forskningsprojektet Hållbar livsmedelsproduktion – attodla och äta från perenna system har näringsvärdena med avseende på kolhydrater, proteiner ochfett undersökts. Med hjälp av optimeringsmodellen dietproblemet visade det sig att gårdarna kantäcka en vuxen människas dagliga intag med avseende på energi, fett, kolhydrater och protein sålänge växterna ger tillräckligt, minst 600 gram skörd per dygn. Hasselnöt (Corylus avellana),bärhäggmispel (Amelanchier alnifolia), frön från sibirisk ärtbuske (Caragana arborescens) och frönfrån lungrot (Chenopodium bonushenricus) är de mest energitäta och därmed nyckelarterna. Detfinns stort behov av att utveckla beståndet av skogsodlingar för att se ytterligare se potentialen hosperenna växter i Sverige som livsmedelskälla.

  • 63.
    Bauer, Sofia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, M.I.T..
    The in vivo role of Cpt1a and whether a HFD renders ISCs, progenitors or established tumors metabolically reliant on fatty acid oxidation for their maintenance2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian intestine is made of the small intestine and the colon. The small intestine is arranged into two fundamental structures called villi and crypts. Lgr5+ cells represent the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and are identified by marker gene Lgr5, which is expressed at the bottom of mouse crypts, i.e. mucosal glands found in the intestinal epithelium. The mammalian intestine is said to respond to signals from the diet. Increased ISC numbers and progenitor proliferation have been associated with the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) and these cells can, under HFD conditions initiate organoids i.e. small intestine-like structures cultured in vitro. In relation to cancer it has been shown that a HFD acts through the nuclear receptor PPAR-δ in ISCs and progenitors, and that PPAR-δ is also involved in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) as a master transcriptional regulator of the key FAO gene Cpt1a. The aim of this Master’s thesis seeks to assess whether a HFD renders ISCs, progenitors or established tumors metabolically reliant on FAO for their maintenance. Lineage tracing analysis in vivo with the computer software Aperio ImageScope, after βgalactosidase staining experiments contributed to confirm the reduced effects of a HFD in ISCs and progenitors as consequence of Cpt1a loss. The inhibition of FAO through in vitro and in vivo organoid experiments with genotypes APCΔ; P53Δ; Rosa-LSL-ZsGreen; Vil-CreER (APZV) and APCΔ; P53Δ; Cpt1afl/fl; Rosa-LSL-tdTomato; Vil-CreER (APCTV) also showed adverse effects on tumor maintenance. This from the clonogenicity assay after cell/organoid count analysis with the computer software ImageJ. In conclusion from the results obtained, which confirmed the hypothesis in the aims to a large extent Cpt1a could serve as a potential future therapeutic target. However, more experimental trials are needed to ascertain whether Cpt1a is the main contributor to mediate the HFD phenotype, but it is a promising start in the right direction. Increased knowledge of the impacts of diet in health and disease pursues to assist both in the prevention, as well as in the cure of established diseases in patients such as cancer. In the future, it would also be of interest to focus on and confirm whether the effects of the diet on various pathologies is reversible.

  • 64.
    Bazyan, Saloume
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Sexual selection and extinction in deer2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing a comparative analysis and using phylogenetic relationships of the Cervidaefamily this study aimed to address whether or not sexual selection may play a role in the extinctionof species by making species more vulnerable to extinction. The role of sexual selection in makingspecies more vulnerable to extinction is largely unexplored, and several factors such as ecologicaland life history traits may increase the risk of extinction.In all species of the family Cervidae (Gilbert et al. 2006, Geist 1998,Groves and Grubb2011,Meijaardand Groves2004,Price et al. 2005, Goss 1983) sexually selected characters plays amain role in determining species status and thus potentially their probability of extinction. In thisstudy the intensity of sexual selection (measured as sexual size dimorphism, antler size and matingsystem) and the rate of extinction (IUCN classification and anthropogenic effect) were counted asfactors to determine the role of sexual selection intensity in both species-rich and species-poorclades.By using the programme MESQUITE and phylogenetic trees, the results show an associationbetween species with larger body size and dimorphism, living in open habitats and having largerantler size expanded to more than three tines; such species are mostly non-territorial and formharems during the rutting season. The small species are territorial, live in closed habitats, aremonomorphic and have small antler size limited to two tines or less. Moreover species that aremore subjected to habitat degradation and anthropogenic effects tend to become smaller in size.Extinction risk for the species-rich clades with small sized, territorial and small antler sizedspecies is lower than for those consisting of species with larger antler size, larger body size, livingin open habitats and using harems as mating system.To sum up, the intensity of sexual selection in larger species in deer family put them in risk ofextinction; but on the other site, small species are more adapted to the environment by choosingdifferent strategy in mating system, and reducing antler and body size thus diminishing theextinction risk.

  • 65.
    Bebris, Kristaps
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Local adaptation of Grauer's gorilla gut microbiome2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled metagenomicinvestigations into complex bacterial communities with unprecedented resolution andthroughput. The production of dedicated data sets for metagenomic analyses is, however, acostly process and, frequently, the first research questions focus on the study species itself. Ifthe source material is represented by fecal samples, target capture of host-specific sequencesis applied to enrich the complex DNA mixtures contained within a typical fecal DNA extract.Yet, even after this enrichment, the samples still contain a large amount of environmentalDNA that is usually left unanalysed. In my study I investigate the possibility of using shotgunsequencing data that has been subjected to target enrichment for mtDNA from the hostspecies, Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri), for further analysis of the microbialcommunity present in these samples. The purpose of these analyses is to study the differencesin the bacterial communities present within a high-altitude Grauer’s gorilla, low-altitudeGrauer’s gorilla, and a sympatric chimpanzee population. Additionally, I explore the adaptivepotential of the gut microbiota within these great ape populations.I evaluated the impact that the enrichment process had on the microbial community by usingpre- and post-capture museum preserved samples. In addition to this, I also analysed the effectof two different extraction methods on the bacterial communities.My results show that the relative abundances of the bacterial taxa remain relatively unaffectedby the enrichment process and the extraction methods. The overall number of taxa is,however, reduced by each additional capture round and is not consistent between theextraction methods. This means that both the enrichment and extraction processes introducebiases that require the usage of abundance-based distance measures for biological inferences.Additionally, even if the data cannot be used to study the bacterial communities in anunbiased manner, it provides useful comparative insights for samples that were treated in thesame fashion.With this background, I used museum and fecal samples to perform cluster analysis to explorethe relationships between the gut microbiota of the three great ape populations. I found thatpopulations cluster by species first, and only then group according to habitat. I further foundthat a bacterial taxon that degrades plant matter is enriched in the gut microbiota of all threegreat ape species, where it could help with the digestion of vegetative foods. Another bacterialtaxon that consumes glucose is enriched in the gut microbiota of the low-altitude gorilla andchimpanzee populations, where it could help with the modulation of the host’s mucosalimmune system, and could point to the availability of fruit in the animals diet. In addition, Ifound a bacterial taxon that is linked with diarrhea in humans to be part of the gut microbiotaof the habituated high-altitude gorilla population, which could indicate that this pathogen hasbeen transmitted to the gorillas from their interaction with humans, or it could be indicative ofthe presence of a contaminated water source.

  • 66.
    Bella, Sinclair
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Felicia, Wallnäs
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Stella, Belin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Erik, Olby
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Hampus, Söderberg
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    A Prediction of Antibiotic Resistance with Regard to Urinary and Respiratory Tract Infections2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project we set out to find when the resistance level against first line antibiotics would reach 20%. This was executed by first defining relevant bacteria and antibiotics for urinary and respiratory tract infections (UTI's, RTI's). The data was collected from the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC) and the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP). The data included the level of resistance for specific years for countries in Europe, as well as for the USA. A prediction model was made using the programming language R. A linear model was used to make a five and ten year prediction. The accuracy was tested. The results were then visualized using R and MATLAB.

    The results show a big variation between different bacteria and antibiotic combinations. For the two E. coli combinations the resistance is already near 20% for many countries and the resistance is increasing. For the three K. pneumoniae combinations the resistance is high in Southern Europe, meaning many countries have reached or are near 20%. For the two P. aeruginosa combinations there is also a higher resistance in Southern Europe but the resistance is decreasing in most countries. The resistance for E. faecalis is also decreasing and is generally very low in all of Europe. For the only RTI relevant combination, S. pneumoniae and penicillins, the resistance is low and many countries except for Sweden show a decrease in resistance.

    The USA did not have data for the same time span as Europe and was therefore analyzed separately. For many combinations the USA are near the 20% limit. Only for two combinations the USA showed a decrease in resistance level, and for one of those combinations the prediction is too uncertain to make any assumptions about. For the USA there were two more combinations for RTI than for Europe. For the S. pneumoniae and penicillins combination they have, just as most of Europe, a decreasing resistance. The two combinations with Acinetobacter spp. have a high resistance that is increasing.

    The main challenge during this project was finding relevant data with a long timespan and with high certainty. The data found is based on invasive isolates which means that the disease which the samples are taken from is not known. The timespan and the certainty of the data affected the accuracy of the prediction model and how long period that could be predicted. The prediction model generated 202 predictions that were visualized.

    An ethical analysis was made concerning both research ethics and general ethics on the topic of antibiotic resistance. This analysis is meant to acknowledge these questions since we believe they are important when discussing antibiotic resistance.

    The objective of this project turned out to be more difficult to attain than first believed. This was because of the lack of quality data. Even though we cannot give a clear answer when each country will reach a resistance of 20% this report gives a good understanding of how the situation looks for UTI and RTI relevant bacteria.

  • 67.
    Benevides, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Broström, Oscar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Elison Kalman, Grim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Swenson, Hugo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Vlassov, Andrei
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Ågren, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Stabil och antibiotikafri läkemedelsproduktion i rekombinant Escherichia coli2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten presenterar ett antibiotikafritt, stabilt och kromosombaserat expressionssystem för läkemedelsproduktion i Escherichia coli på beställning av företaget Affibody AB. E. coli-stammen BL21(DE3) valdes som värdorganism för expressionssystemet. Systemet består av en genkassett som innehåller en T7-promotor, en 5′-UTR från genen ompA och en terminatorsekvens från RNA-operonet rrnB. Fyra kopior av genkassetten ska integreras i pseudogenerna caiB, yjjM, hsdS och yjiV. En datormodell som modellerar det egentliga kopietalet i cellerna har skapats i mjukvaran MATLAB, vilket visar att det uppskattas vara maximalt 32 kopior av genkassetten per cell på grund av replikation av kromosomen. Ett högt pH i fermentorn; att använda fed-batch och blandade kolhydratkällor; och att använda stammen BL21(DE3) minskar acetatproduktionen i cellen. En lägre acetatproduktion kan leda till en högre produkthalt. En proteinutbytesmodell för mjukvaran MATLAB har konstruerats för att uppskatta koncentrationen av Affibody®-molekylen i en E. coli cell.

  • 68.
    Berg, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Floral scent in relation to flower morphology and mating system - a comparaitive analysis of Brassicaceae species pairs.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 69.
    Bergman, Ebba
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Blomkvist, Viktor
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Erkers, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Handin, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Hellner, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Nettelblad, Jessica
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Mot en effektiv data- och informationshantering på SiCell2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna projektrapport är avsedd att vara ett hjälpmedel för SiCell, en del av SciLifeLab Uppsala som ska bli Europas första plattform för enkelcellgenomik till hösten 2013. SiCell har bett projektgruppen om undersökningar gällande ett Laboratory Information Management System, LIMS. På svenska ett datahanteringsystem för laboratorier. Ett sådant system skulle kunna effektivisera SiCells verksamhet. Undersökningarna har resulterat i en kravspecifikation som ett LIMS för SiCell ska uppfylla och en sammanställning av tillgängliga mjukvaror som bäst uppfyller dessa krav. Screensaver, MISO och Gnomex är de tre gratisprogram med öppen källkod som hamnade högst upp i listan. Inget av dem uppfyller alla krav men med modifieringar av programmerare tros detta vara möjligt.

    SiCell bad också om lägre prioriterade undersökningar av några av de metoder som används inom plattformen. Cellysering, Alternativa amplifieringsmetoder och transkriptomik har undersökts av projektgruppen. Detta resulterade i en sammanställning av vilka alternativ som finns och vad som är under utveckling inom respektive område.

  • 70.
    Bergqwist, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Onsbring, Henning
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Vu, Emy
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Wahlin, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Zarelius, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Åhlin, Mikaela
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Nya sensorsystem för kombinationseffekter av antibiotika2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är antibiotikaresistens ett allvarligt problem. En tillfällig lösning på problemet är att utnyttja synergieffekter som kan uppstå mellan olika typer av antibiotika. Det innebär att antibiotika skulle kunna ha effekt mot bakterier som har utvecklat resistens.

    I denna rapport har flera olika metoder, för att mäta bakterietillväxt, utvärderats. Dessa metoder indikerar om antibiotikakombinationerna har en effekt. Däribland har både kommersiella och nyligen publicerade metoder undersökts. De kommersiella metoderna granskades genom en marknadsanalys. De krav som har satts på systemet är att det ska gå att köra flera prov samtidigt, analysen ska kunna utföras på kort tid, metoden ska inte vara destruktiv mot bakterierna samt att datan bör vara på formen av cellkoncentration levande celler.

    Bland de kommersiella mätmetoderna valdes tre metoder ut som verkade vara bland de bästa utifrån kraven. Dessa var ATP-analys, LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ samt SYBR Green I. Från artiklar hittades fyra nyligen publicerade system som var av intresse utifrån kraven. Dessa var BioMEMS (eng. Biomedical Micro-Electro-Mechanical Sensor), odling i slutna mikrokanaler, SMR (sluten mikrokanalresonator) samt mikroflödessystem med pH-sensor.

    Utifrån vad som finns på marknaden idag och de nyligen publicerade systemen som har undersökts ansåg gruppen att BioMEMS och användande av mikrokanaler är de två bäst lämpade metoderna för ändamålet.

  • 71.
    Bernedal Nordström, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Bürger, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Engberg, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Jansson, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Thorell, Hannes
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Vaivade, Aina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Sluta gnata, hantera din data - Ta fram en kravspecifikation för ett LIMS2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Excel is a great tool, however it has its flaws. Files quickly become slow as they increase in size, and Excel has no built-in feature to easily search through several documents for a specific word, phrase or value. This can be resolved through a LIMS, a Laboratory Information Management System, which is a database solution that can be used to store and trace laboratory data and information. Our task was to evaluate what system requirements the company Olink Proteomics AB has for a LIMS. By interviewing several departments at Olink, we gained information about what each group wanted from such a system and condensed it into a needs assessment. The interviews showed that traceability was needed for every single department, as well as having easy features for adding data into the system. We were also tasked by Olink to research which Swedish laws apply to old patient data, as the company wants to reuse the data for R&D. Our conclusions are that if data is made fully anonymous, there are no issues in using it for R&D. However, this can be difficult as many criteria have to be fulfilled in order for the data to become fully anonymous.

  • 72.
    Berntsson, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    The effect of Edaravone on Amyloid beta aggregation2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affect millions of people worldwide. Aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ) monomers create toxic oligomers that can interact with cellular membranes and disturb cellular functions, resulting in cell death and neurological dysfunction. Increased levels of oxidative stress have been shown in the brains of AD patients, something that besides the obvious cell and tissue toxicity, also favors the amyloidogenic pathway and generates more Aβ monomers. Here we show that Edaravone, a free radical scavenger can affect the aggregation rate of different lengths of Aβ. We show that Aβ-40 that is more commonly found in vivo aggregates faster with addition of Edaravone, while Aβ-42 aggregates slower or not at all. These findings add up to previous findings where free radical scavengers and antioxidants such as Edaravone have been suggested as a potential treatment in Alzheimer’s disease.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-06-01 12:00
  • 73.
    Betnér, Ellinor
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    The midbrain dopaminergic system - development and heterogeneity in animal models of Parkinson's disease2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 74.
    Beyer, Alexander
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Development of Therapeutic Vaccines against IL-18 and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP)2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 75.
    Bhutia, Pema choden
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Accuracy of TransferRNA Selection in Protein synthesis2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    ACCURACY OF TRANSFER RNA SELECTION IN PROTEIN SY

    The ribosome is a rapid magnificent molecular machine that plays an important role in proteinsynthesis and it consists of RNA and protein. The 70S bacterial ribosome comprises twosubunits, 30S and 50S. The 30S small subunit of the bacterial ribosome contains a protein calledS12, encoded by the rpsL gene. The function of this S12 protein is to help arrange the mRNAcorrectly to the ribosome and to interact with transfer RNA (tRNA) to initiate translation.Mutations in the rpsL gene generate phenotypes like resistance, dependence or pseudodependenceto the antibiotic streptomycin in bacteria. It is believed that mutations in the rpsLgene can increase the accuracy of tRNA selection in protein synthesis.The ribosome conducts the selection of tRNA in two steps: the initial selection and theproofreading step. During these multiple steps, the ribosome chooses the cognate aminoacyltRNAsin a ternary complex with EF-Tu and GTP and accommodates in the A site of ribosome.Therefore, the accuracy of the ribosome in selection of cognate aminoacyl-tRNA is crucial for the production of functional polypeptide sequences. Here, three different Escherichia coli strains; wild type MG1655, streptomycin restrictive (SmR) strain res222, and a streptomycin pseudo-dependent (SmP) strain w3110 are used, for studying the accuracy of tRNA selection inprotein synthesis. The mutant SmR shows hyper-accurate phenotype, which means, it has lowerpeptide bond formation efficiency and higher accuracy than the wild type. SmP shows pseudodependentto streptomycin phenotype which means it has higher peptide bond formation efficiency in the presence of antibiotic streptomycin. I have estimated the accuracy of tRNA selection in protein synthesis with enzyme kinetics. The kinetics data of these experiments display that mutant streptomycin restrictive is hyper-accurate and lower peptide bond formation efficiency than the wild type. SmP for the near cognate reaction in presence of antibiotic streptomycin has higher peptide bond formation efficiency than the SmP in absence of antibiotic streptomycin. SmP in presence antibiotic streptomycin has lower accuracy than the SmP in absence of antibiotic streptomycin.

  • 76.
    Biradar, Megha
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Improvement of RCA initiation on genomic DNA2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 77.
    Bjorklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med CONEM, Toften 24, N-8610 Mo I Rana, Norway.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Dept Neurosci Biomed & Movement Sci, Verona, Italy;CONEM Sci Secretary, Verona, Italy.
    Dadar, Maryam
    AREEO, Razi Vaccine & Serum Res Inst, Karaj, Iran.
    Pivina, Lyudmila
    Semey Med Univ, Semey, Kazakhstan;Semey Med Univ, CONEM Kazakhstan Environm Hlth & Safety Res Grp, Semey, Kazakhstan.
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Butnariu, Monica
    Banats Univ Agr Sci & Vet Med King Michael I Roma, Timisoara, Romania;Banats Univ Agr Sci & Vet Med King Michael I Roma, CONEM Romania Biotechnol & Environm Sci Grp, Timisoara, Romania.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Res Dept, Brumunddal, Norway;Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Elverum, Norway.
    Mercury exposure and its effects on fertility and pregnancy outcome2019Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 125, nr 4, s. 317-327Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, shows harmfulness which still represents a big concern for human health, including hazards to fertility and pregnancy outcome. Research has shown that Hg could induce impairments in the reproductive function, cellular deformation of the Leydig cells and the seminiferous tubules, and testicular degeneration as well as abnormal menstrual cycles. Some studies investigated spontaneous abortion and complicated fertility outcome due to occupational Hg exposure. Moreover, there is a relation between inhaled Hg vapour and reproductive outcome. This MiniReview evaluates the hypothesis that exposure to Hg may increase the risk of reduced fertility, spontaneous abortion and congenital deficits or abnormalities.

  • 78.
    Björkesten, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Development and evaluation of procedures and reagents for extraction of proteins from dried blood spots for analysis using Proseek2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for extraction of proteins from dried blood spots (DBS) for analysis using Proseek is developed and evaluated. DBS, as sample format, possesses a number of desirable advantages over for example plasma samples. These advantages include for example minimal patient invasiveness, sampling simplicity and non regulated sample transportation. Highly reproducible quantitative detection of 92 proteins is demonstrated from a 1.2 mm in diameter DBS disk. The DBS inter spot analysis precision (7% coefficient of variance) is comparable to plasma inter assay precision (6% coefficient of variance). Coefficient of variance is the ratio between standard deviation to mean value for the analysed replicates. Proseek analysis of DBS could possibly reveal a unique opportunity to examine health related issues in extremely premature infants hopefully resulting in increased survival rates in the future.

  • 79.
    Björklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Toften 24, N-8610 Mo I Rana, Norway.
    Hilt, Björn
    St Olavs Univ Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, Trondheim, Norway.
    Dadar, Maryam
    AREEO, Razi Vaccine & Serum Res Inst, Karaj, Iran.
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Res Dept, Brumunddal, Norway;Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, Elverum, Norway.
    Neurotoxic effects of mercury exposure in dental personnel2019Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, E-ISSN 1742-7843, Vol. 124, nr 5, s. 568-574Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have reported neurobehavioural effects in dental personnel occupationally exposed to chronic low levels of mercury (Hg). Hg exposure from dental work may also induce various chronic conditions such as elevation of amyloid protein expression, deterioration of microtubules and increase or inhibition of transmitter release at motor nerve terminal endings. Therefore, clinical studies of Hg toxicity in dentistry may provide new knowledge about disturbed metal homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and mood disorders. The purpose of this MiniReview is to evaluate the evidence of possible relevance between Hg exposure in dentistry and idiopathic disturbances in motor functions, cognitive skills and affective reactions, as well as dose-response relationships.

  • 80.
    Björklund, Geir
    et al.
    Council Nutr & Environm Med, Mo I Rana, Norway.
    Lindh, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Aaseth, Jan
    Innlandet Hosp Trust, Res Dept, Brumunddal, Norway;Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Elverum, Norway.
    Mutter, Joachim
    Environm Med, Constance, Germany;Paracelsus Clin Ronc, Castaneda, Switzerland.
    Chirumbolo, Salvatore
    Univ Verona, Dept Neurosci Biomed & Movement Sci, Verona, Italy.
    Mercury in dental amalgams: A great concern for clinical toxicology in developing countries?2019Ingår i: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 51, s. 9-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 81.
    Blomgren, Eric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Avian malaria in collared flycatchers: fitness consequences and a relation to a secondary sexual character2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    All organisms have limited amounts of energy, time and nutrients to spend during their lifetime and this gives rise to trade-offs in life histories. It has been shown that increased reproductive effort can reduce parasite resistance and specific immune response in birds. This suggest that there is a trade-off between spending energy on immune system and reproductive effort. Within birds there are several suitable blood parasites that can be used as model organisms for the study of parasite - host interactions, of which 3 genera of protozoan haemosporidians which one could call malaria parasites. Since a few years back it is possible to detect and investigate with high accuracy and speed whether individual organisms are infected with blood parasites or not. Still, there is not sufficient knowledge about how avian malaria parasites affect their host's fitness. In this study I investigated how reproductive success of collared flycatchers is affected by the presence of malaria and if a certain secondary sexual character is correlated to infection. I also used old biometrical data to see if there is a correlation between size as nestling and malaria infection as old.

    I found that females infected with avian malaria have a lower reproductive success, and that adult males infected with malaria have on average less white on their 3rd tertial feather than non-infected ones. I also show that infected individuals were smaller as 12 day nestlings than non-infected individuals.

  • 82.
    Bohlin, Matilda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    DEHP - från mjukgörare till hormonstörande2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 83.
    Bolinder, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Humphreys, Aelys M.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Royal Bot Gardens, Comparat Plant & Fungal Biol, Richmond TW9 3AB, Surrey, England..
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alexandersson, Ronny
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biol & Wildlife, 907 Yukon Dr,POB 756960, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, 907 Yukon Dr,POB 756960, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA.;Arizona State Univ, Sch Life Sci, POB 874501, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Rydin, Catarina
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    From near extinction to diversification by means of ashift in pollination mechanism in the gymnosperm relict Ephedra (Ephedraceae, Gnetales)2016Ingår i: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4074, E-ISSN 1095-8339, Vol. 180, nr 4, s. 461-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollination in gymnosperms is usually accomplished by means of wind, but some groups are insect-pollinated. We show that wind and insect pollination occur in the morphologically uniform genus Ephedra (Gnetales). Based on field experiments over several years, we demonstrate distinct differences between two Ephedra species that grow in sympatry in Greece in pollen dispersal and clump formation, insect visitations and embryo formation when insects are denied access to cones. Ephedra distachya, nested in the core clade of Ephedra, is anemophilous, which is probably the prevailing state in Ephedra. Ephedra foeminea, sister to the remaining species of the genus, is entomophilous and pollinated by a range of diurnal and nocturnal insects. The generalist entomophilous system of E.foeminea, with distinct but infrequent insect visitations, is in many respects similar to that reported for Gnetum and Welwitschia and appears ancestral in Gnetales. The Ephedra lineage is well documented already from the Early Cretaceous, but the diversity declined dramatically during the Late Cretaceous, possibly to near extinction around the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. The clade imbalance between insect- and wind-pollinated lineages is larger than expected by chance and the shift in pollination mode may explain why Ephedra escaped extinction and began to diversify again.

  • 84.
    Boman, Jesper
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Genome size and phenotypic plasticity in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been evident that genome size is not an accurate measure of organismal complexity. This paradox was “solved” with the discovery of nonfunctional and selfish DNA in the 1970s. However, emerging from this explanation was an enigma of complexity. Neither neutral nor adaptive models can account for all genome size variation across the tree of life. An organism with intraspecific variation is needed to investigate the functional role of genome size differences. Here I use different populations of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, with a known intraspecific genome size variation of ~4%. It has previously been shown that a larger genome is associated with higher scores in fitness-related traits for this species. In this study, genome size is regressed with phenotypic plasticity along three different environmental gradients. Genome size did not correlate with plasticity in mass and development time along environmental gradients of temperature and host types. However, the results show that larger genomes are consistent with higher canalization of fitness under different food regimes. This further supports the idea that natural selection acts on genome size variation in this species. 

  • 85.
    Boqvist, Natalie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Är ett framtida vaccin mot Alzheimers sjukdom möjligt?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alzheimers sjukdom är en smygande neurodegenerativ demenssjukdom som främst drabbar äldre och som karakteriseras av uppkomsten av amyloidplack och neurofibriller i hjärnan. De vanligaste symptomen är demens, kognitiva problem, inbillningar och aggressivitet. Alzheimer förekommer i två olika former, presenil och senil alzheimer. Den fullständiga mekanismen bakom alzheimer är ännu okänd men två proteiner, beta-amyloid och tau, anses ligga bakom orsaken till alzheimer. Ett tredje inblandat protein som man funnit via genetisk analys är apolipoprotein E. Idag är alzheimer ett växande problem, detta i takt med att världens befolkning blir allt äldre. En problematik finns idag då den symptomatiska behandling som finns mot alzheimer anses vara otillräcklig, ett botemedel eftersträvas därför. Immunterapi är ett botemedel som man i framtiden hoppas kunna erbjuda, detta i form av ett aktivt eller passivt vaccin verksamt mot beta-amyloid. Forskning för att finna ett sådant pågår därför just nu. AN-1792 (aktivt vaccin), CAD106 (aktivt vaccin), Bapineuzumab (passivt vaccin) och Solanezumab (passivt vaccin) är fyra vaccin som har tagits fram och testats på människor. I de vaccinstudier som gjorts har motgångar stötts på men även framgångar gjorts. AN-1792 är det vaccin som visat sig vara effektivast men med svåra biverkningar medan CAD106 är det vaccin som visat sig vara mindre effektivt men säkrast. Bapineuzumab och Solanezumab visade sig däremot båda två vara overksamma. Då flera av de vaccin som framställts har varit verksamma mot amyloidplack anser forskare att ett framtida vaccin mot alzheimer är möjligt att framställa.

  • 86.
    Boström, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Single-cycle kinetics for QCM biosensors for high throughput nanoparticle characterization application2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing nanoparticles to be able to understand how they functions in the body is important for development of drugs. Furthermore with increasing number of nanoparticle product the nanotoxicity of nanoparticles is important to understand. This report is a part of the EU-project Nanoclassifier which purpose is to “develop a cost effective, high throughput screening platform for characterization of the bionanointerface and its cell-binding partners”. Single-cycle kinetic was used to determine the number of binding epitopes on polystyrene nanoparticle with transferrin corona. The number of available epitopes describes how active the Nanoparticle will be in the body. For this purpose Single-cycle kinetic methodology was successfully used on nanoparticles. Single-cycle kinetic methodology has great potential to become the standard method for high throughput nanoparticle epitope characterization.

  • 87.
    Braesch-Andersen, Ken
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Temperature dependence in human Rhinovirus infection of human MRC-52019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature has been known to be an important factor for in vitro studies where human cell cultures are infected with HRV (human Rhinovirus). The mechanisms behind the temperature effect on the struggle between virulence and cellular defense, are still largely unknown and may be a crucial part in finding a treatment to the common cold. In this study we focused on a few cellular key elements in this struggle and observed behavior changes in regards to the pre-infection growth temperature and the temperature during the viral infection.

    Past studies have focused mainly on the temperature post inoculation, but here we also wanted to correlate virulence to the growth temperatures preceding the viral infection. We found that the growth temperature of the cell did indeed affect its response to the HRV. If the cells had been growing in an optimal body temperature of 37°C before getting virally infected at 33°C, the viability of the cells did decrease in comparison to cells that had been growing in 33°C from before the viral infection.

    We could also observe a significant temperature dependence regarding IL-8 release upon HRV inoculation. HRV strive to block induction of inflammatory cytokines such as interferons and IL-1. It may be that impaired IL-8 release at lower temperatures will prevent important danger signals alerting the immune system when cytokine signaling is otherwise hampered by viral intervention.

  • 88.
    Brechlin, Birte Hildegard Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Bridges for the wolverine (Gulo gulo): Spatial and non-spatial population genetic analysis in STRUCTURE and BAPS and implications for decision makers2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The conservation of large predators is among the most challenging tasks facing conservation biologists and the protection of the wolverine (Gulo gulo) is no exception. Studying and monitoring these vastly roaming carnivores is only possible due to the collective effort from the Norwegian Nature and Swedish Environmental protection agencies and the group for Monitoring of Large Carnivores at Uppsala University. Wolverines are as so many large predators beloved from the ones and hatefully persecuted from the others. After facing a dramatic bottleneck in the 1970s, the wolverines have been given protective status in Norway and Sweden and could increase their numbers again until licensed hunting was allowed in 1993. Today legal and illegal hunting as well as other anthropogenic factors work against that trend. To observe population trends genetic monitoring of the wolverine has been pursued over a number of years. Data has been collected in Norway and Sweden from sampling of tissue, hair and faeces. This study explores SNP data from tissue samples in the statistical programs R and STRUCTURE for analysing multi-locus genotype data to investigate population structure and the program BAPS for spatial genetic clustering. All analyses agreed on the clustering of the wolverine population into two distinct populations. In Scandinavia there are, besides the Sarek area in northern Sweden, very little truly wild and undisturbed territories left. Human impact plays a well-known, but little studied role in mammal population analyses. Conclusively, the spatial clustering results are projected onto maps displaying anthropogenic development. It shows that the fast growing human population and consecutive urban development around Trondheim in Norway might cause a major obstacle to gene flow between the populations south and north of that belt of urbanization. In order to allow gene flow and thus saving the genetic variety and long-term survival of the Scandinavian wolverine population, the investigation and construction of Wildlife crossings or incorporating other measures to include wildlife into our ever changing landscapes is called into focus for decision makers in city and road development.

  • 89.
    Breimark, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Investigating the use of isotope-labeled standards as calibrants in label-free quantification2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to accurately identify and quantify proteins in complexsamples is of great importance in the field of proteomics. Using massspectrometry, samples can be analysed and quantified either by theincorporation of a labelled standard of known concentration, or bylabel free quantification. Label free quantification has manybenefits, including time, cost, and ease of use, but is not asaccurate as the use of isotope label standards. In this project, thepossibility of increasing accuracy in quantification results from LFQusing a set of isotope labelled standards, QPrESTs, is investigated.The standards were produced by metabolic incorporation of heavyLysine and Arginine during expression inE. coli. They were then qualitycontrolled using SDS-PAGE for purity analysis, and LC-MS/MS forquantification and confirmation of MW. Human cell lysate samplesspiked with a set of 21 QPrEST standards were analysed by LC-MS/MSand quantified by QPrEST-H/L intensity ratios and intensity basedLFQ. In the LFQ protein quantification indices obtained from MaxQuantwere combined with BCA results, or with calibration curves obtainedfrom spiked in QPrEST standards. The LFQ results that best matchedthose obtained from QPrEST-H/L were those that used the calibrationcurves for quantification, which were found in a ~3-fold range, witha correlation coefficient varying from 0.67 to 1. Assuming thatQPrEST-H/L is the most accurate quantification method used, thisindicates that the use of QPrEST standards as calibrants can bebeneficial when it comes to increasing the accuracy in LFQ.

  • 90.
    Bringeland, Nathalie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    DNA methylation correlation networks in overweight and normal-weight adolescents reveal differential coordination2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple health issues are associated with obesity and numerous factors are causative of the disease. The role of genetic factors is well established, as is the knowledge that dietary and sedentary behavior promotes weight gain. Although there is strong suspicion towards the role of epigenetics as a driving force toward disease, this field remains l in the context of obesity. DNA methylation correlation networks were profiled from blood samples of 69 adolescents of two distinct weight-classes; obese (n=35) and normal-weight (n=34). The network analysis revealed major differences in the organization of the networks where the network of the obese had less modularity compared to normal-weight. This is manifested by more and smaller clusters in the obese, pertaining to genes of related functions and pathways, than the network of the normal-weight. Consequently, this suggests that biological pathways have a lower order of coordination between each other in means of DNA methylation in obese than normal-weight. Analysis of highly connected genes, hubs, in the two networks suggests that the difference in coordination between biological pathways may be derived by changes of the methylation pattern of these hubs; highly connected genes in one network had an intriguingly low connectivity in the other. In conclusion, the results suggest differential regulation of transcription through changes in the coordination of DNA methylation in overweight and normal weighted individuals. The findings of this study are a major step towards understanding the role of DNA methylation in obesity and provide potential biomarkers for diagnosing and predicting obesity.

  • 91.
    Broberg, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Development of novel multiplexed systems for in situ PLA2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is an immunoassay that enables directvisualisation of single protein targets or protein interactions in cell or tissue samples. This project revolves around designing and introducing several novel multiplexable components tobe used in conjunction with Olink Bioscience's Duolink product line. In this report, a novel in silico approach to DNA oligomer interaction design is presented. Using this in silico method, a multiplexed system of DNA oligomers has been designed andevaluated using in situ PLA and fluorescence microscopy.

  • 92.
    Brobäck, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Preventing the spread of the invasive plant Lupinus polyphyllus.2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive species are an increasing problem worldwide, threatening indigenous communities and species. Many human-made environments promote introductions of alien species and one such habitat is road verges. The invasive plant Lupinus polyphyllus is benefiting from these habitats and is today widespread along road verges in many parts of Sweden. However, it has been shown to be a problematic species, as it supresses native plants. Many of these plants originate from semi-natural grasslands, but have found a refuge in road verges. The Swedish Transport Administration has tried to control L. polyphyllus, but it is unclear to what extent it is possible. To manage an invasive species, it is often preferable to prevent further extension by limiting its dispersal, which can be done by reducing seed production. To find out how to prevent L. polyphyllus from spreading, I investigated how resprouting capacity and seed production was affected by cutting of L. polyphyllus at different times throughout the season, and at different heights. Plants in all plots resprouted after being cut, but resprouted leaf stalks grew taller in the plants cut early at the flowering stage, compared to the later cutting treatments. These were also the only ones producing new flowers and fruits, perhaps due to stored resources in roots or the fact that they were cut before the summer solstice. Plants cut higher above the ground produced more flowers and fruits and produced taller leaf stalks and might have used photosynthesizing aboveground parts to acquire resources for regeneration. Fruits were produced but not ripe before the mid-summer cutting. These seeds were still able to germinate after maturing on cut plants. However, they were more mould-infected than seeds maturing on non-cut plants. Seeds from cut plants were also lighter. Thus, seeds produced by the mid-summer cutting might disperse and germinate but may perhaps suffer from lower survival due to more frequent mould infections. The late-cut plants had already produced mature seeds, and thus, were probably able to disperse. Also, the later cutting treatments produced more seeds over the entire season. This indicates that to hinder dispersal by limiting seed production, it is best to cut Lupinus polyphyllus as early as possible, in the flowering stage, when seeds are not produced and to cut them entirely to the ground.

  • 93.
    Broman, Elias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Observation of methanogenesis and potential iron-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane in old lake sediments, a study of two boreal forest lakes.2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic and inorganic carbon can enter inland waters in different ways, and often a considerable amount of this carbon is coming from terrestrial input. Once this terrestrial carbon enters a lake, the carbon may be degraded, mineralized or eventually buried in the sediment. Below the oxic zone of the sediment carbon may be used by archaea to produce methane (CH4). The CH4 can then diffuse up in the sediment and escape to the bottom waters, or the CH4 can be oxidized by bacteria using oxygen as an oxidant. There is also an anoxic process to oxidize CH4 (anaerobic oxidation of methane: AOM), using sulfate (SO4) and by recent findings also ferric iron (Fe(III)) as electron acceptors. In this study the main questions of interest were if CH4 is produced in deep (i.e. old) lake sediments and if CH4 is oxidized anaerobically using Fe(III). Two Swedish boreal forest lakes were studied, sediment profiles of CH4 were conducted in the field (down to 60 cm). Collected sediments were sliced anoxically at different depths and then analyzed for ferrous iron (Fe(II)), Fe(III) and SO4. Sediment from different depths was also incubated anoxic in order to test if CH4 production depends on sediment age. The results show that methanogenic activity occurs by degrading old carbon in deep boreal forest lake sediments, and that a certain part of this might then be oxidized anaerobically. However, all cores exposed a general trend of increasing CH4 concentrations with sediment depth, indicating that CH4 production in old sediment layers is greater than AOM. AOM could therefore only act as a partial sink for CH4 in anoxic deep sediments.

  • 94.
    Bublys, Kasparas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Diet variability in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) as a response to environmental variables along a latitudinal gradient2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a profound impact on freshwater fish communities, especially at higher latitudes. In this study I investigated potential effects of climate change on the niche structure of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) by looking at their diet across a latitudinal gradient and at varying light climate. Dietary niche width of Eurasian perch did not differ significantly between boreal and temperate latitudes. Additionally, no significant difference in the prevalence of specialist individuals was found along the latitudinal gradient and water transparency levels. Habitat was the main factor that significantly affected niche width and level of specialization with both being significantly higher in the littoral habitat. Taken together my results suggest that climate change might indirectly affect niche patterns by altering fish densities through changes in productivity resulting in niche and specialization variation among habitats.

  • 95.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Artificial selection for large and small relative brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) results in differences in cognitive ability2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate brain size is remarkably variable at all taxonomic levels. Brains of mammals forexample, range from 0.1 gram in small bats (Chiroptera) to about 8-9 kilos in Sperm whales(Physeter macrocephalus). But what does this variation in size really mean? The link between brainsize and cognition is debated due to, for instance the difficulties of comparing cognitive ability indifferent species. A large number of comparative studies continue to provide information aboutcorrelations found both within and between species. The relative size of the brain is an example of apopular measurement that correlates with cognitive ability. But to date, no experimental studieshave yielded any proof causality between relative brain size and cognitive ability. Here I usedguppies selected for either large or small relative brain size to investigate differences in cognitiveperformance of a quantity discrimination task. The results from this experiment provideexperimental evidence that relative brain size is important for cognitive ability, and that a differencein cognitive ability could be obtained already after two generations of selection experiments onrelative brain size in a vertebrate.

  • 96.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Impact of sustainable forest management through FSC-certified logging on bird communities in Berau District, east Kalimantan, Indonesia2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 97.
    Capuccini, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Structure-Based Virtual Screening in Spark2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 98.
    Carlsson Tysk, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Elofsson, Hampus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Frisk, Kamilla
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Lillkull, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Lundmark, Kristoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    MCShane, Ellen
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Nervsjukdomar - Nästa stora satsning: Kartläggning av forskningsanslag i Sverige inomnaturvetenskap, medicin och life science2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this project was to investigate how research grants in Sweden are distributed inthe selected fields; natural science, medicine and life science. Our client Olink producesdetection kits for biomarkers and our goal with this study was to give an indication of apossible new market area for their products. Three foundations were included in the study;VINNOVA, Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Research Council) and Stiftelsen för strategiskforskning (Swedish foundation for strategic research). Nearly a thousand research grantswere analysed which included a total of 4,92 billion Swedish kronor. Seven selecteduniversities were contacted; Chalmers tekniska högskola, Karolinska Institutet, Kungligatekniska högskolan, Linköpings universitet, Lunds universitetet, Sverigeslantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala universitet. The aim was to get an indication if any specificuniversity invested in a research of significant interest. The analysis of the foundationscombined with the analysis of the universities internal funding distribution gave theconclusion that a possible future market area for Olink Bioscience is the field of neurologicaldisorders.

  • 99.
    Cayón, David