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  • 1.
    Anttila, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Döhler, Jéssica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Oliveira, Janaína Goncalves de
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Dept Elect Energy, BR-36036330 Juiz De Fora, Brazil..
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Grid Forming inverters: A review of the state of the art of key elements for microgrid operation2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 5517Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, inverter-integrated energy sources have experienced rapid growth, which leads to operating challenges associated with reduced system inertia and intermittent power generation, which can cause instability and performance issues of the power system. Improved control schemes for inverters are necessary to ensure the stability and resilience of the power system. Grid-forming inverters dampen frequency fluctuations in the power system, while grid-following inverters can aggravate frequency problems with increased penetration. This paper aims at reviewing the role of grid-forming inverters in the power system, including their topology, control strategies, challenges, sizing, and location. In order to facilitate continued research in this field, a comprehensive literature review and classification of the studies are conducted, followed by research gaps and suggestions for future studies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Parwal, Arvind
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Alstom AB, RCS, HeadQuarters, Marieviksgatan 29, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Kelly, James
    MaREI Centre, Beaufort Building, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Ringaskiddy, Co. Cork, Ireland.
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaína
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Multi-platform Simulations Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. Department of Electrical Engineering, Division of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Grid Impact and Power quality Assessment in wave Energy Parks: Different layouts and Power Penetrations using Energy Storage2021In: The Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1872-3284, E-ISSN 2051-3305, Vol. 2021, no 8, p. 415-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power fluctuations induced by wave energy converters (WECs) may reflect negative impact on the power quality of the power grid. Assessing their impact is an important step to ensure the grid compliance level of the energy park. The IEC 61000-4-15 standard classifies the allowable disturbances in the grid. This study analysed and assessed the grid impact in terms of flicker, harmonic distortion and voltage variations. The assessments were performed without energy storage and compared when using the energy storage. A single WEC is emulated as an irregular power output of a real WEC using a combined model of power take-off in the Simulink model. Time series based on data obtained in earlier offshore experiments, conducted at the Lysekil research site in Sweden, is used to emulate a wave energy park (WEP) power in a land-based test rig in real-time power hardware-in-the-loop simulations. A total of three and ten WECs are emulated by introducing a time delay in the time series to investigate the grid impact in each layout. Flicker emissions, voltage variations, individual and total harmonics of the voltage at the connection point in each layout are studied and compared with the limits to be grid compliant for layouts of the WEP. In addition, voltage and current harmonics for the single WEC and individual harmonics in each phase of the voltage are measured and analysed to assess the compliance level of the WEP.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Frost, Anna E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Kontos, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid State Physics.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Engström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Freshwater and Lithium from Desalination Powered by Marine Energy Sources2020In: International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, ISSN 1053-5381, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 283-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this paper represents an initial study of a novel concept in freshwater and lithium extraction from desalination powered off-grid by marine renewable energy sources. The project's background is interest in the local supply of lithium for the growing numbers of electric vehicles. The desalination technologies investigated are reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The collocation of the marine resources, possibly available and future technical solutions, and demands for freshwater and lithium suggest that the proposed system could be interesting to study further.

  • 4.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Power control strategies for renewable energy systems: The inverter's role in future power systems2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Connecting more non-dispatchable renewable energy sources (RESs) will result in a higher power variability and a lower system inertia when the synchronous generators are replaced by inverter-connected RES. Inverter control can be divided in three categories: grid-following, grid-forming (GFM) and grid-supporting. A literature review of inverter control strategies identifies the GFM control as having an important role in maintaining system stability assuming near 100 % inverter-connected RES. Critical aspects of the inverter control are also identified; the control need to function autonomously, be able to remain connected during transient events and be insensitive to grid topology.

    Combining various RES is also shown to improve system stability. The combination of RES that has been investigated in most studies is wind, solar and wave power. Wave power is still a young technology compared to solar and wind power. It generates higher power fluctuations over short time periods with a significant difference between average and maximum power. Additionally, wave power parks (WPPs) are often connected via long cables which contribute reactive power to the grid. These challenges has to be considered to maintain system stability and power quality when connecting a WPP to the grid.

    In a Power Hardware-In-the-Loop study of how a WPP affects the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC), it is found that the impact is highest for WPPs with fewer generators as the variability is reduced when several generators are excited at different times. Energy storage is also shown to have a significant impact on the power quality at the PCC with reduced flicker, total harmonic distortion and power and voltage variability. A simulation study also shows the positive impact of energy storage on power variability and the role of inverter control in reactive power compensation.

    List of papers
    1. Power Control Strategies for a Smoother Power Output from a Wave Power Plant
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Control Strategies for a Smoother Power Output from a Wave Power Plant
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Napoli, Italy: European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Napoli, Italy: European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2019
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390134 (URN)
    Conference
    13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Napoli, Italy, September 1-6, 2019
    Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2020-10-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Power Hardware-in-the-loop simulations of Grid-Integration of a Wave Power Park
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Hardware-in-the-loop simulations of Grid-Integration of a Wave Power Park
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Napoli, Italy, September 1-6, 2019, Napoli, Italy, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Napoli, Italy: , 2019
    Keywords
    energy storage system, grid integration, hardware-in-the-loop, microgrid, power fluctuations, wave energy converter
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390104 (URN)
    Conference
    13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Napoli, Italy, September 1-6, 2019
    Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2023-10-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Marine Renewable Energy Sources for Desalination, Generating Freshwater and Lithium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine Renewable Energy Sources for Desalination, Generating Freshwater and Lithium
    Show others...
    2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400118 (URN)
    Conference
    29th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference ISOPE, 16-21 June, 2019, Honolulu, USA
    Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2021-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Freshwater and Lithium from Desalination Powered by Marine Energy Sources
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freshwater and Lithium from Desalination Powered by Marine Energy Sources
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, ISSN 1053-5381, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 283-285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this paper represents an initial study of a novel concept in freshwater and lithium extraction from desalination powered off-grid by marine renewable energy sources. The project's background is interest in the local supply of lithium for the growing numbers of electric vehicles. The desalination technologies investigated are reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The collocation of the marine resources, possibly available and future technical solutions, and demands for freshwater and lithium suggest that the proposed system could be interesting to study further.

    Keywords
    Wave power, marine current energy, desalination, lithiumion battery, electric vehicles, aqueous mining, brine management.
    National Category
    Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-417958 (URN)10.17736/ijope.2020.jc789 (DOI)000592954900004 ()
    Available from: 2020-08-27 Created: 2020-08-27 Last updated: 2021-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Grid Impact and Power quality Assessment in wave Energy Parks: Different layouts and Power Penetrations using Energy Storage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grid Impact and Power quality Assessment in wave Energy Parks: Different layouts and Power Penetrations using Energy Storage
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: The Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1872-3284, E-ISSN 2051-3305, Vol. 2021, no 8, p. 415-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Power fluctuations induced by wave energy converters (WECs) may reflect negative impact on the power quality of the power grid. Assessing their impact is an important step to ensure the grid compliance level of the energy park. The IEC 61000-4-15 standard classifies the allowable disturbances in the grid. This study analysed and assessed the grid impact in terms of flicker, harmonic distortion and voltage variations. The assessments were performed without energy storage and compared when using the energy storage. A single WEC is emulated as an irregular power output of a real WEC using a combined model of power take-off in the Simulink model. Time series based on data obtained in earlier offshore experiments, conducted at the Lysekil research site in Sweden, is used to emulate a wave energy park (WEP) power in a land-based test rig in real-time power hardware-in-the-loop simulations. A total of three and ten WECs are emulated by introducing a time delay in the time series to investigate the grid impact in each layout. Flicker emissions, voltage variations, individual and total harmonics of the voltage at the connection point in each layout are studied and compared with the limits to be grid compliant for layouts of the WEP. In addition, voltage and current harmonics for the single WEC and individual harmonics in each phase of the voltage are measured and analysed to assess the compliance level of the WEP.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institution of Engineering and TechnologyInstitution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2021
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390136 (URN)10.1049/tje2.12006 (DOI)000670344800001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2015-03126StandUp
    Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
    6. Grid Forming inverters: A review of the state of the art of key elements for microgrid operation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grid Forming inverters: A review of the state of the art of key elements for microgrid operation
    2022 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 5517Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, inverter-integrated energy sources have experienced rapid growth, which leads to operating challenges associated with reduced system inertia and intermittent power generation, which can cause instability and performance issues of the power system. Improved control schemes for inverters are necessary to ensure the stability and resilience of the power system. Grid-forming inverters dampen frequency fluctuations in the power system, while grid-following inverters can aggravate frequency problems with increased penetration. This paper aims at reviewing the role of grid-forming inverters in the power system, including their topology, control strategies, challenges, sizing, and location. In order to facilitate continued research in this field, a comprehensive literature review and classification of the studies are conducted, followed by research gaps and suggestions for future studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2022
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-421008 (URN)10.3390/en15155517 (DOI)000839717400001 ()
    Funder
    SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageVattenfall ABSwedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2020-10-03 Created: 2020-10-03 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 5.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Frost, Anna E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kontos, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Engström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Marine Renewable Energy Sources for Desalination, Generating Freshwater and Lithium2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Parwal, Arvind
    Kelly, James
    Leijon, Jennifer
    Hjalmarsson, Johannes
    Anttila, Sara
    Boström, Cecilia
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity.
    Power Hardware in the Loop Real Time Modelling Using Hydrodynamic Model of a Wave Energy Converter with Linear Generator Power Take Off2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Parwal, Arvind
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kelly, James
    Hjalmarsson, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Temiz, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Power Hardware in-the-Loop Real Time Modelling using Hydrodynamic Model of a Wave Energy Converter with Linear generator Power Take-Off2019In: the 29th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, June 16-21, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Temiz, Irina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Parwal, Arvind
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kelly, James
    Potapenko, Tatiana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Anttila, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hjalmarsson, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Laure, Hebert
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Power Hardware-in-the-loop simulations of Grid-Integration of a Wave Power Park2019In: 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Napoli, Italy, September 1-6, 2019, Napoli, Italy, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 8 of 8
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