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  • 1.
    Sjödin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Wang, Huan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting Redox Polymers as Active Materials in Secondary Batteries2023In: 74th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry / [ed] International Society of Electrochemistry, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Sjödin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting redox oligomers2022Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present disclosure relates to compounds of formula IVa or IVb, or salts thereof, as intermediates in the manufacture of conducting redox polymers. L is a covalent linker moiety and R is a reversible redox group. The disclosure further relates to conducting redox polymers produced from such compounds, as well as substrates coated with such conducting redox polymers, and organic batteries comprising such conducting redox polymers.

  • 3.
    Sjödin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting redox oligomers2022Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present disclosure relates to compounds of formula IVa or IVb, or salts thereof, as intermediates in the manufacture of conducting redox polymers. L is a covalent linker moiety and R is a reversible redox group.The disclosure further relates to conducting redox polymers produced from such compounds, as well as substrates coated with such conducting redox polymers, and organic batteries comprising such conducting redox polymers.

  • 4.
    Sjödin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting redox oligomers2022Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Strietzel, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Oka, Kouki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    An Alternative to Carbon Additives: The Fabrication of Conductive Layers Enabled by Soluble Conducting Polymer Precursors – A Case Study for Organic Batteries2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 5349-5356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing organic redox-active materials as electrodes is a promising strategy to enable innovative battery designs with low environmental footprint during production, which can be hard to achieve with traditional inorganic materials. Most electrode compositions, organic or inorganic, require binders for adhesion and conducting additives to enable charge transfer through the electrode, in addition to the redox-active material. Depending on the redox-active material, many types and combinations of binders and conducting additives have been considered. We designed a conducting polymer (CP), with a soluble, trimeric unit based on 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (E) and 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (P) as the repeat unit, acting as a combined binder and conducting additive. While CPs as additives have been explored earlier, in the current work, the use of a trimeric precursor enables solution processing together with the organic redox-active material. To evaluate this concept, the CP was blended with a redox polymer (RP), which contained a naphthoquinone (NQ) redox group at different ratios. The highest capacity for the total weight of the CP/RP electrode was 77 mAh/g at 1 C in the case of 30% EPE and 70% naphthoquinone-substituted poly(allylamine) (PNQ), which is 70% of the theoretical capacity given by the RP in the electrode. We further used this electrode in an aqueous battery, with a MnSO4 cathode. The battery displayed a voltage of 0.95 V, retaining 93% of the initial capacity even after 500 cycles at 1 C. The strategy of using a solution-processable CP precursor opens up for new organic battery designs and facile evaluation of RPs in such.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Designing Quinone-based Organic Batteries2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for secondary energy storage is ever increasing, being at the forefront of the transformation to a sustainable society. Conventional batteries, whose electrode materials require mining and high temperature refining, generate substantial carbon dioxide emissions during production. Furthermore, the process for recycling of these batteries is difficult and still at in its infancy. On the contrary, organic batteries could be a sustainable and alternative energy storage solution and is therefore gaining increased attention. While there are several promising organic battery concepts, the focus in of this thesis has been towards batteries using quinones as capacity carrying units. Furthermore, a special emphasis was put on conducting polymers for providing conductivity within the electrode material, predominately in the form of conducting redox polymers. Several battery designs have been explored. All-organic batteries, cycling protons both with an ionic liquid and with a readily available aqueous electrolyte, have been evaluated with promising results concerning rate capabilities and low temperature operation. Hybrid-organic battery designs have shown that quinones easily cycle Lithium ions and act in a dual ion battery with a Manganese oxide cathode. This thesis therefore gives a broad overview on how quinone organic batteries can be designed and provides an outlook on how future development can be focused.

    List of papers
    1. Nonstoichiometric Triazolium Protic Ionic Liquids for All-Organic Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonstoichiometric Triazolium Protic Ionic Liquids for All-Organic Batteries
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, no 11, p. 6451-6462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Nonstoichiometric protic ionic liquids (NSPILs) are efficient electrolytes for protic electrochemical devices such as the all-organic proton battery, which has been suggested as a sustainable approach to energy storage. NSPILs contain a mixture of proton donors and acceptors and are ideal for this purpose due to their high proton conductivity, high electrochemical stability, low cost, and ease of synthesis. However, the electrolyte proton activity must be controlled carefully in these devices since it greatly influences the kinetics and energetics of the electrode redox reactions and, hence, also impacts battery device performance. In this study, specific NSPILs were designed and evaluated as electrolytes for the all-organic proton battery. The NSPILs were based on either 1,2,4-triazole or 1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole partially protonated with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) to produce a range of NSPILs with different degrees of protonation. Both types of NSPIL investigated here exhibited a maximum conductivity of 1.2 S/cm (at 120 and 70 °C, respectively), and the eutectic composition of 1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium TFSI also had high conductivity at 25 °C (24.9 mS/cm), superior to, e.g., imidazolium TFSI NSPILs. Pulsed field gradient NMR in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the conductivity originated mainly from vehicle diffusion and proton hopping. Quinone functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes exhibited reversible, fast, and stable redox conversion in these electrolytes, and a model is suggested to determine proton activities of NSPILs based on the quinone formal potential. An all-organic proton battery cell was assembled to demonstrate the usefulness of these electrolytes in devices. Fast and complete redox conversion with a cell potential of 0.45 V was demonstrated, even up to scan rates corresponding to 140 C. Compared to the pyridine based electrolytes used for the all-organic proton battery up until now, the present electrolytes display several advantages including lower melting point, lower toxicity, and compatibility with plastic materials.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society, 2018
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364966 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b01389 (DOI)000458706700079 ()
    Funder
    SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
    Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2021-02-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone conducting redox polymers in water-in-salt electrolytes for safe and high-energy Li-ion batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of PEDOT-Quinone conducting redox polymers in water-in-salt electrolytes for safe and high-energy Li-ion batteries
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 105, article id 106489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) raise safety and environmental concerns, which mostly arise from their toxic and flammable electrolytes and the extraction of limited material resources by mining. Recently, water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSEs), in which a large amount of lithium salt is dissolved in water, have been proposed to allow for assembling safe and high-voltage (>3.0 V) aqueous LIBs. In addition, organic materials derived from abundant building blocks and their tunable properties could provide safe and sustainable replacements for inorganic cathode materials. In the current work, the electrochemical properties of a conducting redox polymer based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with hydroquinone (HQ) pendant groups have been characterized in WiSEs. The quinone redox reaction occurs within the potential region where the polymer is conducting, and fast redox conversion that involves lithium cycling during pendant group redox conversion was observed. These properties make conducting redox polymers promising candidates as cathode-active materials for safe and high-energy aqueous LIBs. An organic-based aqueous LIB, with a HQ-PEDOT as a cathode, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as an anode, and ca. 15 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide water/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as electrolyte, yielded an output voltage of 1.35 V and high rate capabilities up to 500C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Conducting redox polymer, Organic electronics, Renewable energy storage, Lithium ion battery, Water-in-salt electrolyte, Quinone
    National Category
    Nano Technology Materials Chemistry
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389513 (URN)10.1016/j.elecom.2019.106489 (DOI)000484833800003 ()
    Funder
    Carl Tryggers foundation Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasSweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
    Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2021-02-22Bibliographically approved
    3. An Aqueous Conducting Redox-Polymer-Based Proton Battery that Can Withstand Rapid Constant-Voltage Charging and Sub-Zero Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Aqueous Conducting Redox-Polymer-Based Proton Battery that Can Withstand Rapid Constant-Voltage Charging and Sub-Zero Temperatures
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 59, no 24, p. 9631-9638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodes based on organic matter operating in aqueous electrolytes enable new approaches and technologies for assembling and utilizing batteries that are difficult to achieve with traditional electrode materials. Here, we report how thiophene‐based trimeric structures with naphthoquinone or hydroquinone redox‐active pendent groups can be processed in solution, deposited, dried and subsequently polymerized in solid state to form conductive (redox) polymer layers without any additives. Such post‐deposition polymerization offers efficient use of material, high mass loading (up to 10 mg cm−2) and good flexibility in the choice of substrate and coating method. By employing these materials as anode and cathode in an acidic aqueous electrolyte a rocking‐chair proton battery is built. The battery shows good cycling stability (85 % after 500 cycles), withstands rapid charging, with full capacity (60 mAh g−1) reached within 100 seconds, allows for direct integration with photovoltaics, and retains its favorable characteristics even at −24 °C.

    Keywords
    conducting redox polymers, electrical energy storage, electrochemistry, organic battery, quinones
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-423839 (URN)10.1002/anie.202001191 (DOI)000522504800001 ()32180324 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council FormasCarl Tryggers foundation Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist ByggmästareÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)
    Available from: 2020-11-03 Created: 2020-11-03 Last updated: 2021-02-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Conducting Redox Polymer as a Robust Organic Electrode-Active Material in Acidic Aqueous Electrolyte towards Polymer-Air Secondary Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Redox Polymer as a Robust Organic Electrode-Active Material in Acidic Aqueous Electrolyte towards Polymer-Air Secondary Batteries
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2280-2285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials receive increasing attention as environmentally benign and sustainable electrode-active materials. We present a conducting redox polymer (CRP) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with naphthoquinone pendant group, which is formed from a stable suspension of a trimeric precursor and an oxoammonium cation as oxidant. This suspension allows us to easily coat the polymer onto a current collector, opening up use of roll-to-roll processing or ink-jet printing for electrode preparation. The CRP showed a full capacity of 76 mAh g(-1) even at a high C rate of 100 C in acidic aqueous electrolyte. These properties make the CRP a promising candidate as anode-active material; a polymer-air secondary battery was fabricated with the CRP as anode, a conventional Pt/C catalyst as cathode, and sulfuric acid aqueous solution as electrolyte. This battery yielded a discharge voltage of 0.50 V and showed good cycling stability with 97 % capacity retention after 100 cycles and high rate capabilities up to 20 C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2020
    Keywords
    batteries, conducting redox polymers, oxygen-reduction reaction, quinone, renewable energy storage
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-426173 (URN)10.1002/cssc.202000627 (DOI)000528810900001 ()32267605 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council FormasCarl Tryggers foundation Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
    Available from: 2020-11-25 Created: 2020-11-25 Last updated: 2021-02-22Bibliographically approved
    5. An Alternative to Carbon Additives: The Fabrication of Conductive Layers Enabled by Soluble Conducting Polymer Precursors – A Case Study for Organic Batteries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Alternative to Carbon Additives: The Fabrication of Conductive Layers Enabled by Soluble Conducting Polymer Precursors – A Case Study for Organic Batteries
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 5349-5356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing organic redox-active materials as electrodes is a promising strategy to enable innovative battery designs with low environmental footprint during production, which can be hard to achieve with traditional inorganic materials. Most electrode compositions, organic or inorganic, require binders for adhesion and conducting additives to enable charge transfer through the electrode, in addition to the redox-active material. Depending on the redox-active material, many types and combinations of binders and conducting additives have been considered. We designed a conducting polymer (CP), with a soluble, trimeric unit based on 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (E) and 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (P) as the repeat unit, acting as a combined binder and conducting additive. While CPs as additives have been explored earlier, in the current work, the use of a trimeric precursor enables solution processing together with the organic redox-active material. To evaluate this concept, the CP was blended with a redox polymer (RP), which contained a naphthoquinone (NQ) redox group at different ratios. The highest capacity for the total weight of the CP/RP electrode was 77 mAh/g at 1 C in the case of 30% EPE and 70% naphthoquinone-substituted poly(allylamine) (PNQ), which is 70% of the theoretical capacity given by the RP in the electrode. We further used this electrode in an aqueous battery, with a MnSO4 cathode. The battery displayed a voltage of 0.95 V, retaining 93% of the initial capacity even after 500 cycles at 1 C. The strategy of using a solution-processable CP precursor opens up for new organic battery designs and facile evaluation of RPs in such.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
    Keywords
    redox-active polymer, organic electrode, organic battery, quinones, conducting polymers, conductivity additives
    National Category
    Nano Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-433409 (URN)10.1021/acsami.0c22578 (DOI)000618153100055 ()33481558 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasCarl Tryggers foundation Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2021-01-29 Created: 2021-01-29 Last updated: 2021-03-24Bibliographically approved
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  • 7.
    Strietzel, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sterby, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Huang, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    An Aqueous Conducting Redox-Polymer-Based Proton Battery that Can Withstand Rapid Constant-Voltage Charging and Sub-Zero Temperatures2020In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 59, no 24, p. 9631-9638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodes based on organic matter operating in aqueous electrolytes enable new approaches and technologies for assembling and utilizing batteries that are difficult to achieve with traditional electrode materials. Here, we report how thiophene‐based trimeric structures with naphthoquinone or hydroquinone redox‐active pendent groups can be processed in solution, deposited, dried and subsequently polymerized in solid state to form conductive (redox) polymer layers without any additives. Such post‐deposition polymerization offers efficient use of material, high mass loading (up to 10 mg cm−2) and good flexibility in the choice of substrate and coating method. By employing these materials as anode and cathode in an acidic aqueous electrolyte a rocking‐chair proton battery is built. The battery shows good cycling stability (85 % after 500 cycles), withstands rapid charging, with full capacity (60 mAh g−1) reached within 100 seconds, allows for direct integration with photovoltaics, and retains its favorable characteristics even at −24 °C.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Oka, Kouki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Waseda Univ, Dept Appl Chem, Shinjuku Ku, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 1658555, Japan..
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Nishide, Hiroyuki
    Waseda Univ, Dept Appl Chem, Shinjuku Ku, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 1658555, Japan.;Waseda Univ, Res Inst Sci & Engn, Shinjuku Ku, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 1658555, Japan..
    Oyaizu, Kenichi
    Waseda Univ, Dept Appl Chem, Shinjuku Ku, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 1658555, Japan.;Waseda Univ, Res Inst Sci & Engn, Shinjuku Ku, 3-4-1 Okubo, Tokyo 1658555, Japan..
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting Redox Polymer as a Robust Organic Electrode-Active Material in Acidic Aqueous Electrolyte towards Polymer-Air Secondary Batteries2020In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2280-2285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials receive increasing attention as environmentally benign and sustainable electrode-active materials. We present a conducting redox polymer (CRP) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with naphthoquinone pendant group, which is formed from a stable suspension of a trimeric precursor and an oxoammonium cation as oxidant. This suspension allows us to easily coat the polymer onto a current collector, opening up use of roll-to-roll processing or ink-jet printing for electrode preparation. The CRP showed a full capacity of 76 mAh g(-1) even at a high C rate of 100 C in acidic aqueous electrolyte. These properties make the CRP a promising candidate as anode-active material; a polymer-air secondary battery was fabricated with the CRP as anode, a conventional Pt/C catalyst as cathode, and sulfuric acid aqueous solution as electrolyte. This battery yielded a discharge voltage of 0.50 V and showed good cycling stability with 97 % capacity retention after 100 cycles and high rate capabilities up to 20 C.

  • 9.
    Oka, Kouki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Nishide, Hiroyuki
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan.; Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Oyaizu, Kenichi
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan.; Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Conducting Redox Polymer as a Robust Organic Electrode-Active Material in Acidic Aqueous Electrolyte towards Polymer–Air Secondary Batteries2020In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2280-2285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials receive increasing attention as environmentally benign and sustainable electrode-active materials. We present a conducting redox polymer (CRP) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with naphthoquinone pendant group, which is formed from a stable suspension of a trimeric precursor and an oxoammonium cation as oxidant. This suspension allows us to easily coat the polymer onto a current collector, opening up use of roll-to-roll processing or ink-jet printing for electrode preparation. The CRP showed a full capacity of 76?mAh?g?1 even at a high C rate of 100?C in acidic aqueous electrolyte. These properties make the CRP a promising candidate as anode-active material; a polymer?air secondary battery was fabricated with the CRP as anode, a conventional Pt/C catalyst as cathode, and sulfuric acid aqueous solution as electrolyte. This battery yielded a discharge voltage of 0.50?V and showed good cycling stability with 97?% capacity retention after 100 cycles and high rate capabilities up to 20C.

  • 10.
    Oka, Kouki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Nishide, Hiroyuki
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan.; Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Oyaizu, Kenichi
    Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan.; Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 165-8555 Japan..
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Cover Feature: Conducting Redox Polymer as a Robust Organic Electrode-Active Material in Acidic Aqueous Electrolyte towards Polymer-Air Secondary Batteries (ChemSusChem 9/2020)2020In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 2105-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cover Feature shows a polymer-air secondary battery composed of a naphthoquinone-based conducting redox polymer as a paintable and robust organic anode material and a Pt/C catalyst as a cathode-active material operating in an acidic aqueous electrolyte.

  • 11.
    Sjödin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strietzel, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Wang, Huan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sterby, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Designing Quinone-based Conducting Redox Polymers specifically for Aqueous Proton Batteries and for Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Conducting redox polymers (CRPs) are conducting polymers that have been decorated with redox active functional groups and they provide an attractive alternative as organic matter based electrical energy storage materials. The purpose of the polymer backbone is two-fold, 1) it prevents dissolution of the redox group and, 2) it renders the material conductive. The redox active pendant groups, on the other hand, provide the material with a well-defined redox reaction as well as a high charge storage capacity. CRPs thus provide a solution to two of the most significant obstacles in achieving powerful and stable battery materials from organic compounds, i.e. materials dissolution and limited electronic conductivity while simultaneously providing a high charge storage capacity. For battery applications it is thus essential that the individual properties of the conducting polymer backbone and the redox group can be preserved and that they operate in synergy in the CRP. One prerequisite for synergetic polymer-pendant combinations is redox matching. As conducting polymers are only conducting in their charged state successful combinations rely on that the pendant group has a redox potential within the conducting region of the polymer backbone. In addition, the CRP must allow mass transport of ions, not only related to the cycling chemistry of the pendant group but also ions related to the doping of the polymer backbone. These requirements put significantly different demands on the polymer design for the development of aqueous proton batteries and for CRPs for lithium cycling cathodes. In this presentation specific CRP design-solutions will be presented that allow for the development of all-organic proton batteries 1,2 and for lithium ion CRP-battery cathodes 3. 

    In addition, a solution-processing method, termed Post Deposition Polymerization (PDP), for CRP-materials and the underlying principles and requirements for PDP will be presented. Importantly, in PDP the processing step occurs prior to polymerization. After depositing and drying of the repeat-unit precursor onto a substrate polymerization is achieved by oxidative polymerization of the precursor. The PDP-method opens up for a scalable method for the coating of CRP materials onto any substrate and can, for instance, be used to make nanostructured CRP materials.

    1              Emanuelsson, R., Sterby, M., Strømme, M. & Sjödin, M. An All-Organic Proton Battery. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 4828-4834, doi:10.1021/jacs.7b00159 (2017).

    2              Strietzel, C. et al. Accepted in Angewandte Chemie doi:10.1002/anie.202001191 (2020).

    3              Wang, H. et al. Redox-State-Dependent Interplay between Pendant Group and Conducting Polymer Backbone in Quinone-Based Conducting Redox Polymers for Lithium Ion Batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2, 7162-7170, doi:10.1021/acsaem.9b01130 (2019).

  • 12.
    Strietzel, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Organic Proton Batteries – A Promising Approach for Sustainable Energy Storage2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Strietzel, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sterby, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplin