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  • 51.
    Hooper, Amy K.
    et al.
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Wylde, Zachariah
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Bonduriansky, Russell
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast2017Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 671-685Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

  • 52. Hough, Josh
    et al.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Barrett, Spencer C. H.
    Otto, Sarah P.
    Evolutionarily Stable Sex Ratios And Mutation Load2013Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 7, s. 1915-1925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.

  • 53.
    Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nussey, Dan H.
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Wilson, Alastair J.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Kruuk, Loeske E. B.
    Contrasting patterns of phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits in two great tit (Parus major) populations2010Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, nr 8, s. 2221-2237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism via which populations can respond to changing environmental conditions, but we know very little about how natural populations vary with respect to plasticity. Here we use random-regression animal models to understand the multivariate phenotypic and genetic patterns of plasticity variation in two key life-history traits, laying date and clutch size, using data from long-term studies of great tits in The Netherlands (Hoge Veluwe [HV]) and UK (Wytham Woods [WW]). We show that, while population-level responses of laying date and clutch size to temperature were similar in the two populations, between-individual variation in plasticity differed markedly. Both populations showed significant variation in phenotypic plasticity (IxE) for laying date, but IxE was significantly higher in HV than in WW. There were no significant genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) for laying date, yet differences in GxE were marginally nonsignificant between HV and WW. For clutch size, we only found significant IxE and GxE in WW but no significant difference between populations. From a multivariate perspective, plasticity in laying date was not correlated with plasticity in clutch size in either population. Our results suggest that generalizations about the form and cause of any response to changing environmental conditions across populations may be difficult.

  • 54.
    Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex chromosome linked genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism of quantitative traits2013Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 609-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts that sex chromsome linkage should reduce intersexual genetic correlations thereby allowing the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Empirical evidence for sex linkage has come largely from crosses and few studies have examined how sexual dimorphism and sex linkage are related within outbred populations. Here, we use data on an array of different traits measured on over 10,000 individuals from two pedigreed populations of birds (collared flycatcher and zebra finch) to estimate the amount of sex-linked genetic variance (h2z). Of 17 traits examined, eight showed a nonzero h2Z estimate but only four were significantly different from zero (wing patch size and tarsus length in collared flycatchers, wing length and beak color in zebra finches). We further tested how sexual dimorphism and the mode of selection operating on the trait relate to the proportion of sex-linked genetic variance. Sexually selected traits did not show higher h2Z than morphological traits and there was only a weak positive relationship between h2Z and sexual dimorphism. However, given the relative scarcity of empirical studies, it is premature to make conclusions about the role of sex chromosome linkage in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  • 55.
    Immler, Simone
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Perin Otto, Sarah
    Ploidally antagonistic selection maintains stable genetic polymorphism2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 55-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in the face of selection remains a key issue in evolutionary biology. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation is opposing selection during the diploid and haploid stages of biphasic life cycles universal among eukaryotic sexual organisms. If haploid and diploid gene expression both occur, selection can act in each phase, potentially in opposing directions. In addition, sex-specific selection during haploid phases is likely simply because male and female gametophytes/gametes tend to have contrasting life histories. We explored the potential for the maintenance of a stable polymorphism under ploidally antagonistic as well as sex-specific selection. Furthermore, we examined the role of the chromosomal location of alleles (autosomal or sex-linked). Our analyses show that the most permissible conditions for the maintenance of polymorphism occur under negative ploidy-by-sex interactions, where stronger selection for an allele in female than male diploids is coupled with weaker selection against the allele in female than male haploids. Such ploidy-by-sex interactions also promote allele frequency differences between the sexes. With constant fitness, ploidally antagonistic selection can maintain stable polymorphisms for autosomal and X-linked genes but not for Y-linked genes. We discuss the implications of our results and outline a number of biological settings where the scenarios modeled may apply.

  • 56.
    Immler, Simone
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Otto, Sarah Perin
    The evolution of sex chromosomes in organisms with separate haploid sexes2015Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 694-708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes is driven largely by the evolution of reduced recombination and the subsequent accumulation of deleterious mutations. Although these processes are increasingly well understood in diploid organisms, the evolution of dimorphic sex chromosomes in haploid organisms (U/V) has been virtually unstudied theoretically. We analyze a model to investigate the evolution of linkage between fitness loci and the sex-determining region in U/V species. In a second step, we test how prone nonrecombining regions are to degeneration due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. Our modeling predicts that the decay of recombination on the sex chromosomes and the addition of strata via fusions will be just as much a part of the evolution of haploid sex chromosomes as in diploid sex chromosome systems. Reduced recombination is broadly favored, as long as there is some fitness difference between haploid males and females. The degeneration of the sex-determining region due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations is expected to be slower in haploid organisms because of the absence of masking. Nevertheless, balancing selection often drives greater differentiation between the U/V sex chromosomes than in X/Y and Z/W systems. We summarize empirical evidence for haploid sex chromosome evolution and discuss our predictions in light of these findings.

  • 57. Ingram, Travis
    et al.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Kraft, Nathan
    Kratina, Pavel
    Southcott, Laura
    Schluter, Dolph
    Intraguild predation drives evolutionary niche shift in threespine stickleback2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1819-1832Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraguild predation—competition and predation by the same antagonist—is widespread, but its evolutionary consequences are unknown. Intraguild prey may evolve antipredator defenses, superior competitive ability on shared resources, or the ability to use an alternative resource, any of which may alter the structure of the food web. We tested for evolutionary responses by threespine stickleback to a benthic intraguild predator, prickly sculpin. We used a comparative morphometric analysis to show that stickleback sympatric with sculpin are more armored and have more limnetic-like body shapes than allopatric stickleback. To test the ecological implications of this shift, we conducted a mesocosm experiment that varied sculpin presence and stickleback population of origin (from one sympatric and one allopatric lake). Predation by sculpin greatly increased the mortality of allopatric stickleback. In contrast, sculpin presence did not affect the mortality of sympatric stickleback, although they did have lower growth rates suggesting increased nonpredatory effects of sculpin. Consistent with their morphology, sympatric stickleback included more pelagic prey in their diets, leading to depletion of zooplankton in the mesocosms. These findings suggest that intraguild prey evolution has altered food web structure by reducing both predation by the intraguild predator and diet overlap between species

  • 58.
    Innocenti, Paolo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    A joint index for the intensity of sex-specific selection2010Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, nr 9, s. 2775-2778Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of experimental and field data shows that selective pressures often differ between males and females. Surprisingly, to date, little attempt has been made to formalize a metric expressing the relative behavior of directional selection in the two sexes. We propose an index that describes the extent to which concordant or antagonistic selection is operating between the sexes for a given trait. This joint index could prove especially useful for the study of intralocus sexual conflict and the evolution of sexual dimorphism, providing a common scale to directly compare different traits within or among taxonomic levels, and allowing an assessment on how common sexually antagonistic selection might be in extant populations.

  • 59.
    James, Timothy Y.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Olson, Åke
    Stenlid, Jan
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Evolutionary significance of imbalanced nuclear ratios within heterokaryons of the basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion parviporum2008Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, nr 9, s. 2279-2296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many fungi have heterokaryotic life stages in which genetically different nuclei inhabit the same cell. In basidiomycetes, the heterokaryon is the product of mating and represents a genomic union very similar to a diploid thallus, yet the maintenance of unfused nuclei suggests a more complex association of the two genomes relative to diploidy. In species with variable numbers of nuclei per heterokaryotic cell, nuclear ratios within a mycelium may possibly become imbalanced (differ from 1:1) due to nuclear competition. In this study, heterokaryons of the basidiomycete Heterobasidion parviporum were examined to determine the effects of genotype and environment on nuclear ratios within vegetative mycelia. The data reveal that nuclear ratios are frequently imbalanced, generally stable over time, and genetically determined. The nuclear ratios were affected by environment, but the observed nuclear ratios did not follow the expectations of strong selection acting on a population of nuclei. Instead, these ratios were largely driven by genetic effects and epigenetic effects. Finally, the data suggest that nuclear ratio imbalance also affects both gene transcription and growth rate, implying that heterokaryotic basidiomycetes are not functionally equivalent to diploid individuals and have a higher potential for genotypic and phenotypic variation.

  • 60. Johansson, Ulf S.
    et al.
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Systematisk zoologi.
    Olsson, Urban
    Ericson, Per G. R.
    Sundberg, Per
    Price, Trevor D.
    Build-up of the Himalayan avifauna through immigration: A biogeographical analysis of the Phylloscopus and Seicercus warblers2007Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 324-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Himalayan mountain range is one of the most species-rich areas in the world, harboring about 8% of the world's bird species. In this study, we compare the relative importance of immigration versus in situ speciation to the build-up of the Himalayan avifauna, by evaluating the biogeographic history of the Phylloscopus/Seicercus warblers, a speciose clade that is well represented in Himalayan forests. We use a comprehensive, multigene phylogeny in conjunction with dispersal-vicariance analysis to discern patterns of speciation and dispersal within this clade. The results indicate that virtually no speciation has occurred within the Himalayas. Instead, several speciation events are attributed to dispersal into the Himalayas followed by vicariance between the Himalayas and China/Southeast Asia. Most, perhaps all, of these events appear to be pre-Pleistocene. The apparent lack of speciation within the Himalayas stands in contrast to the mountain-driven Pleistocene speciation suggested for the Andes and the East African mountains.

  • 61. Johnson, Matthew G.
    et al.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Tahvanainen, Teemu
    Pouliot, Remy
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Rochefort, Line
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses2015Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 90-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineersspecies in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genusthe hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction.

  • 62.
    Kaiser, Vera B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Nonrandom distribution of genes with sex-biased expression in the chicken genome2006Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 1945-1951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that sexually antagonistic genes should show a nonrandom genomic distribution with sex chromosomes usually being enriched for such genes. However, empirical observations from model organisms (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals) on the genomic location of genes with sex-biased expression have provided conflicting data and are not easily explained by a unified framework based on standard models of the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes. Previous studies have been confined to organisms with male heterogamety, meaning that effects related to homo- or heterozygosity of sex chromosomes cannot be separated from effects related to sex-specific characteristics. We therefore studied the genomic distribution of genes with sex-biased expression in the chicken, that is, in an organism with female heterogamety (males ZZ, females ZW). From the abundance of transcripts in expressed sequence tag libraries, we found an underrepresentation of female-specific genes (germ line and somatic tissue) and an overrepresentation of male-specific genes (somatic) on the Z chromosome. This is consistent with theoretical predictions only if mutations beneficial to one sex generally tend to be at least partly dominant (h > 0.5). We also note that sexual selection for a male-biased trait is facilitated by Z-linkage, because sons in organisms with female heterogamety will always inherit a Z chromosome from their fathers.

  • 63.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Hallander, Emelie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Swedish Board Agr, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    Favre, Adrien
    Goethe Univ, Inst Ecol Evolut & Div, Dept Div & Evolut Higher Plants, Frankfurt, Germany; Senckenberg Res Inst, Frankfurt, Germany; Nat Hist Museum, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Herforth-Rahme, Joelle
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Integrat Biol, Zurich, Switzerland; Res Inst Organ Agr FiBL, Dept Soil Sci, Frick, Switzerland.
    Widmer, Alex
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Integrat Biol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ecological divergence plays an important role in strong but complex reproductive isolation in campions (Silene)2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 245-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New species arise through the evolution of reproductive barriers between formerly interbreeding lineages. Yet, comprehensive assessments of potential reproductive barriers, which are needed to make inferences on processes driving speciation, are only available for a limited number of systems. In this study, we estimated individual and cumulative strengths of seven prezygotic and six postzygotic reproductive barriers between the recently diverged taxa Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. and S. latifolia Poiret using both published and new data. A combination of multiple partial reproductive barriers resulted in near-complete reproductive isolation between S. dioica and S. latifolia, consistent with earlier estimates of gene flow between the taxa. Extrinsic barriers associated with adaptive ecological divergence were most important, while intrinsic postzygotic barriers had moderate individual strength but contributed only little to total reproductive isolation. These findings are in line with ecological divergence as driver of speciation. We further found extensive variation in extrinsic reproductive isolation, ranging from sites with very strong selection against migrants and hybrids to intermediate sites where substantial hybridization is possible. This situation may allow for, or even promote, heterogeneous genetic divergence.

  • 64.
    Kazancıoğlu, Erem
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Klug, Hope
    Alonzo, Suzanne H.
    The evolution of social interactions changes predictions about interacting phenotypes2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 7, s. 2056-2064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many traits involved in social interactions, such as courtship and aggression, the phenotype is an outcome of interactions between individuals. Such traits whose expression in an individual is partly determined by the phenotype of its social partner are called interacting phenotypes. Quantitative genetic models suggested that interacting phenotypes can evolve much faster than nonsocial traits. Current models, however, consider the interaction between phenotypes of social partners as a fixed phenotypic response rule, represented by an interaction coefficient (?). Here, we extend existing theoretical models and incorporate the interaction coefficient as a trait that can evolve. We find that the evolution of the interaction coefficient can change qualitatively the predictions about the rate and direction of evolution of interacting phenotypes. We argue that it is crucial to determine whether and how the phenotypic response of an individual to its social partner can evolve to make accurate predictions about the evolution of traits involved in social interactions.

  • 65.
    Korall, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Systematisk biologi.
    Schuettpelz, Eric
    Pryer, Kathleen M.
    Abrupt deceleration of molecular evolution linked to the origin of arborescence in ferns2010Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, nr 9, s. 2786-2792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular rate heterogeneity, whereby rates of molecular evolution vary among groups of organisms, is a well-documented phenomenon. Nonetheless, its causes are poorly understood. For animals, generation time is frequently cited because longer-lived species tend to have slower rates of molecular evolution than their shorter-lived counterparts. Although a similar pattern has been uncovered in flowering plants, using proxies such as growth form, the underlying process has remained elusive. Here, we find a deceleration of molecular evolutionary rate to be coupled with the origin of arborescence in ferns. Phylogenetic branch lengths within the "tree fern" clade are considerably shorter than those of closely related lineages, and our analyses demonstrate that this is due to a significant difference in molecular evolutionary rate. Reconstructions reveal that an abrupt rate deceleration coincided with the evolution of the long-lived tree-like habit at the base of the tree fern clade. This suggests that a generation time effect may well be ubiquitous across the green tree of life, and that the search for a responsible mechanism must focus on characteristics shared by all vascular plants. Discriminating among the possibilities will require contributions from various biological disciplines, but will be necessary for a full appreciation of molecular evolution.

  • 66.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lievens, Eva J. P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Semenova, Svetlana
    Sundvik, Maria
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Panula, Pertti
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Artificial Selection on Relative Brain Size Reveals a Positive Genetic Correlation Between Brain Size and Proactive Personality in the Guppy2014Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 1139-1149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personalities range from individuals that are shy, cautious, and easily stressed (a "reactive" personality type) to individuals that are bold, innovative, and quick to learn novel tasks, but also prone to routine formation (a "proactive" personality type). Although personality differences should have important consequences for fitness, their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how genetic variation in brain size affects personality. We put selection lines of large- and small-brained guppies (Poecilia reticulata), with known differences in cognitive ability, through three standard personality assays. First, we found that large-brained animals were faster to habituate to, and more exploratory in, open field tests. Large-brained females were also bolder. Second, large-brained animals excreted less cortisol in a stressful situation (confinement). Third, large-brained animals were slower to feed from a novel food source, which we interpret as being caused by reduced behavioral flexibility rather than lack of innovation in the large-brained lines. Overall, the results point toward a more proactive personality type in large-brained animals. Thus, this study provides the first experimental evidence linking brain size and personality, an interaction that may affect important fitness-related aspects of ecology such as dispersal and niche exploration.

  • 67.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm Univ.
    Zeng, Hong-Li
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    van der Bijl, Wouter
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Öhman-Mägi, Caroline
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Kotrschal, Kurt
    Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Vienna.
    Pelckmans, Kristiaan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size2017Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, nr 12, s. 2942-2951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions.

  • 68. Krueger, Oliver
    et al.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Jonker, Rudy M.
    Hoffman, Joseph I.
    Trillmich, Fritz
    Disentangling the Contribution of Sexual Selection and Ecology to the Evolution of Size Dimorphism in Pinnipeds2014Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 1485-1496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The positive relationship between sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and harem size across pinnipeds is often cited as a textbook example of sexual selection. It assumes that female aggregation selected for large male size via male–male competition. Yet, it is also conceivable that SSD evolved prior to polygyny due to ecological forces. We analyzed 11 life-history traits in 35 pinniped species to determine their coevolutionary dynamics and infer their most likely evolutionary trajectories contrasting these two hypotheses. We find support for SSD having evolved prior to changes in the mating system, either as a consequence of niche partitioning during aquatic foraging or in combination with sexual selection on males to enforce copulations on females. Only subsequently did polygyny evolve, leading to further coevolution as the strength of sexual selection intensified. Evolutionary sequence analyses suggest a polar origin of pinnipeds and indicate that SSD and polygyny are intrinsically linked to a suite of ecological and life-history traits. Overall, this study calls for the inclusion of ecological variables when studying sexual selection and argues for caution when assuming causality between coevolving traits. It provides novel insights into the role of sexual selection for the coevolutionary dynamics of SSD and mating system.

  • 69. Lailvaux, Simon P.
    et al.
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Dessman, Josephine
    Brooks, Robert
    Differential aging of bite and jump performance in virgin and mated Teleogryllus Commodus crickets2011Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, nr 11, s. 3138-3147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theories of aging state that the force of natural selection declines with age, resulting in trait senescence. However, sexual selection theory predicts that costly traits that signal mate value should increase in expression as survival prospects decline. Mortality rates and fertility tend to show strong signatures of senescence, whereas sexual signaling traits increase with age, but how the expression of traits such as whole-organism performance measures that are subject to both sexual and nonsexual selection should change with age is unclear. We examined the effects of both a key life-history event (mating) and diet quality (male and female optimal diets) on aging in two whole-organism performance traits (bite force and jump take-off velocity) in male and female Teleogryllus commodus crickets. We found no evidence for diet effects on any of the measured traits. Aging effects were more evident in females than in males for both jumping and biting, and constitute a mix of senescence and terminal investment patterns depending on sex/mating class. Sex and mating therefore have important implications for resource allocation to performance traits, and hence for aging of those traits, and interactions between these two factors can result in complex changes in trait expression over individual lifetimes.

  • 70.
    Lele, Abhimanyu
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, Comm Evolutionary Biol, 5801 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Ottenburghs, Jente
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    A single genetic origin and a role for bone development pathways in repeated losses of flight in steamer ducks: Digest2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 9, s. 2030-2032Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there evidence for convergence in the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of flight in the avian evolutionary tree? Campagna et al. used genomic data to investigate the genetic basis of flightlessness in steamer ducks, a recently diverged clade that is polymorphic with respect to flight. They found an association between morphological changes related to flightlessness and several genes, one of which is involved in growth and bone development, providing evidence for a single genetic origin for flightlessness.

  • 71. Li, Zhonghu
    et al.
    Zou, Jiabin
    Mao, Kangshan
    Lin, Kao
    Li, Haipeng
    Liu, Jianquan
    Källman, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Population Genetic Evidence for Complex Evolutionary Histories of Four High Altitude Juniper Species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 3, s. 831-845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Population genetics data based on multiple nuclear loci provide invaluable information to understand demographic, selective, and divergence histories of the current species. We studied nucleotide variation at 13 nuclear loci in 53 populations distributed among four closely related, but morphologically distinct juniper species of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau (QTP). We used a novel approach combining Approximate Bayesian Computation and a recently developed neutrality test based on the maximum frequency of derived mutations to examine the demographic and selective histories of individual species, and isolation-with-migration analyses to study the joint history of the species and detect gene flow between them. We found that (1) the four species, which diverged in response to the extensive QTP uplifts, have different demographic histories; (2) two loci, Pgi and CC0822, depart significantly from neutrality in one species and Pgi, is also marginally significant in another; and (3) shared polymorphisms are common, indicating both incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow after species divergence. In addition, the detected unidirectional gene flow provides indirect support for the theoretical prediction that introgression should mostly take place from local to invading species. Our results, together with previous studies, underscore complex evolutionary histories of plant diversification in the biodiversity-hotspot QTP.

  • 72.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Johansson, Helena
    Hall, David
    Johansson, Frank
    GENE FLOW AND SELECTION ON PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN AN ISLAND SYSTEM OF RANA TEMPORARIA2011Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 684-697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 73.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Johansson, Frank
    COSTS AND LIMITS OF PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN ISLAND POPULATIONS OF THE COMMON FROG RANA TEMPORARIA UNDER DIVERGENT SELECTION PRESSURES2009Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 1508-1518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 74.
    Luquet, Emilien
    et al.
    CNRS UMR 5023 Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Naturels et Anthropises, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon, Universite de Lyon, France.
    Garner, Trenton
    Léna, Jean-Paul
    Bruel, Christophe
    Joly, Pierre
    Lengagne, Thierry
    Grolet, Odile
    Plénet, Sandrine
    Genetic Erosion In Wild Populations Makes Resistance To A Pathogen More Costly: Genetic Erosion Makes Resistance More Costly2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 6, s. 1942-1952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations that have suffered from genetic erosion are expected to exhibit reduced average trait values or decreased variation in adaptive traits when experiencing periodic or emergent stressors such as infectious disease. Genetic erosion may consequentially modify the ability of a potential host population to cope with infectious disease emergence. We experimentally investigate this relationship between genetic variability and host response to exposure to an infectious agent both in terms of susceptibility to infection and indirect parasite-mediated responses that also impact fitness. We hypothesized that the deleterious consequences of exposure to the pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) would be more severe for tadpoles descended from European treefrog (Hyla arborea)populations lacking genetic variability. Although all exposed tadpoles lacked detectable infection, we detected this relationship for some indirect host responses, predominantly in genetically depleted animals, as well as an interaction between genetic variability and pathogen dose on life span during the postmetamorphic period. Lack of infection and a decreased mass and postmetamorphic life span in lowgenetic diversity tadpoles lead us to conclude that genetic erosion, while not affecting the ability tomount effective resistance strategies, also erodes the capacity to invest in resistance, increased tadpole growth rate, and metamorphosis relatively simultaneously.

  • 75.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cayetano, Luis
    Brooks, Robert C.
    Bonduriansky, Russell
    The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle2010Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 1273-1282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  • 76.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes affects female life span and aging in Drosophila melanogaster2006Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 2081-2086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may play an important role in aging. Yet, few empirical studies have tested this hypothesis, partly because the degree of sequence polymorphism in mtDNA is assumed to be low. However, low sequence variation may not necessarily translate into low phenotypic variation. Here, we report an experiment that tests whether there is within-population variation in cytoplasmic genes for female longevity and senescence. To achieve this, we randomly selected 25 "mitochondrial founders" from a single, panmictic population of Drosophila melanogaster and used these founders to generate distinct "mt" lines in which we controlled for the nuclear background by successive backcrossing. Potential confounding effects of cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria were eliminated by tetracycline treatment. The mt lines were then assayed for differences in longevity, Gompertz intercept (frailty), and demographic rate of change in mortality with age (rate-of-senescence) in females. We found significant cytoplasmic effects on all three variables. This provides evidence that genetic variation in cytoplasmic genes, presumably mtDNA, contributes to variation in female mortality and aging.

  • 77. Mank, Judith E.
    et al.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    SEX-LINKAGE OF SEXUALLY ANTAGONISTIC GENES IS PREDICTED BY FEMALE, BUT NOT MALE, EFFECTS IN BIRDS2009Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 1464-1472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that sexually antagonistic loci will be preferentially sex-linked, and this association can be empirically testes with data on sex-biased gene expression with the assumption that sex-biased gene expression represents the resolution of past sexual antagonism. However, incomplete dosage compensating mechanisms and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation have hampered efforts to connect expression data to theoretical predictions regarding the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic loci in a variety of animals. Here we use data on the underlying regulatory mechanism that produce expression sex-bias to test the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic genes in chicken. Using this approach, which is free from problems associated with the lack of dosage compensation in birds, we show that female-detriment genes are significantly overrepresented on the Z chromosome, and female-benefit genes underrepresented. By contrast, male-effect genes show no over-or underrepresentation on the Z chromosome. These data are consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance for sexually antagonistic genes, in which male-benefit coding mutations are more likely to be fixed on the Z due to stronger male-specific selective pressures. After fixation of male-benefit alleles, regulatory changes in females evolve to minimize antagonism by reducing female expression.

  • 78.
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Savkovic, Uros
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res Sinia Stankovic, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Dordevic, Mirko
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res Sinia Stankovic, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Stojkovic, Biljana
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res Sinia Stankovic, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Belgrade, Serbia; Univ Belgrade, Inst Zool, Fac Biol, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and maladapted populations of bean beetles2018Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 518-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modeling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation when it is most needed. Here, we test this prediction using bean beetles that had undergone 80 generations of experimental evolution on two alternative host plants. We isolated and assessed the effect of maladaptation on sex‐specific strengths of selection and IaSC by cross‐rearing the two experimental evolution regimes on the alternative hosts and estimating within‐population genetic (co)variance for fitness in males and females. Two key predictions were upheld: males generally experienced stronger selection compared to females and maladaptation increased selection in females. However, maladaptation consistently decreased male‐bias in the strength of selection and IaSC was not reduced in maladapted populations. These findings imply that sexual selection can be disrupted in stressful environmental conditions, thus reducing one of the potential benefits of sexual reproduction in maladapted populations.

  • 79.
    Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Baker, AJ
    Genetic population structure and gradual northward decline of genetic variability in the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)1996Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 2548-2557Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80.
    Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi, Zooekologi.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolutionsbiologi, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, H
    Quantitative genetics of sexual size dimorphism in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis1998Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 870-876Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative genetic theory predicts that evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) will be a slow process if the genetic correlation in size between the sexes is close to unity, and the heritability of size is similar in both sexes. However, there are very few reliable estimates of genetic correlations and sex-specific heritabilities from natural populations, the reasons for this being that (1) offspring have often been sexed retrospectively, and hence, selection acting differently with respect to body size in the two sexes between measuring and sex identification can bias estimates of SSD; and (2) in many taxa, parents may be incorrectly assigned to offspring either because of assignment errors or because of extrapair paternity. We used molecular sex and paternity identification to overcome these problems and estimated sex-specific heritabilities and the genetic correlation in body size between the two sexes in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. After exclusion of the illegitimate offspring, the genetic correlation in body size between the sexes was 1.00 (SE = 0.22), implying a severe constraint on the evolution of SSD in this species. Furthermore, sex-specific heritability estimates were very similar, indicating that neither sex will be able to evolve faster than the other. By using estimated genetic parameters, together with empirically derived estimates of sex-specific selection gradients, we further demonstrated that the predicted selection response in female tarsus length is displaced about 200% in the opposite direction from that to be expected if there were no genetic correlation between the sexes. The correspondence between the biochemically estimated rate of extrapair paternity (about 15 % of the young) and that estimated from the "heritability method" (11%) was good. However, the estimated rate of extrapair paternity with the heritability method after exclusion of the illegitimate young was 22%, adding to increasing evidence that factors other than extrapair paternity (e.g., maternal effects) may be resposible for the commonly observed higher mother- offspring than father-offspring resemblance.

  • 81. Miles, Cecelia M.
    et al.
    Lott, Susan E.
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Centrum för bildanalys. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Ludwig, Michael Z.
    Manu,
    Williams, Calvin L.
    Kreitman, Martin
    Artificial selection on egg size perturbs early pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster2011Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, nr 1, s. 33-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 82. Morran, Levi T
    et al.
    Cappy, Brian J
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    University of Oregon.
    Phillips, Patrick C
    Sexual partners for the stressed: facultative outcrossing in the self-fertilizing nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.2009Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual reproduction shuffles genetic variation, potentially enhancing the evolutionary response to environmental change. Many asexual organisms respond to stress by generating facultative sexual reproduction, presumably as a means of escaping the trap of low genetic diversity. Self-fertilizing organisms are subject to similar genetic limitations: the consistent loss of genetic diversity within lineages restricts the production of variation through recombination. Selfing organisms may therefore benefit from a similar shift in mating strategy during periods of stress. We determined the effects of environmental stress via starvation and passage through the stress-resistant dauer stage on mating system dynamics of Caenorhabditis elegans, which reproduces predominantly through self-fertilization but is capable of outcrossing in the presence of males. Starvation elevated male frequencies in a strain-specific manner through differential male survival during dauer exposure and increased outcrossing rates after dauer exposure. In the most responsive strain, the mating system changed from predominantly selfing to almost exclusively outcrossing. Like facultative sex in asexual organisms, facultative outcrossing in C. elegans may periodically facilitate adaptation under stress. Such a shift in reproductive strategy should have a major impact on evolutionary change within these populations and may be a previously unrecognized feature of other highly selfing organisms.

  • 83.
    Ottenburghs, Jente
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Digest: White-eye birds provide possible answer to the paradox of the great speciator2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 8, s. 1681-1682Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When organisms colonize a new area, they can come into secondary contact with closely related species. Consequent hybridization can lead to homogenizing gene flow and prevent genetic divergence. However, some lineages, like the White-eye birds examined in this study, can speciate rapidly while colonizing a wide geographic area. The authors suggest that this "paradox of the great speciator" may be solved through unusually rapid evolution of reproductive isolation.

  • 84.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada;Evolutionary Ecology Unit, Biology Department, Lund University, SE223-62 Lund, Sweden.
    Cortázar-Chinarro, María
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Lundgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1582-1595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studiedthe form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolutionof flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performanceaffect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution remainspoorly understood. Here, we show that wing shape is under antagonistic selection with regard to sexual and natural selectionin a scrambling damselfly. In a field setting, natural selection (survival) favored individuals with long and slender forewings andshort and broad hindwings. In contrast, sexual selection (mating success) favored individuals with short and broad forewings andnarrow-based hindwings. Both types of selection favored individuals of intermediate size. These results suggest that individualsface a trade-off between flight energetics and maneuverability and demonstrate how natural and sexual selection can operate insimilar directions for some wing traits, that is, wing size, but antagonistically for others, that is, wing shape. Furthermore, theyhighlight the need to study flight evolution within the context of species’ mating systems and mating behaviors.

  • 85.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Los Andes, Dept Ciencias Biol, Lab Zool & Ecol Acuat, Bogota, Colombia.
    Ángel-Giraldo, Pedro
    Univ Los Andes, Dept Ciencias Biol, Lab Zool & Ecol Acuat, Bogota, Colombia.
    Corral-Lopez, Alberto
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ethol Zool, Svante Arrhenius Vag 18B, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Realpe, Emilio
    Univ Los Andes, Dept Ciencias Biol, Lab Zool & Ecol Acuat, Bogota, Colombia.
    Multitrait aposematic signal in Batesian mimicry2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 1596-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Batesian mimics can parasitize Müllerian mimicry rings mimicking the warning color signal. The evolutionary success of Batesian mimics can increase adding complexity to the signal by behavioral and locomotor mimicry. We investigated three fundamental morphological and locomotor traits in a Neotropical mimicry ring based on Ithomiini butterflies and parasitized by Polythoridae damselflies: wing color, wing shape, and flight style. The study species have wings with a subapical white patch, considered the aposematic signal, and a more apical black patch. The main predators are VS-birds, visually more sensitive to violet than to ultraviolet wavelengths (UVS-birds). The white patches, compared to the black patches, were closer in the bird color space, with higher overlap for VS-birds than for UVS-birds. Using a discriminability index for bird vision, the white patches were more similar between the mimics and the model than the black patches. The wing shape of the mimics was closer to the model in the morphospace, compared to other outgroup damselflies. The wing-beat frequency was similar among mimics and the model, and different from another outgroup damselfly. Multitrait aposematic signals involving morphology and locomotion may favor the evolution of mimicry rings and the success of Batesian mimics by improving signal effectiveness toward predators.

  • 86. Pettersson, Mats E
    et al.
    Nelson, Ronald M
    Carlborg, Örjan
    SLU.
    Selection on variance-controlling genes: adaptability or stability.2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations on a model system where a variance-controlling master locus scales the effects of a set of effector loci show that selection affects the variance-controlling locus more strongly than the effector loci, and that the direction of selection is dependent on the frequency of environmental changes.

  • 87.
    Puentes, Adriana
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Similarity in G matrix structure among natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 10, s. 2370-2386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the stability of the G matrix in natural populations is fundamental for predicting evolutionary trajectories; yet, the extent of its spatial variation and how this impacts responses to selection remain open questions. With a nested paternal half-sib crossing design and plants grown in a field experiment, we examined differences in the genetic architecture of flowering time, floral display, and plant size among four Scandinavian populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Using a multivariate Bayesian framework, we compared the size, shape, and orientation of G matrices and assessed their potential to facilitate or constrain trait evolution. Flowering time, floral display and rosette size varied among populations and significant additive genetic variation within populations indicated potential to evolve in response to selection. Yet, some characters, including flowering start and number of flowers, may not evolve independently because of genetic correlations. Using a multivariate framework, we found few differences in the genetic architecture of traits among populations. G matrices varied mostly in size rather than shape or orientation. Differences in multivariate responses to selection predicted from differences in G were small, suggesting overall matrix similarity and shared constraints to trait evolution among populations.

  • 88.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rudh, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Edström, Torkel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Coarse Dark Patterning Functionally Constrains Adaptive Shifts from Aposematism to Crypsis in Strawberry Poison Frogs2014Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, nr 10, s. 2793-2803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological specialization often requires tight coevolution of several traits, which may constrain future evolutionary pathways and make species more prone to extinction. Aposematism and crypsis represent two specialized adaptations to avoid predation. We tested whether the combined effects of color and pattern on prey conspicuousness functionally constrain or facilitate shifts between these two adaptations. We combined data from 17 natural populations of strawberry poison frogs, Oophaga pumilio with an experimental approach using digitalized images of frogs and chickens as predators. We show that bright coloration often co-occurs with coarse patterning among the natural populations. Dull green frogs with coarse patterning are rare in nature but in the experiment they were as easily detected as bright red frogs suggesting that this trait combination represents a transient evolutionary state toward aposematism. Hence, a gain of either bright color or coarse patterning leads to conspicuousness, but a transition back to crypsis would be functionally constrained in populations with both bright color and coarse patterning by requiring simultaneous changes in two traits. Thus, populations (or species) signaling aposematism by conspicuous color should be less likely to face an evolutionary dead end and more likely to radiate than populations with both conspicuous color and coarse patterning.

  • 89. Rankin, Daniel J.
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual dimorphism is associated with population fitness in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus2008Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, nr 3, s. 622-630Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The population consequences of sexual selection remain empirically unexplored. Comparative studies, involving extinction risk, have yielded different results as to the effect of sexual selection on population densities make contrasting predictions. Here, we investigate the relationship between sexual dimorphism (SD) and population productivity in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using 13 populations that have evolved in isolation. Geometric morphometric methods and image analysis are employed to form integrative measures of sexual dimorphism, composed of variation in weight, size, body shape, and pigmentation. We found a positive relationship between SD and adult fitness (net adult offspring production) across our study populations, but failed to find any association between SD and juvenile fitness (egg-to-adult survival). Several mechanisms may have contributed to the pattern found, and variance in sexual selection regimes across populations, either in female choice for "good genes" or in the magnitude of direct benefits provided by their mates, would tend to produce the pattern seen. However, our results suggest that evolutionary constraints in the form of intralocus sexual conflict may have been the major generator of the relationship seen between SD and population fitness.

  • 90.
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Katzenberger, Marco
    CSIC, Estn Biol Donana, Dept Evolutionary Ecol, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Duarte, Helder
    CSIC, Estn Biol Donana, Dept Evolutionary Ecol, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Quintela, Maria
    Univ A Coruna, Grp Invest BIOCOST, Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Tejedo, Miguel
    CSIC, Estn Biol Donana, Dept Evolutionary Ecol, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Local divergence of thermal reaction norms among amphibian populations is affected by pond temperature variation2015Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, nr 8, s. 2210-2226Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although temperature variation is known to cause large-scale adaptive divergence, its potential role as a selective factor over microgeographic scales is less well-understood. Here, we investigated how variation in breeding pond temperature affects divergence in multiple physiological (thermal performance curve and critical thermal maximum [CTmax]) and life-history (thermal developmental reaction norms) traits in a network of Rana arvalis populations. The results supported adaptive responses to face two main constraints limiting the evolution of thermal adaptation. First, we found support for the faster-slower model, indicating an adaptive response to compensate for the thermodynamic constraint of low temperatures in colder environments. Second, we found evidence for the generalist-specialist trade-off with populations from colder and less thermally variable environments exhibiting a specialist phenotype performing at higher rates but over a narrower range of temperatures. By contrast, the local optimal temperature for locomotor performance and CTmax did not match either mean or maximum pond temperatures. These results highlight the complexity of the adaptive multiple-trait thermal responses in natural populations, and the role of local thermal variation as a selective force driving diversity in life-history and physiological traits in the presence of gene flow.

  • 91.
    Rosser, Neil
    et al.
    Univ York, Dept Biol, Wentworth Way, Heslington, England; Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Queste, Lucie M.
    Univ York, Dept Biol, Wentworth Way, Heslington, England.
    Cama, Bruna
    Univ York, Dept Biol, Wentworth Way, Heslington, England.
    Edelman, Nathaniel B.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Mann, Florian
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Organ Chem, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mori Pezo, Ronald
    URKU Estudios Amazon, Tarapoto, San Martin, Peru.
    Morris, Jake
    Univ York, Dept Biol, Wentworth Way, Heslington, England.
    Segami Marzal, Julia Carolina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Velado, Patricia
    Bavarian State Res Ctr Agr, Dept Qual Assurance Analyt, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany.
    Schulz, Stefan
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Organ Chem, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mallet, James L. B.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, USA.
    Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.
    Univ York, Dept Biol, Wentworth Way, Heslington, England.
    Geographic contrasts between pre- and postzygotic barriers are consistent with reinforcement in Heliconius butterflies2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 9, s. 1821-1838Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the traits causing reproductive isolation and the order in which they evolve is fundamental to understanding speciation. Here, we quantify prezygotic and intrinsic postzygotic isolation among allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric populations of the butterflies Heliconius elevatus and Heliconius pardalinus. Sympatric populations from the Amazon (H. elevatus and H. p. butleri) exhibit strong prezygotic isolation and rarely mate in captivity; however, hybrids are fertile. Allopatric populations from the Amazon (H. p. butleri) and Andes (H. p. sergestus) mate freely when brought together in captivity, but the female F1 hybrids are sterile. Parapatric populations (H. elevatus and H. p. sergestus) exhibit both assortative mating and sterility of female F1s. Assortative mating in sympatric populations is consistent with reinforcement in the face of gene flow, where the driving force, selection against hybrids, is due to disruption of mimicry and other ecological traits rather than hybrid sterility. In contrast, the lack of assortative mating and hybrid sterility observed in allopatric populations suggests that geographic isolation enables the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation. Our results show how the types of reproductive barriers that evolve between species may depend on geography.

  • 92. Rowe, L
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexually antagonistic coevolution in a mating system: Combining experimental and comparative approaches to address evolutionary processes2002Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 754-767Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 93. Rowe, Locke
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual selection and the evolution of genital shape and complexity in water striders2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 40-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal genitalia show two striking but incompletely understood evolutionary trends: a great evolutionary divergence in the shape of genitalic structures, and characteristic structural complexity. Both features are thought to result from sexual selection, but explicit comparative tests are hampered by the fact that it is difficult to quantify both morphological complexity and divergence in shape. We undertake a comparative study of multiple nongenitalic and male genital traits in a clade of 15 water strider species to quantify complexity and shape divergence. We show that genital structures are more complex and their shape more divergent among species than nongenital traits. Further, intromittent genital traits are more complex and have evolved more divergently than nonintromittent genital traits. More importantly, shape and complexity of nonintromittent genital traits show correlated evolution with indices of premating sexual selection and intromittent genital traits with postmating sexual selection, suggesting that the evolution of different components of genital morphology are shaped independently by distinct forms of sexual selection. Our quantitative results provide direct comparative support for the hypothesis that sexual selection is associated with morphological complexity in genitalic traits and highlight the importance of quantifying morphological shape and complexity, rather than size in studies of genital evolution.

  • 94.
    Rudh, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rogell, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rapid population divergence linked with co-variation between coloration and sexual display in strawberry poison frogs2011Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 1271-1282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The likelihood of speciation is assumed to increase when sexually selected traits diverge together with ecologically important traits. According to sexual selection theory, the evolution of exaggerated display behavior is driven by increased mating success, but limited by natural selection, for example, through predation. However, the evolution of aposematic coloration (i.e., an ecologically important trait) could relieve the evolution of exaggerated display behavior from the bound of predation, resulting in joint divergence in aposematic coloration and sexual display behavior between populations. We tested this idea by examining conspicuousness, using color contrasts between individuals and their native backgrounds, and sexual display of 118 males from genetically diverged populations of the Strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. Our results show that the level of conspicuousness of the population predicts the sexual display behavior of males. Males from conspicuous populations used more exposed calling sites. We argue that changes in aposematic coloration may rapidly cause not only postmating isolation due to poorly adapted hybrids, but also premating isolation through shifts in mating behaviors.

  • 95. Ryberg, Martin
    et al.
    Matheny, Patrick Brandon
    Dealing with incomplete taxon sampling and diversification of a large clade of mushroom-forming fungi.2011Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, nr 7, s. 1862-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of an adequate fossil record can hinder understanding the process of diversification that underlies the evolutionary history of a given group. In such cases, investigators have used ultrametric trees derived from molecular data from extant taxa to gain insights into processes of speciation and extinction over time. Inadequate taxon sampling, however, impairs such inferences. In this study, we use simulations to investigate the effect of incomplete taxon sampling on the accumulation of lineages through time for a clade of mushroom-forming fungi, the Hebelomateae. To achieve complete taxon sampling, we use a new Bayesian approach that incorporates substitute lineages to estimate diversification rates. Unlike many studies of animals and plants, we find no evidence of a slowdown in speciation. This indicates the Hebelomateae has not undergone an adaptive radiation. Rather, these fungi have evolved under a relatively constant rate of diversification since their most recent common ancestor, which we date back to the Eocene. The estimated net diversification rate (0.08-0.19 spp./lineage/Ma) is comparable with that of many plants and animals. We suggest that continuous diversification in the Hebelomateae has been facilitated by climatic and vegetation changes throughout the Cenozoic. We also caution against modeling multiple genes as a single partition when performing phylogenetic dating analyses.

  • 96.
    Rybinski, Jakub
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sirkia, Paivi M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Helsinki, Zool Unit, Finnish Museum Nat Hist, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Vallin, Niclas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Wheatcroft, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ålund, Murielle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Competition-driven build-up of habitat isolation and selection favoring modified dispersal patterns in a young avian hybrid zone2016Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, nr 10, s. 2226-2238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition-driven evolution of habitat isolation is an important mechanism of ecological speciation but empirical support for this process is often indirect. We examined how an on-going displacement of pied flycatchers from their preferred breeding habitat by collared flycatchers in a young secondary contact zone is associated with (a) access to an important food resource (caterpillar larvae), (b) immigration of pied flycatchers in relation to habitat quality, and (c) the risk of hybridization in relation to habitat quality. Over the past 12 years, the estimated access to caterpillar larvae biomass in the habitat surrounding the nests of pied flycatchers has decreased by a fifth due to shifted establishment possibilities, especially for immigrants. However, breeding in the high quality habitat has become associated with such a high risk of hybridization for pied flycatchers that overall selection currently favors pied flycatchers that were forced to immigrate into the poorer habitats (despite lower access to preferred food items). Our results show that competition-driven habitat segregation can lead to fast habitat isolation, which per se caused an opportunity for selection to act in favor of future "voluntarily" altered immigration patterns and possibly strengthened habitat isolation through reinforcement.

  • 97.
    Sandring, Saskia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Ekologisk botanik.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution.
    Pollinator-mediated selection on floral display and flowering time in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata2009Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 1292-1300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of floral display and flowering time in animal-pollinated plants is commonly attributed to pollinator-mediated selection. Yet, the causes of selection on flowering phenology and traits contributing to floral display have rarely been tested experimentally in natural populations. We quantified phenotypic selection on morphological and phenological characters in the perennial, outcrossing herb Arabidopsis lyrata in two years using female reproductive success as a proxy of fitness. To determine whether selection on floral display and flowering   phenology can be attributed to interactions with pollinators, selection   was quantified both for open-pollinated controls and for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination. We documented directional selection for many flowers, large petals, late start of flowering, and early end of flowering. Seed output was pollen-limited in both years   and supplemental hand-pollination reduced the magnitude of selection on number of flowers, and reversed the direction of selection on end of flowering. The results demonstrate that interactions with pollinators may affect the strength of selection on floral display and the   direction of selection on phenology of flowering in natural plant populations. They thus support the contention that pollinators can drive the evolution of both floral display and flowering time.

  • 98.
    Satler, Jordan D.
    et al.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Organismal Biol, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
    Herre, Edward Allen
    Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Unit 9100,POB 0498,Diplomat PO, Washington, DC 34002 USA.
    Jandér, K. Charlotte
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Eaton, Deren A. R.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Environm Biol, New York, NY 10027 USA.
    Machado, Carlos A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Biol, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Heath, Tracy A.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Organismal Biol, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
    Nason, John D.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Ecol Evolut & Organismal Biol, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
    Inferring processes of coevolutionary diversification in a community of Panamanian strangler figs and associated pollinating wasps2019Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 2295-2311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fig and pollinator wasp obligate mutualism is diverse (∼750 described species), ecologically important, and ancient (∼80 Ma). Once thought to be an example of strict one‐to‐one cospeciation, current thinking suggests genera of pollinator wasps codiversify with corresponding sections of figs, but the degree to which cospeciation or other processes contribute to the association at finer scales is unclear. Here, we use genome‐wide sequence data from a community of Panamanian strangler figs and associated wasp pollinators to estimate the relative contributions of four evolutionary processes generating cophylogenetic patterns in this mutualism: cospeciation, host switching, pollinator speciation, and pollinator extinction. Using a model‐based approach adapted from the study of gene family evolution, our results demonstrate the importance of host switching of pollinator wasps at this fine phylogenetic and regional scale. Although we estimate a modest amount of cospeciation, simulations reveal the number of putative cospeciation events to be consistent with what would be expected by chance. Additionally, model selection tests identify host switching as a critical parameter for explaining cophylogenetic patterns in this system. Our study demonstrates a promising approach through which the history of evolutionary association between interacting lineages can be rigorously modeled and tested in a probabilistic phylogenetic framework.

  • 99.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Kempenaers, Bart
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    QTL linkage mapping of Zebra finch beak color shows an oligogenic control of a sexually selected trait2012Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mate choice based on sexual ornaments can impose strong selection, which raises the question of how genetic variation in ornaments is maintained. One mechanism that has been proposed is genic capture. If ornament expression is influenced by general condition and condition is under polygenic control, selection will be inefficient in removing genetic variation. Here we analyze whether the genetic architecture of beak color in a population of zebra finches supports this hypothesis. Zebra finch beak color is commonly assumed to be under strong selection by mate choice, although some of the evidence is ambiguous. We show that beak redness has a heritability of 34% in our population and that it is strongly genetically correlated between the sexes, suggesting that it is largely controlled by the same genes in males and females. We mapped variation in beak redness based on 1404 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in a large pedigree. We find evidence for linkage on four chromosomes (Tgu1, Tgu5, Tgu13, Tgu21), which together explain a large part of the additive genetic variance. Our finding of genomic regions with major additive effects is not consistent with directional selection and genic capture, but rather suggests a role of antagonistic pleiotropy in maintaining genetic variation.

  • 100.
    Schäfer, Martin A.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rohner, Patrick T.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kjaersgaard, Anders
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Guillaume, Frederic
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fox, Charles W.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Entomol, Lexington, KY 40506 USA.
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Geographic clines in wing morphology relate to colonization history in New World but not Old World populations of yellow dung flies2018Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, nr 8, s. 1629-1644Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic dines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to dines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST)) of wing shape across North America, Europe, and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (F-ST). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at three temperatures revealed significant thermal plasticity, sexual dimorphism, and geographic differentiation in wing shape. In North America morphological differentiation followed the decline in microsatellite variability along the presumed route of recent colonization from the southeast to the northwest. Across Europe, where S. stercoraria presumably existed for much longer time and where no molecular pattern of isolation by distance was evident, clinal variation was less pronounced despite significant morphological differentiation (Q(ST) >F-ST). Shape vector comparisons further indicate that thermal plasticity (hot-to-cold) does not mirror patterns of latitudinal divergence (south-to-north), as might have been expected under a scenario with temperature as the major agent of selection. Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed phylogeographic information when interpreting geographic dines of dispersal traits in an adaptive evolutionary framework.

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