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  • 51.
    Andersson, Anastasia
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lack of trophic polymorphism despite substantial genetic differentiation in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations2017Ingår i: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 643-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sympatric populations occur in many freshwater fish species; such populations are typically detected through morphological distinctions that are often coupled to food niche and genetic separations. In salmonids, trophic and genetically separate sympatric populations have been reported in landlocked Arctic char, whitefish and brown trout. In Arctic char and brown trout rare cases of sympatric, genetically distinct populations have been detected based on genetic data alone, with no apparent morphological differences, that is cryptic structuring. It remains unknown whether such cryptic, sympatric structuring can be coupled to food niche separation. Here, we perform an extensive screening for trophic divergence of two genetically divergent, seemingly cryptic, sympatric brown trout populations documented to remain in stable sympatry over several decades in two interconnected, tiny mountain lakes in a nature reserve in central Sweden. We investigate body shape, body length, gill raker metrics, breeding status and diet (stomach content analysis and stable isotopes) in these populations. We find small significant differences for body shape, body size and breeding status, and no evidence of food niche separation between these two populations. In contrast, fish in the two lakes differed in body shape, diet, and nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures despite no genetic difference between lakes. These genetically divergent populations apparently coexist using the same food resources and showing the same adaptive plasticity to the local food niches of the two separate lakes. Such observations have not been reported previously but may be more common than recognised as genetic screenings are necessary to detect the structures.

  • 52. Andersson, M. S.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN - A NEW MEASURE OF CONDITION IN BIRDS1995Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol. 260, nr 1359, s. 299-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 53. Andres, J A
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Genetic divergence of the seminal signal-receptor system in houseflies: the footprints of sexually antagonistic coevolution?2001Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, nr 1465, s. 399-405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 54.
    Appelgren, A.
    et al.
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland.;Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    McCoy, K. D.
    Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    Richner, H.
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.
    Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank)2016Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 1091-1101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here, we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank), exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites, the great tit Parus major (Linnaeus) and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (Temminck). We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species in two distinct study areas during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. In the following year, hosts were monitored again to assess the long-term impact of cross-infestation. Our results partly support the local specialization hypothesis: in great tit nests, tit fleas caused higher damage to their hosts than flycatcher fleas, and in collared flycatcher nests, flycatcher fleas had a faster larval development rates than tit fleas. However, these results were significant in only one of the two studied areas, suggesting that the location and history of the host population can modulate the specialization process. Caution is therefore called for when interpreting single location studies. More generally, our results emphasize the need to explicitly account for host diversity in order to understand the population ecology and evolutionary trajectory of generalist parasites.

  • 55.
    Appelgren, Anais S. C.
    et al.
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland;Univ Lyon, CNRS, F-69000 Lyon, France;LBBE UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, LBBE UMR 5558, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Montpellier, Ctr IRD, Agropolis, MIVEGEC,CNRS,IRD, 911 Ave,BP 64501, F-34000 Montpellier, France.
    Saladin, Verena
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland.
    Richner, Heinz
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Baltzerstr 6, Bern, Switzerland.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Lyon, CNRS, F-69000 Lyon, France;LBBE UMR 5558, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France;Univ Lyon 1, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, LBBE UMR 5558, Batiment Gregor Mendel,43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    McCoy, Karen D.
    Univ Montpellier, Ctr IRD, Agropolis, MIVEGEC,CNRS,IRD, 911 Ave,BP 64501, F-34000 Montpellier, France.
    Gene flow and adaptive potential in a generalist ectoparasite2018Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 18, artikel-id 99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In host-parasite systems, relative dispersal rates condition genetic novelty within populations and thus their adaptive potential. Knowledge of host and parasite dispersal rates can therefore help us to understand current interaction patterns in wild populations and why these patterns shift over time and space. For generalist parasites however, estimates of dispersal rates depend on both host range and the considered spatial scale. Here, we assess the relative contribution of these factors by studying the population genetic structure of a common avian ectoparasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae, exploiting two hosts that are sympatric in our study population, the great tit Paws major and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Previous experimental studies have indicated that the hen flea is both locally maladapted to great tit populations and composed of subpopulations specialized on the two host species, suggesting limited parasite dispersal in space and among hosts, and a potential interaction between these two structuring factors. Results: C gallinae fleas were sampled from old nests of the two passerine species in three replicate wood patches and were genotyped at microsatellite markers to assess population genetic structure at different scales (among individuals within a nest among nests and between host species within a patch and among patches). As expected, significant structure was found at all spatial scales and between host species, supporting the hypothesis of limited dispersal in this parasite. Clustering analyses and estimates of relatedness further suggested that inbreeding regularly occurs within nests. Patterns of isolation by distance within wood patches indicated that flea dispersal likely occurs in a stepwise manner among neighboring nests. From these data, we estimated that gene flow in the hen flea is approximately half that previously described for its great tit hosts. Conclusion: Our results fall in line with predictions based on observed patterns of adaptation in this host-parasite system, suggesting that parasite dispersal is limited and impacts its adaptive potential with respect to its hosts. More generally, this study sheds light on the complex interaction between parasite gene flow, local adaptation and host specialization within a single host-parasite system.

  • 56. Arandjelovic, M.
    et al.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
    Schubert, G.
    Harris, T. R.
    Thalmann, O.
    Siedel, H.
    Vigilant, L.
    Two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction improves the speed and accuracy of genotyping using DNA from noninvasive and museum samples2009Ingår i: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 28-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies in molecular ecology rely upon the genotyping of large numbers of low‐quantity DNA extracts derived from noninvasive or museum specimens. To overcome low amplification success rates and avoid genotyping errors such as allelic dropout and false alleles, multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates for each sample are typically used. Recently, two‐step multiplex procedures have been introduced which drastically increase the success rate and efficiency of genotyping. However, controversy still exists concerning the amount of replication needed for suitable control of error. Here we describe the use of a two‐step multiplex PCR procedure that allows rapid genotyping using at least 19 different microsatellite loci. We applied this approach to quantified amounts of noninvasive DNAs from western chimpanzee, western gorilla, mountain gorilla and black and white colobus faecal samples, as well as to DNA from ~100‐year‐old gorilla teeth from museums. Analysis of over 45 000 PCRs revealed average success rates of > 90% using faecal DNAs and 74% using museum specimen DNAs. Average allelic dropout rates were substantially reduced compared to those obtained using conventional singleplex PCR protocols, and reliable genotyping using low (< 25 pg) amounts of template DNA was possible. However, four to five replicates of apparently homozygous results are needed to avoid allelic dropout when using the lowest concentration DNAs (< 50 pg/reaction), suggesting that use of protocols allowing routine acceptance of homozygous genotypes after as few as three replicates may lead to unanticipated errors when applied to low‐concentration DNAs.

  • 57.
    Arbuthnott, Devin
    et al.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.;Univ British Columbia, Biodivers Res Ctr, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada..
    Mautz, Brian S.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rundle, Howard D.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Rugged fitness landscapes and by-product adaptation in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster2018Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 15-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While the concept of the fitness landscape is central to evolutionary theory, empirical characterizations of fitness landscapes have remained difficult. Recently, a number of laboratory experiments using microbes have suggested that fitness landscapes are often rugged, though there is some variation across environments and species. However, there have been very few characterizations of fitness landscapes in sexual organisms, making it unclear whether the conclusions from studies of microbes are applicable to other groups. Questions: Are fitness landscapes smooth or rugged in simplified laboratory environments for sexual organisms? How does landscape topography influence patterns of adaptation? Methods: We conducted a series of experiments using replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to either cadmium-or ethanol-enriched food to characterize the fitness and phenotypes of these populations in a simplified laboratory environment (ethanol-enriched media). Results: We found that replicate populations adapted to different laboratory environments have diverged phenotypically in physiology, mating behaviour, and offspring production in alternate environments. However, both ethanol-and cadmium-adapted populations show high fitness in the ethanol-enriched environment relative to their founding population, and cadmium-adapted males actually outcompete ethanol-adapted males for mates in an ethanol environment. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the simplified ethanol-enriched medium represents a rugged fitness landscape, and that alternately adapted populations occupy different fitness peaks on this landscape. Because cadmium-adapted populations were never exposed to ethanol previously, it appears that these populations adapted to ethanol as a by-product of adaptation to their cadmium-enriched environment. Therefore, even in simplified laboratory environments, we find evidence for rugged fitness landscapes, and the overlap of fitness peaks on the phenotypic landscape allowed for by-product adaptation.

  • 58. Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Gustafson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Benefits of extra-pair mating may depend on environmental conditions-an experimental study in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 1809-1815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extra-pair mating constitutes a relatively common reproductive strategy in many socially monogamous bird species. This strategy may considerably improve reproductive success of males, but female benefits from extra-pair matings still remain unclear and empirical evidence is scarce. This may be because genetic benefits of extra-pair mating are not always revealed. It is possible that they are shown only in unfavourable environmental conditions and hence problems arise with detecting differences between within- and extra-pair offspring whose performance is measured under favourable conditions. In order to test this prediction, we manipulated environmental conditions by altering brood sizes of blue tits and compared phenotypic characteristics of within- and extra-pair offspring in mixed-paternity broods. We found that extra-pair young exhibited a higher response to phytohemagglutinin in comparison to within-pair young, but this was only observed among nestlings from experimentally enlarged broods. These results indicate that genetic benefits may interact with the environment, and thus benefits of extra-pair mating are likely to become visible only when conditions are relatively unfavourable.

  • 59.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Podmoka, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in blue tit nestlings (Cyanistis caeruleus) under contrasting rearing conditions2017Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 803-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the relation between genetic variation and fitness remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Although heterozygosity has been reported to correlate with many fitness-related traits, the strength of the heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) is usually weak and it is still difficult to assess the generality of these associations in natural populations. It has been suggested that HFCs may become meaningful only under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, existing evidence suggests that HFCs may also differ between sexes. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between heterozygosity in neutral markers (microsatellites) and fitness-related traits in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Additionally, we tested whether sex and environmental conditions may influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs. We found a positive relationship between heterozygosity and body mass of 14 days post-hatching nestlings, but only among females. Our results suggest that the correlation between heterozygosity and nestling body mass observed among female offspring could be attributed to within-brood effects. We failed to find any evidence that environmental conditions as simulated by brood size manipulation affect HFCs.

  • 60. Arnegard, Matthew E.
    et al.
    McGee, Matthew D.
    Matthews, Blake
    Marchinko, Kerry B.
    Conte, Gina L.
    Kabir, Sahriar
    Bedford, Nicole
    Bergek, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Chan, Yingguang Frank
    Jones, Felicity C.
    Kingsley, David M.
    Peichel, Catherine L.
    Schluter, Dolph
    Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation2014Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 511, nr 7509, s. 307-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological differences often evolve early in speciation as divergent natural selection drives adaptation to distinct ecological niches, leading ultimately to reproductive isolation. Although this process is a major generator of biodiversity, its genetic basis is still poorly understood. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of niche differentiation in a sympatric species pair of threespine stickleback fish by mapping the environment-dependent effects of phenotypic traits on hybrid feeding and performance under semi-natural conditions. We show that multiple, unlinked loci act largely additively to determine position along the major niche axis separating these recently diverged species. We also find that functional mismatch between phenotypic traits reduces the growth of some stickleback hybrids beyond that expected from an intermediate phenotype, suggesting a role for epistasis between the underlying genes. This functional mismatch might lead to hybrid incompatibilities that are analogous to those underlying intrinsic reproductive isolation but depend on the ecological context.

  • 61.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Comment on "Bateman in Nature: Predation on Offspring Reduces the Potential for Sexual Selection"2013Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 340, nr 6132, s. 549-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 62.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Comparative evidence for the evolution of genitalia by sexual selection1998Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 393, nr 6687, s. 784-786Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 63.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Cryptic female choice2014Ingår i: The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems / [ed] D. Shuker and L. Simmons, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, s. 204-220Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Editorial rejects?: Novelty, schnovelty!2013Ingår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 448-449Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Because many journals are currently increasing the rate of pre-peer-review editorial rejects, the editorial criteria upon which such decisions are based are very important. Here, I spotlight 'novelty' as a criterion and argue that it is a very problematic decisive factor at this stage of the editorial process.

  • 65.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    MULTIPLE MATING IN A WATER STRIDER - MUTUAL BENEFITS OR INTERSEXUAL CONFLICT1989Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 38, s. 749-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 66.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict2006Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 361, nr 1466, s. 375-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 67.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sex wars: Genes, bacteria, and biased sex ratios2003Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 424, nr 6949, s. 616-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 68.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sexual conflict and sexual selection: Lost in the chase2004Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 1383-1388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Andres, Jose A.
    The effects of experimentally induced polyandry on female reproduction in a monandrous mating system2006Ingår i: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 112, nr 8, s. 748-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Danielsson, I
    Copulatory behavior, genital morphology, and male fertilization success in water striders1999Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 147-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Danielsson, I
    Postmating sexual selection: the effects of male body size and recovery period on paternity and egg production rate in a water strider1999Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 358-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 72.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Edvardsson, M
    Friberg, U
    Nilsson, T
    Sexual conflict promotes speciation in insects2000Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, nr 19, s. 10460-10464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 73.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Fricke, C
    Arnqvist, G
    Patterns of divergence in the effects of mating on female reproductive performance in flour beetles2002Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 111-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 74.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Johansson, F
    Ontogenetic reaction norms of predator-induced defensive morphology in dragonfly larvae1998Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 1847-1858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 75.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Jones, T M
    Elgar, M A
    Insect behaviour: Reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding2003Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 424, nr 6947, s. 387-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 76.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kirkpatrick, M
    The evolution of infidelity in socially monogamous passerines: The strength of direct and indirect selection on extrapair copulation behavior in females2005Ingår i: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 165, nr 5, s. S26-S37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 77.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Martensson, T
    Measurement error in geometric morphometrics: Empirical strategies to assess and reduce its impact on measures of shape1998Ingår i: Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, ISSN 1217-8837, E-ISSN 2064-2474, Vol. 44, nr 1-2, s. 73-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 78.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nilsson, T
    The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects2000Ingår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 60, s. 145-164Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 79.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Nilsson, T
    Katvala, M
    Mating rate and fitness in female bean weevils2005Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 123-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 80.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Novicic, Zorana Kurbalija
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res Sinisa Stankovic, Despot Stefan Blvd 142, Belgrade 11000, Serbia..
    Castro, Jose A.
    Univ Illes Balears, Fac Ciencies, Dept Biol, Lab Genet, Edifici Guillem Colom,Campus UIB, Palma de Mallorca 07122, Balears, Spain..
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Negative frequency dependent selection on sympatric mtDNA haplotypes in Drosophila subobscura2016Ingår i: Hereditas, ISSN 0018-0661, E-ISSN 1601-5223, Vol. 153, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent experimental evidence for selection on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has prompted the question as to what processes act to maintain within-population variation in mtDNA. Balancing selection though negative frequency dependent selection (NFDS) among sympatric haplotypes is a possibility, but direct empirical evidence for this is very scarce. Findings: We extend the previous findings of a multi-generation replicated cage experiment in Drosophila subobscura, where mtDNA polymorphism was maintained in a laboratory setting. First, we use a set of Monte Carlo simulations to show that the haplotype frequency dynamics observed are inconsistent with genetic drift alone and most closely match those expected under NFDS. Second, we show that haplotype frequency changes over time were significantly different from those expected under either genetic drift or positive selection but were consistent with those expected under NFSD. Conclusions: Collectively, our analyses provide novel support for NFDS on mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that mtDNA polymorphism may at least in part be maintained by balancing selection also in natural populations. We very briefly discuss the possible mechanisms that might be involved.

  • 81.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, L
    Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects2002Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 415, nr 6873, s. 787-789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 82.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, L
    Correlated evolution of male and female morphologies in water striders2002Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 936-947Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 83.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Rowe, Locke
    The shape of preference functions and what shapes them: a comment on Edward2015Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 325-325Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 84.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Rankin, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Tuda, Midori
    Kyushu Univ, Dept Bioresource Sci, Lab Insect Nat Enemies, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan.;Kyushu Univ, Inst Biol Control, Fac Agr, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan..
    Hjelmen, Carl E.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Johnston, J. Spencer
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1815, artikel-id 20151421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  • 85.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Stojkovic, Biljana
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rönn, Johanna L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The pace-of-life: A sex-specific link between metabolic rate and life history in bean beetles2017Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 2299-2309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Metabolic rate (MR) is a key functional trait simply because metabolism converts resources into population growth rate. Yet, our empirical understanding of the sources of within species variation in MR, as well as of its life history and ecological correlates, is rather limited. Here, we assess whether MR lies at the root of a syndrome of correlated rate-dependent life-history traits in an insect.
    2. Selection for early (E) or late (L) age-at-reproduction for >160 generations in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus has produced beetles that differ markedly in juvenile development, body size, fecundity schedules, ageing and life span. Here, we use micro-respirometry to test whether this has been associated with the evolution of age- and sex-specific metabolic phenotypes.
    3. We find that mass-specific MR is 18% higher in E lines compared to L lines and that MR decreases more rapidly with chronological, but not biological, age in E lines. Males, under sexual selection to “live-fast-die-young”, show 50% higher MR than females and MR decreased more rapidly with age in males.
    4. Our results are consistent with a central role for MR for the divergence in “pace-of-life” seen in these beetles, supporting the view that MR lies at the root of ecologically relevant life-history trait variation within species.
  • 86.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Stojković, Biljana
    Rönn, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    The pace-of-life: A sex-specific link between metabolic rate and life history in bean beetles2017Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 2299-2309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Metabolic rate (MR) is a key functional trait simply because metabolism converts resources into population growth rate. Yet, our empirical understanding of the sources of within species variation in MR, as well as of its life history and ecological correlates, is rather limited. Here, we assess whether MR lies at the root of a syndrome of correlated rate‐dependent life‐history traits in an insect.
    2. Selection for early (E) or late (L) age‐at‐reproduction for >160 generations in the bean beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus has produced beetles that differ markedly in juvenile development, body size, fecundity schedules, ageing and life span. Here, we use micro‐respirometry to test whether this has been associated with the evolution of age‐ and sex‐specific metabolic phenotypes.
    3. We find that mass‐specific MR is 18% higher in E lines compared to L lines and that MR decreases more rapidly with chronological, but not biological, age in E lines. Males, under sexual selection to “live‐fast‐die‐young”, show 50% higher MR than females and MR decreased more rapidly with age in males.
    4. Our results are consistent with a central role for MR for the divergence in “pace‐of‐life” seen in these beetles, supporting the view that MR lies at the root of ecologically relevant life‐history trait variation within species.
  • 87.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Thornhill, R
    Evolution of animal genitalia: patterns of phenotypic and genotypic variation and condition dependence of genital and non-genital morphology in water strider (Heteroptera : Gerridae : Insecta)1998Ingår i: Genetical Research, ISSN 0016-6723, E-ISSN 1469-5073, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 193-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 88.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Vellnow, Nikolas
    Rowe, Locke
    The effect of epistasis on sexually antagonistic genetic variation2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, nr 1787, s. 20140489-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence of segregating sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness in laboratory and wild populations, yet the conditions for the maintenance of such variation can be restrictive. Epistatic interactions between genes can contribute to the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness and we suggest that epistasis between SA genes should be pervasive. Here, we explore its effect on SA genetic variation in fitness using a two locus model with negative epistasis. Our results demonstrate that epistasis often increases the parameter space showing polymorphism for SA loci. This is because selection in one locus is affected by allele frequencies at the other, which can act to balance net selection in males and females. Increased linkage between SA loci had more marginal effects. We also show that under some conditions, large portions of the parameter space evolve to a state where male benefit alleles are fixed at one locus and female benefit alleles at the other. This novel effect of epistasis on SA loci, which we term the 'equity effect', may have important effects on population differentiation and may contribute to speciation. More generally, these results support the suggestion that epistasis contributes to population divergence.

  • 89. Aronsen, T.
    et al.
    Mobley, K. B.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Billing, A. M.
    Rosenqvist, G.
    The operational sex ratio and density influence spatial relationships between breeding pipefish2013Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 888-897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational sex ratio (ratio of sexually receptive males to females) has been extensively studied in behavioral ecology, whereas other demographic factors such as the effect of density on mating behavior have received less empirical attention. We manipulated mating competition by establishing breeding populations of the sex-role reversed broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) at 2 sex ratios (male biased or female biased) and 2 densities. We used mean crowding (m*) and the index of association (X) to measure spatial distributions within and between the sexes, respectively, and investigated how these measures reflect the predicted strength of mating competition. In general, female m* increased as fewer males were available for mating, which suggests increased intrasexual competition in the most competitive sex. However, male m* also increased as the operational sex ratio became more female biased, suggesting that m* did not reflect mating competition for males. Association between the sexes (X) was higher under male bias than female bias, probably because males were still available for mating under male bias. In addition, X decreased in the female-biased treatment as the operational sex ratio became even more female biased. Higher density increased m* in both sex ratios and sexes, although for both sexes in the female-biased high-density treatment the operational sex ratio did not influence m*, probably because femalefemale competition inhibits further crowding in this treatment. In this study, we show that the use of m* and X can be a useful tool in behavioral studies but their interpretation requires detailed information about the mating system. Therefore, we recommend caution with their broadscale application.

  • 90. Aronsen, Tonje
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ratikainen, Irja I.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Sex Ratio And Density Affect Sexual Selection In A Sex-Role Reversed Fish2013Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 3243-3257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how demographic processes influence mating systems is important to decode ecological influences on sexual selection in nature. We manipulated sex ratio and density in experimental populations of the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We quantified sexual selection using the Bateman gradient (beta'ss), the opportunity for selection (I), and sexual selection (Is), and the maximum standardized sexual selection differential (s(max)). We also measured selection on body length using standardized selection differentials (s') and mating differentials (m'), and tested whether the observed I and Is differ from values obtained by simulating random mating. We found that I, Is, and s'(max), but not beta'(ss), were higher for females under female than male bias and the opposite for males, but density did not affect these measures. However, higher density decreased sexual selection (m similar to but not s') on female length, but selection on body length was not affected by sex ratio. Finally, Is but not I was higher than expected from random mating, and only for females under female bias. This study demonstrates that both sex ratio and density affect sexual selection and that disentangling interrelated demographic processes is essential to a more complete understanding of mating behavior and the evolution of mating systems.

  • 91.
    Ashitani, T.
    et al.
    Yamagata Univ, Dept Bioenvirom, Fac Agr, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 9978555, Japan.;Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Garboui, Samira Sadek
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Schubert, F.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vongsombath, C.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Natl Univ Laos NOUL, Viangchan, Laos..
    Liblikas, I.
    Inst Technol, Sect Organ Chem, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Palsson, K.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Ecol Chem Grp, Dept Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg-Karlson, A. -K
    Activity studies of sesquiterpene oxides and sulfides from the plant Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and its repellency on Ixodes ricinus (Acari:Ixodidae)2015Ingår i: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 67, nr 4, s. 595-606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), a plant traditionally used as a mosquito repellent, has been investigated for repellent properties against nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus. Essential oils and volatile compounds of fresh and dried leaves, from plants originating from Laos and Guinea-Bissau, were identified by GC-MS and tested in a tick repellency bioassay. All the essential oils were strongly repellent against the ticks, even though the main volatile constituents differed in their proportions of potentially tick repellent chemicals. (+)/(-)-sabinene were present in high amounts in all preparations, and dominated the emission from dry and fresh leaves together with 1,8-cineol and alpha-phellandrene. 1,8-Cineol and sabinene were major compounds in the essential oils from H. suaveolens from Laos. Main compounds in H. suaveolens from Guinea-Bissau were (-)-sabinene, limonene and terpinolene. Among the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified, alpha-humulene exhibited strong tick repellency (96.8 %). Structure activity studies of oxidation or sulfidation products of germacrene D, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, showed increased tick repellent activity: of mint sulfide (59.4 %), humulene-6,7-oxide (94.5 %) and caryophyllene-6,7-oxide (96.9 %). The substitution of oxygen with sulfur slightly lowered the repellency. The effects of the constituents in the oils can then be regarded as a trade off between the subsequently lower volatility of the sesquiterpene derivatives compared to the monoterpenes and may thus increase their potential usefulness as tick repellents.

  • 92.
    Baas, Pauline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    van der Valk, Tom
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Vigilant, Linda
    Ngobobo, Urbain
    Binyinyi, Escobar
    Nishuli, Radar
    Caillaud, Damien
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Population-level assessment of genetic diversity and habitat fragmentation in critically endangered Grauer's gorillas2018Ingår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 165, nr 3, s. 565-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) has experienced an estimated 77% population decline within a single generation. Although crucial for informed conservation decisions, there is no clear understanding about population structure and distribution of genetic diversity across the species' highly fragmented range. We fill this gap by studying several core and peripheral Grauer's gorilla populations throughout their distribution range.

    Materials and Methods: We generated genetic profiles for a sampling of an unstudied population of Grauer's gorillas from within the species' core range at 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and combined them with previously published and newly generated data from four other Grauer's gorilla populations, two mountain gorilla populations, and one western lowland gorilla population.

    Results: In agreement with previous studies, the genetic diversity of Grauer's gorillas is intermediate, falling between western lowland and mountain gorillas. Among Grauer's gorilla populations, we observe lower genetic diversity and high differentiation in peripheral compared with central populations, indicating a strong effect of genetic drift and limited gene flow among small, isolated forest fragments.

    Discussion: Although genetically less diverse, peripheral populations are frequently essential for the long-term persistence of a species and migration between peripheral and core populations may significantly enrich the overall species genetic diversity. Thus, in addition to central Grauer's gorilla populations from the core of the distribution range that clearly deserve conservation attention, we argue that conservation strategies aiming to ensure long-term species viability should include preserving peripheral populations and enhancing habitat connectivity.

  • 93.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Karaiskou, Nikoletta
    Leder, Erica H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för evolution, genomik och systematik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    A Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Reveals Extensive Synteny and Gene-Order Conservation During 100 Million Years of Avian Evolution2008Ingår i: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 179, s. 1479-1495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking advantage of a recently developed reference markerset for avian genome analysis we have constructed a gene-basedgenetic map of the collared flycatcher, an important "ecologicalmodel" for studies of life-history evolution, sexual selection,speciation, and quantitative genetics. A pedigree of 322 birdsfrom a natural population was genotyped for 384 single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) from 170 protein-coding genes and 71 microsatellites.Altogether, 147 gene markers and 64 microsatellites form 33linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 1787 cM. Malerecombination rates are, on average, 22% higher than femalerates (total distance 1982 vs. 1627 cM). The ability to anchorthe collared flycatcher map with the chicken genome via thegene-based SNPs revealed an extraordinary degree of both syntenyand gene-order conservation during avian evolution. The greatmajority of chicken chromosomes correspond to a single linkagegroup in collared flycatchers, with only a few cases of inter-and intrachromosomal rearrangements. The rate of chromosomaldiversification, fissions/fusions, and inversions combined isthus considerably lower in birds (0.05/MY) than in mammals (0.6–2.0/MY).A dearth of repeat elements, known to promote chromosomal breakage,in avian genomes may contribute to their stability. The degreeof genome stability is likely to have important consequencesfor general evolutionary patterns and may explain, for example,the comparatively slow rate by which genetic incompatibilityamong lineages of birds evolves.

  • 94.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Dissolved Organic Carbon Reduces Habitat Coupling by Top Predators in Lake Ecosystems2016Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, s. 955-967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing input of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been identified as a widespread environmental phenomenon in many aquatic ecosystems. Terrestrial DOC influences basal trophic levels: it can subsidize pelagic bacterial production and impede benthic primary production via light attenuation. However, little is known about the impacts of elevated DOC concentrations on higher trophic levels, especially on top consumers. Here, we used Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) to investigate the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on top predator populations. We applied stable isotope analysis and geometric morphometrics to estimate long-term resource and habitat utilization of perch. Habitat coupling, the ability to exploit littoral and pelagic resources, strongly decreased with increasing DOC concentrations due to a shift toward feeding predominantly on pelagic resources. Simultaneously, resource use and body morphology became increasingly alike for littoral and pelagic perch populations with increasing DOC, suggesting more intense competition in lakes with high DOC. Eye size of perch increased with increasing DOC concentrations, likely as a result of deteriorating visual conditions, suggesting a sensory response to environmental change. Increasing input of DOC to aquatic ecosystems is a common result of environmental change and might affect top predator populations in multiple and complex ways.

  • 95.
    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schaefer, Martin A.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fox, Charles W.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Entomol, S225 Ag Sci Ctr North, Lexington, KY 40546 USA.
    Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies2018Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, nr 11, s. 1619-1632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g. seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) we investigated whether there are latitudinal clines in reproductive traits (clutch size, egg size and egg composition), whether these clines are due to variation in body and/or egg size, and whether such clines replicate across independent experiments performed on different continents (North America and Europe). Egg size generally increased with latitude (especially in Europe), an effect largely explained by body size of the mother, while clutch size did not; overall reproductive effort thus increased with latitude. Both the absolute and relative (correcting for egg size) amount of egg protein increased with latitude, egg glycogen decreased with latitude, while latitudinal trends for egg lipids and total egg energy content were complex and non-linear. Altitude sometimes showed relationships analogous to those of latitude (egg proteins and glycogen) but occasionally opposite (egg size), possibly because latitude and altitude are negatively related among populations of this cold-adapted species. There was no evidence of a tradeoff between egg size and number across latitudinal populations; if anything, the relationship was positive. All traits, including body and egg size, varied with rearing temperature (12 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 24 degrees C), generally following the temperature-size rule. Clines based on common garden rearing, thus reflecting genetic differentiation, were qualitatively but not always quantitatively consistent between continents, and were similar across rearing temperatures, suggesting they evolved due to natural selection, although the concrete selective mechanisms involved require further study.

  • 96.
    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sorensen, Jesper G.
    Univ Aarhus, Sect Genet Ecol & Evolut, Dept Biosci, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Loeschcke, Volker
    Univ Aarhus, Sect Genet Ecol & Evolut, Dept Biosci, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Berger, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Broder, E. Dale
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Denver, Interdisciplinary Res Incubator Study InEqual, Denver, CO 80208 USA.
    Geiger, Madeleine
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ferrari, Manuela
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurer Str 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Geographic variation in responses of European yellow dung flies to thermal stress2018Ingår i: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 73, s. 41-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic conditions can be very heterogeneous even over small geographic scales, and are believed to be major determinants of the abundance and distribution of species and populations. Organisms are expected to evolve in response to the frequency and magnitude of local thermal extremes, resulting in local adaptation. Using replicate yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations from cold (northern Europe) and warm climates (southern Europe), we compared 1) responses to short-term heat and cold shocks in both sexes, 2) heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression in adults and eggs, and 3) female reproductive traits when facing short-term heat stress during egg maturation. Contrary to expectations, thermal traits showed minor geographic differentiation, with weak evidence for greater heat resistance of southern flies but no differentiation in cold resistance. Hsp70 protein expression was little affected by heat stress, indicating systemic rather than induced regulation of the heat stress response, possibly related to this fly group's preference for cold climes. In contrast, sex differences were pronounced: males (which are larger) endured hot temperatures longer, while females featured higher Hsp70 expression. Heat stress negatively affected various female reproductive traits, reducing first clutch size, overall reproductive investment, egg lipid content, and subsequent larval hatching. These responses varied little across latitude but somewhat among populations in terms of egg size, protein content, and larval hatching success. Several reproductive parameters, but not Hsp70 expression, exhibited heritable variation among full-sib families. Rather than large-scale clinal geographic variation, our study suggests some local geographic population differentiation in the ability of yellow dung flies to buffer the impact of heat stress on reproductive performance.

  • 97.
    Bayram, Helen L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Norbyvagen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Goenaga, Julieta
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Aarhus Univ, Aarhus Inst Adv Studies, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Novel seminal fluid proteins in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus identified by a proteomic and transcriptomic approach2017Ingår i: Insect molecular biology (Print), ISSN 0962-1075, E-ISSN 1365-2583, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 58-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a significant agricultural pest and increasingly studied model of sexual conflict. Males possess genital spines that increase the transfer of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) into the female body. As SFPs alter female behaviour and physiology, they are likely to modulate reproduction and sexual conflict in this species. Here, we identified SFPs using proteomics combined with a de novo transcriptome. A prior 2D-sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified male accessory gland protein spots that were probably transferred to the female at mating. Proteomic analysis of these spots identified 98 proteins, a majority of which were also present within ejaculates collected from females. Standard annotation workflows revealed common functional groups for SFPs, including proteases and metabolic proteins. Transcriptomic analysis found 84 transcripts differentially expressed between the sexes. Notably, genes encoding 15 proteins were highly expressed in male abdomens and only negligibly expressed within females. Most of these sequences corresponded to 'unknown' proteins (nine of 15) and may represent rapidly evolving SFPs novel to seed beetles. Our combined analyses highlight 44 proteins for which there is strong evidence that they are SFPs. These results can inform further investigation, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual conflict in seed beetles.

  • 98.
    Bayram, Helen L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Evolutionsbiologi.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Identification of novel ejaculate proteins in a seed beetle and division of labour across male accessory reproductive glands2019Ingår i: Insect biochemistry and molecular biology, ISSN 0965-1748, Vol. 104, s. 50-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The male ejaculate contains a multitude of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), many of which are key reproductive molecules, as well as sperm. However, the identification of SFPs is notoriously difficult and a detailed understanding of this complex phenotype has only been achieved in a few model species. We employed a recently developed proteomic method involving whole-organism stable isotope labelling coupled with proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to characterize ejaculate proteins in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We identified 317 proteins that were transferred to females at mating, and a great majority of these showed signals of secretion and were highly male-biased in expression in the abdomen. These male-derived proteins were enriched with proteins involved in general metabolic and catabolic processes but also with proteolytic enzymes and proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress. Thirty-seven proteins showed significant homology with SFPs previously identified in other insects. However, no less than 92 C. maculatus ejaculate proteins were entirely novel, receiving no significant blast hits and lacking homologs in extant data bases, consistent with a rapid and divergent evolution of SFPs. We used 3D micro-tomography in conjunction with proteomic methods to identify 5 distinct pairs of male accessory reproductive glands and to show that certain ejaculate proteins were only recovered in certain male glands. Finally, we provide a tentative list of 231 candidate female-derived reproductive proteins, some of which are likely important in ejaculate processing and/or sperm storage.

  • 99.
    Bebris, Kristaps
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Local adaptation of Grauer's gorilla gut microbiome2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled metagenomicinvestigations into complex bacterial communities with unprecedented resolution andthroughput. The production of dedicated data sets for metagenomic analyses is, however, acostly process and, frequently, the first research questions focus on the study species itself. Ifthe source material is represented by fecal samples, target capture of host-specific sequencesis applied to enrich the complex DNA mixtures contained within a typical fecal DNA extract.Yet, even after this enrichment, the samples still contain a large amount of environmentalDNA that is usually left unanalysed. In my study I investigate the possibility of using shotgunsequencing data that has been subjected to target enrichment for mtDNA from the hostspecies, Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri), for further analysis of the microbialcommunity present in these samples. The purpose of these analyses is to study the differencesin the bacterial communities present within a high-altitude Grauer’s gorilla, low-altitudeGrauer’s gorilla, and a sympatric chimpanzee population. Additionally, I explore the adaptivepotential of the gut microbiota within these great ape populations.I evaluated the impact that the enrichment process had on the microbial community by usingpre- and post-capture museum preserved samples. In addition to this, I also analysed the effectof two different extraction methods on the bacterial communities.My results show that the relative abundances of the bacterial taxa remain relatively unaffectedby the enrichment process and the extraction methods. The overall number of taxa is,however, reduced by each additional capture round and is not consistent between theextraction methods. This means that both the enrichment and extraction processes introducebiases that require the usage of abundance-based distance measures for biological inferences.Additionally, even if the data cannot be used to study the bacterial communities in anunbiased manner, it provides useful comparative insights for samples that were treated in thesame fashion.With this background, I used museum and fecal samples to perform cluster analysis to explorethe relationships between the gut microbiota of the three great ape populations. I found thatpopulations cluster by species first, and only then group according to habitat. I further foundthat a bacterial taxon that degrades plant matter is enriched in the gut microbiota of all threegreat ape species, where it could help with the digestion of vegetative foods. Another bacterialtaxon that consumes glucose is enriched in the gut microbiota of the low-altitude gorilla andchimpanzee populations, where it could help with the modulation of the host’s mucosalimmune system, and could point to the availability of fruit in the animals diet. In addition, Ifound a bacterial taxon that is linked with diarrhea in humans to be part of the gut microbiotaof the habituated high-altitude gorilla population, which could indicate that this pathogen hasbeen transmitted to the gorillas from their interaction with humans, or it could be indicative ofthe presence of a contaminated water source.

  • 100. Bennett, G. F.
    et al.
    Siikamaki, P.
    Ratti, O.
    Allander, K.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Squiresparsons, D.
    TRYPANOSOMES OF SOME FENNOSCANDIAN BIRDS1994Ingår i: Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 89, nr 4, s. 531-537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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