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  • 1.
    Kadarik, Kati
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Moving out, moving up, becoming employed: Studies in the residential segregation and social integration of immigrants in Sweden2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the complex relationship between residential segregation and social integration. The dominant discourse in Sweden and Europe sees residential segregation as hindering socioeconomic and cultural integration, creating parallel societies and even threatening the social cohesion of European societies. Residential segregation might be a sign of social exclusion and discrimination, but it might also result from informed choices to self-segregate into particular neighbourhoods. Minority ethnic clustering, some argue, might have positive attributes, such as providing access to social capital embedded in ethnic communities. This thesis analyses the relationship between segregation and integration from the perspectives of two research traditions: drivers of segregation and neighbourhood effects. The thesis employs individual annual Swedish registry data and a k-nearest neighbour approach to identify residential neighbourhood contexts.

    Paper I studies the out-mobility of three cohorts of young adults from large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm County against the backdrop of increasing inequality, stigmatization, and deteriorating conditions in these areas. From 1990 to 2014, income became more and ethnicity less important in explaining mobility. However, it is the combination of the two that determined sorting for all cohorts. The study also clarifies how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns.

    Paper II analyses the residential mobility of immigrants towards native-dominated neighbourhoods. The study concludes that ethnic hierarchies strongly shape residential outcomes and increased income alone does not necessarily translate into residential mobility. However, spatial integration can be facilitated by a better housing market position at the start of the housing career in Sweden, improved socioeconomic outcomes, and residing outside metropolitan areas.

    Paper III examines the potential of ethnic economic capital in the neighbourhood (measured as share of employed co-ethnics) to bolster employment prospects. The results of the multi-scalar analysis of four immigrant groups show that an increase in ethnic economic capital can have a positive effect on immigrant males’ employment prospects, but the effect size varies between groups and neighbourhood scales.

    The main conclusion of this thesis is that the relationship between residential segregation and social integration is not straightforward, but rather is complex and nuanced. It varies between groups with different backgrounds, but also between settlement contexts within Sweden and between neighbourhood contexts within cities. It changes over time and is influenced by the spatial scale of neighbourhood context measurements. This thesis demonstrates the usefulness of employing flexible scalable individual neighbourhoods in conceptualising space when studying social processes.

    Delarbeten
    1. Out-mobility from Stockholm’s large housing estates: local neighbourhood context and the changing importance of income over ethnicity
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Out-mobility from Stockholm’s large housing estates: local neighbourhood context and the changing importance of income over ethnicity
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    In political discussions, large housing estates (LHEs) in Stockholm, like in many other European cities, have become shorthand for a range of housing and socioeconomic problems. In recent decades, many such estates have displayed increasing signs of stigmatization, social exclusion, and outflow of relatively affluent people. This selective character of residential mobility from LHEs is considered problematic because it leads to neighbourhood decline. This paper improves our knowledge of how these changes in residential composition have affected out-mobility from these areas over time and how different neighbourhood conditions within LHEs affect sorting patterns. Individual annual Swedish registry data (1990–2014) are employed to longitudinally study the out-mobility patterns of three cohorts that grew up in the estates against the backdrop of growing inequality and deteriorating conditions. This study supplements the existing literature on housing estates by clarifying how income has become more and ethnicity less important over time in explaining sorting patterns from these estates. However, despite substantial changes in the importance of income and ethnic background, it is the combination of the two that has determined sorting throughout the study period. The role of neighbourhood context is, however, less clear: neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status in the estates display greater sorting based on income, but an opposite pattern is evident for ethnic background.

    Nyckelord
    residential mobility, neighbourhood change, large housing estates, Stockholm
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kulturgeografi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378588 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-10 Skapad: 2019-03-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-10
    2. What affects immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods? The role of individual resources, ethnicity, and settlement context
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>What affects immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods? The role of individual resources, ethnicity, and settlement context
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, immigrants’ integration and residential patterns are much disputed. Segregation is seen as a threat to social cohesion and policies at least rhetorically aim to create mixed neighbourhoods. Spatial assimilation theory argues that immigrants’ socioeconomic success translates into less segregation in housing for that group. In contrast, place stratification theory emphasizes the importance of ethnicity and structural mechanisms in residential mobility. This study investigates immigrants’ mobility towards native-dominated neighbourhoods by clarifying the role of ethnic hierarchies in association with immigrants’ social and work backgrounds, emphasizing the importance of settlement context. The paper presents a survival analysis based on everyone who migrated to Sweden from 1990 to 2010. The conclusion is that ethnic hierarchies strongly shape residential outcomes, and that spatial integration can be facilitated by a better housing market position at the start of the housing career in Sweden and by outcomes in other life domains, such as labour market participation and good educational attainment. Importantly, increased income alone does not necessarily translate into neighbourhood mobility and spatial integration. There are better prospects of ending up in native Swedish neighbourhoods outside metropolitan areas, whereas in metropolitan areas, the opportunity structures for spatial integration are much more constrained, especially for refugees.

    Nyckelord
    segregation, spatial assimilation, place stratification, residential mobility, k-nearest neighbour, survival analysis, Sweden
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kulturgeografi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378788 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-10 Skapad: 2019-03-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-10
    3. Ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods: impact on immigrants’ employment opportunities
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods: impact on immigrants’ employment opportunities
    (Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Does living in areas characterized by high co-ethnic concentrations deprive ethnic minority groups, or does potential access to an extended ethnic network with valuable resources further their integration? This paper takes a new approach to analysing the potential of ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods to increase employment opportunities. While many studies employ aggregated administrative neighbourhood data, an important methodological advance here is that we use individualized, scalable neighbourhoods. This enables us to apply a flexible approach in studying the existence and impact of ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods. In addition, we not only focus on the concentration of co-ethnics, or on local economic factors, but also measure ethnic economic capital in neighbourhoods as the rate of employed co-ethnics. We employ individual longitudinal Swedish registry data for 2000–2010 on working-age males of Iraqi, Iranian, Turkish, and Somalian backgrounds in Stockholm, Göteborg, and Malmö. We find that an increased share of employed co-ethnics positively affects males’ employment prospects. We add to existing knowledge by showing that the effect of ethnic clustering on employment outcomes is conditional on the quality of ethnic networks – i.e., ethnic economic capital – and on the scale of measurement.

    Nyckelord
    neighbourhood effects, ethnic economic capital, employment, scale, Sweden
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kulturgeografi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378789 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-10 Skapad: 2019-03-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-10
  • 2.
    Larsson Taghizadeh, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala University.
    Power from Below?: The Impact of Protests and Lobbying on School Closures in Sweden2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, there has been a considerable expansion of citizen participation in protests and voluntary advocacy groups. To analyze this development, the social movement literature and the interest group literature have emerged. Yet these two bodies of literature have not communicated with each other and have rarely incorporated knowledge from other fields in political science. As a result, critical questions remain unanswered regarding the political influence of advocacy groups. How do they affect politicians? To what degree do informal groups use lobbying tactics? Are socioeconomically advantaged groups more influential? This thesis endeavors to address the above shortcomings by bridging the literature on social movements, interest groups and political parties. The purpose of the thesis is to explain if and how advocacy groups affect public policy and to analyze which resources that are required to influence political decisions. The focus is on informal and loosely organized social movement organizations (informal SMOs): parental networks, staff networks, and village networks. To test my arguments, I use a unique database on protests and lobbying against school closures in Sweden. Closures of public schools have been one of the most important drivers of political activism in Sweden. The results are presented in three essays.

    Essay I tests new electoral mechanisms that could condition the political influence of advocacy groups. The results suggest that the political influence of informal SMOs on school closure decisions varies according to the type of voter they mobilize: swing voters or core voters.

    Essay II demonstrates how informal SMOs use lobbying tactics, such as presenting policy-relevant information, to influence politicians. Social movement scholars often focus on protests and ignore lobbying tactics. However, the results show that SMOs that present policy-relevant information are more likely to stop school closures than SMOs that mobilize large protests.

    Essay III analyzes which informal SMOs exchange policy-relevant information with politicians. Previous studies on the use of lobbying tactics have ignored activist resources. My results suggest that SMOs mobilizing high-income activists and activists with analytical and civic skills are more likely to present policy-relevant information. This is problematic given normative ideals of equal access to decision-making by all members of society.

    Delarbeten
    1. Are Political Parties More Responsive to Advocacy Groups Mobilising Core Voters or Swing Voters? Political Responsiveness to Citizens’ Protest Movements in Swedish Local Governments
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Are Political Parties More Responsive to Advocacy Groups Mobilising Core Voters or Swing Voters? Political Responsiveness to Citizens’ Protest Movements in Swedish Local Governments
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 161-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Political scientists often assume that parties listen to some voters more than others. However, this theoretical perspective has rarely been applied to explain political responsiveness to advocacy groups. This article argues that the type of voter mobilised by protest activities plays a role in determining whether advocacy groups are able to influence political decisions. The explanatory value of this approach is demonstrated by a study of the geographic distribution of school closures among Swedish local governments during the 2002–10 period. School issues have been important drivers of contentious politics in Sweden. Two hypotheses are tested. The first hypothesis predicts that protesters in districts with numerous swing voters are more likely to achieve their goals.The second hypothesis predicts that protesters in districts with numerous core voters are more likely to achieve their goals. In line with the swing hypothesis, the main results suggest that protesters are more likely to stop school closures in volatile polling districts.

    Nyckelord
    swing voters, core voters, protests, social movements, school closures
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Statskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270272 (URN)10.1111/1467-9477.12061 (DOI)000374861700003 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-22 Skapad: 2015-12-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Quality over quantity?: Technical information, interest advocacy and school closures in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Quality over quantity?: Technical information, interest advocacy and school closures in Sweden
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 101-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Information that relates to the consequences of political decisions is often regarded as the main currency for interest group influence. However, this argument has mainly been applied and empirically tested in the case of highly professional and permanent groups. It is therefore unclear to what extent the provision of information plays a role in the political impact of informal and loosely organized groups, such as social movements. This article demonstrates how social movements use information to influence elected officials on the local level in Sweden. A quantitative study of 339 proposed school closures during the 2002–2010 period is presented. School issues have been one of the most important drivers of contentious politics in Sweden. The results reveal that technical information provided by movements, such as information on unintended economic consequences and alternative proposals that could save costs, decreases the probability that proposals will result in school closures. Protest actions with a large number of participants, however, have no statistically significant effects on closures. The study suggests that less organizational resources may be required to influence elected officials through technical expertise than would be expected in light of previous research.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
    Nyckelord
    interest groups, social movements, lobbying, public opinion, influence, policy change, school closures, sociala rörelser, intressegrupper, lobbying
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Statskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238794 (URN)10.1057/iga.2014.17 (DOI)000371721500001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-16 Skapad: 2014-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Informational Lobbying and Activist Resources: Comparing Mobilizations Against School Closures in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Informational Lobbying and Activist Resources: Comparing Mobilizations Against School Closures in Sweden
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Interest Groups & Advocacy, ISSN 2047-7414, E-ISSN 2047-7422, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 91-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Information is often regarded as the main currency for interest group influence. However, studies explaining the use of informational lobbying tactics among interest groups are rare and the studies that do exist only focus on highly professionalised organisations. This article analyses the determinants of information provision among informal and loosely organised groups. It argues that we need to shift the focus from organisational resources to activist resources to explain informational lobbying by such groups. By mobilising activists who are able to donate time/money and who have civic and analytical skills, informal groups compensate for their lack of organisational resources. A study of the tactics used against school closures in Sweden is presented. The results reveal that informal groups in high-income districts and in districts with numerous white-collar parents are more likely to provide policy-relevant information to politicians. The results show smaller district differences when it comes to protest tactics.

    Nyckelord
    lobbying, political resources, protests, social movements, interest groups, school closures, lobbying, protester, skolnedläggningar, politisk aktivism
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
    Forskningsämne
    Statskunskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277699 (URN)10.1057/s41309-017-0011-3 (DOI)000403904600005 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-22 Skapad: 2016-02-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 3.
    Ekstam, Helen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Trångboddhet: Mellan bostadsstandard och boendemoral2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential crowding is frequently associated with impoverished segments of the population, often living in distressed neighbourhoods, and with detrimental consequences for crowded households. The aim of this thesis is to apply a sociological and historical perspective on residential crowding by analyzing Swedish governmental texts and quantitative survey data. Politically defined welfare standards, as well as the subjective experience of crowding are analyzed and interpreted through sociological welfare and governmentality theory.

    The arguments justifying the official governmental standards on residential crowding – first formulated in the mid-1930s – are explored in a discourse analysis. The analysis shows that there is a strong link between what is regarded to be appropriate dwelling space and what is regarded to be morally good housing conditions. In the 1930s and 1940s experts’ decided on what was adequate dwelling space, however in the mid- 1980s experts’ ability to decide on dwelling space was highly questioned. Instead it became an individual responsibility to decide on how to reside. Hence, what constitutes morally good and morally bad dwelling conditions is debated and dispersed on many actors.

    Two parallel discourses on crowding, a ”gentrified” and a “distressed” are further explored by analyzing the data from a survey study. Subjective as well as objective elements are analyzed by relating socio-economic profiles of the crowded residents in a distressed and a gentrified neighbourhood. Despite income differences within the crowded population, depending on what neighbourhood you live in, the crowded residents in all neighbourhoods experience less freedom regarding their dwelling situation than do non-crowded residents. The least amount of freedom is experienced by those who are crowded both according to the Swedish housing standard and according to a subjective measure of crowding.

    Delarbeten
    1. Om trångboddhet: Hur storleken på våra bostäder blev ett välfärdsproblem
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Om trångboddhet: Hur storleken på våra bostäder blev ett välfärdsproblem
    2013 (Svenska)Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 50, nr 3-4, s. 199-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    About crowding - How the size of our dwellings became a welfare problem     Housing policy documents have traditionally been studied by political scientists, resulting in a lack of interest in the private aspects of housing policy. Hence, this paper uses the example of crowding standards to examine how a previously private matter, the size of our dwelling, became a concern of the state. Official governmental documents are analyzed with the help of discourse theory, working on the supposition that the need of the population and the framing of a problem changes over time. The first official standard of crowding, formulated in 1946 argue for larger dwelling size in order to increase the size and quality of the Swedish population. The second standard, formulated in 1965, is based on the assumption that the population, defined as consumers, demands larger sized homes. The final standard, formulated in 1975, claims that larger sized homes is a social right.

    Nyckelord
    Housing policy, welfare state, crowding, historical discourse, need
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Sociologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213405 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-20 Skapad: 2013-12-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-19
    2. Residential Crowding in a "Distressed" and a "Gentrified" Neighbourhood - Towards an Understanding of Crowding in "Gentrified" Neighbourhoods
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Residential Crowding in a "Distressed" and a "Gentrified" Neighbourhood - Towards an Understanding of Crowding in "Gentrified" Neighbourhoods
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 429-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has often associated residential crowding with impoverished segments of the population, often living in distressed neighbourhoods, and detrimental consequences for crowded households. However, according to official housing standards, crowding is also common in some gentrified inner-city areas. This paper problematizes these findings in two ways: first, by discussing how the theoretical implications of traditional indicators, such as dwelling standards, can be traded off for perceptions of neighbourhood identity; and second, by comparing the socio-economic profiles of the residents in a distressed and a gentrified neighbourhood. The findings suggest that distressed crowding due to deficient economic and other resources is spatially segregated from gentrified crowding where the desire to live in attractive areas might outweigh living space considerations. These findings call for further research into people's experiences of crowding in relation to other qualities of the dwelling - in particular, the residential neighbourhood.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Uppsala Univ, Inst Housing & Urban Res IBF, S-75309 Uppsala, Sweden.: , 2015
    Nyckelord
    Distressed neighbourhoods, Gentrification, Urban sociology, Identity, Housing policy
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265641 (URN)10.1080/14036096.2015.1059355 (DOI)000361829600004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-03 Skapad: 2015-11-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Objective and subjective residential crowding in an everyday housing context:: A study of the crowded population in four different neighbourhoods in Stockholm, Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Objective and subjective residential crowding in an everyday housing context:: A study of the crowded population in four different neighbourhoods in Stockholm, Sweden
    (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Objective standards in residential crowding are interpreted as universal "needs", regardless of the residents’ "wants". However, due to the seemingly arbitrary interpretations of objective needs, researchers have argued for the incorporation of subjective elements in the study of housing quality. The aim of this paper is to relate objective and subjective residential crowding to the everyday housing situation. Data from a survey that targets the everyday living situation for the residents in Stockholm, Sweden in 2008 are used to identify everyday housing factors. Logistic regression analysis confirms findings from previous research on objective crowding: Families, single parents with children and low-income households are more likely to be crowded than other types of households. Additional OLS regressions, including attitude data on respondents’ everyday housing situation, reveal that crowded residents experience less freedom regarding their dwelling situation than do non-crowded residents. The least amount of freedom is experienced by those who are crowded both according to the Swedish housing standard and according to a subjective measure of crowding.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Sociologi (exklusive socialt arbete, socialpsykologi och socialantropologi) Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303372 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-18 Skapad: 2016-09-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10
  • 4.
    Eliasson, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Empirical Essays on Wage Setting and Immigrant Labor Market Opportunities2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays.

    Essay 1: This essay estimates wage assimilation among non-western immigrants in Sweden, controlling for selection into employment by including individual fixed effects. Furthermore, using matched employer-employee panel data covering the complete Swedish labor market, this essay decomposes wage catch-up into relative wage growth within and between workplaces and occupations. The results show that failing to control for selection into employment is likely to underestimate relative wage growth of immigrants, as early entrants in the labor market differ from later entrants along unobservable dimensions. Even after 30 years in the country, the group of non-western immigrants still earns substantially lower wages than natives. Wages catch up mainly within workplaces and occupations, suggesting that improved signals of productivity, rather than improved knowledge of job options, are of importance for the wage growth of non-western immigrants.

    Essay 2: Earlier research has shown that immigrant- and minority entrepreneurs have difficulties accessing capital through the formal financial markets. This essay studies what role immigrant employees within the local bank sector have for the probability of immigrants to run their own businesses. I use linked employer-employee data covering the whole Swedish labor market for the years 1987 to 2003 and utilize a nationwide refugee dispersal policy to get exogenous variation in the exposure to co-ethnic bank employees. Results suggest that there is a positive relation between co-ethnic bank employees and the probability of being self-employed. This effect is most pronounced for immigrants who arrived with low education, for males and for those residing in metropolitan regions. The effects are substantial and robust to a wide set of controls for labor market characteristics of the ethnic group at the local level. These results provide evidence of an ethnic component in the formal credit markets.

    Essay 3 (with Oskar Nordström Skans): This essay investigates the impact of a collective agreement stipulating a one shot increase in establishment-specific wage levels in a public-sector setting where wages otherwise are set according to individualized wage bargaining. The agreement stipulated that wages should increase in proportion to the number of low-paid females within each establishment. We find that actual wages among incumbents responded to the share of females with a wage below the stipulated threshold, conditional on the separate effects of the share of low wage earners, and the share of females. We find clear evidence of path-dependence in wages, covered workers remained on higher wage levels 4 years after the agreement took effect. The increase in wages resulted in a reduced probability of exit among young workers with relatively good grades and a lower frequency of new hires at the establishment level.

     

  • 5.
    Loit, Jon
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    En stad i världsklass – hur och för vem?: En studie om Stockholms sociala stadsplanering2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The city is characterised by unequal living conditions and inequities. Residential segregation – in the sense that people with different socio-economic resources and of various ethnicities live separately from one another – is a major cause of urban inequities. Urban planning has contributed to segregation but also provides the potential for change by facilitating a more just and non-segregated city. Social sustainability and social justice objectives, however, usually conflict with a neoliberal planning mindset, one that shapes both the planning conditions and approach and benefits economic growth. The aim of this thesis is to examine how and for whom Stockholm is being planned in order to thus clarify whether the planning reduces segregation and contributes to creating a more just city. This is done by looking at Stockholm’s overall planning approach, based on the ambitious objective of ‘a world-class Stockholm’, and the present planning of two areas – Järva and Stockholm Royal Seaport. Vision Järva 2030 is a strategy to develop segregated neighbourhoods, while Stockholm Royal Seaport is a new urban development project. The analysis highlights that Stockholm’s planning is in a dialectical state between a socially sustainable approach – with the goal of reducing inequities and segregation – and a neoliberal development logic focusing on competing with other cities to attract investment. The latter, however, predominates, for instance resulting in social strategies taking place on neoliberal terms and so losing their true meaning. The planning focuses primarily on developing the city for a neoliberal subject associated with economic growth. In accordance with this, a lifestyle philosophy based on the city centre’s urban city ideals and middle-class consumption and activity patterns is in evidence in the planning. The overall conclusion is that the planning cannot be deemed to reduce segregation or contribute to the creation of a just city as a result of how and for whom the city is being planned.

  • 6.
    Rodenstedt, Ann
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Living in the calm and safe part of the city: The socio-spatial reproduction of upper-middle class neighbourhoods in Malmö2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When residential segregation is mentioned in news coverage and when it is talked about in everyday discourse in Sweden, it is very often associated with immigration and minority groups living in the poorer areas of the city. A common assumption is that “immigrants” actively withdraw from society and that they choose to live together rather than integrating with the majority population.

    This study, however, argues that discussions about segregation cannot be limited to the areas where minorities and poorer-income groups live, but must understand segregation as a process occurring in the whole system of urban neighbourhoods. In order to reach a more complete understanding of the ways in which segregation processes are at work in contemporary Swedish cities, knowledge is needed about the inhabitants with greater resources and power to choose their dwellings and residential areas.

    The neighbourhood choices of more privileged groups, and the socio-spatial reproduction of the areas of the upper-middle class, are investigated by applying a qualitative ethnographic framework. The thesis studies two neighbourhoods located in the post-industrial city of Malmö: Victoria Park, a US-inspired “lifestyle community” which is the first of its kind in Sweden, and Bellevue, older but still one of the most exclusive and high-status neighbourhoods in the city. In order to understand self-segregation among privileged groups, the study especially scrutinises the concepts of class and security as well as the impacts of neoliberalisation on the Swedish housing market.

    The main argument of the study is that the self-segregation by members of the upper-middle class demonstrates a rift which runs through the urban fabric of Malmö, splintering the city up into perceived separate worlds. The existence of physical, symbolic and social boundaries in Victoria Park and Bellevue reproduces these neighbourhoods as exclusive, private and tranquil spaces of the upper-middle class. By locating themselves in the calm and safe part of the city, the upper-middle class can buy security as a commodity, rather than relying on the welfare state to provide it for them.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Catrine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF). Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hundra år av tvåsamhet: Äktenskapet i svenska statliga utredningar 1909-20092011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to study the concept of marriage and discursive constructions linked to marriage in Swedish policy documents, SOU, 1909-2009. Focusing on marriage as a formal institution, and on form, rather than content – marriage is considered one of several ways of regulating intimate relationships, and the analysis is thus centred on the intimate and erotic aspects of marriage as an institution. Using queer and sociological theories on late modern intimacy, state regulation and concepts of norms, theoretical tools which make possible exploring historical discursive shifts of heteronormativity and coupledom are developed. Policy documents (SOU) are analysed using discourse analysis inspired by archaeology and history of concepts. In three chapters, each covering a part of the period 1909-2009, the discursive landscape of state intervention in marital and other coupled relations is traced. Three themes emerge in this analysis. Firstly, a discursive movement can be seen, from marriage, as a morally superior form of relation, to family, as one of several more or less encouraged forms of relations. Secondly, in using the theoretical framework of heteronormativity, it is suggested that heteronormativity is reshaped in paradoxical ways. The seemingly non-heteronormative, gender neutral marriage law introduced in 2009 was built discursively on a concept of love used from the 1980s in these materials for motivating extended civil rights for homosexuals. It was, however, a logic of love based on difference and essentialised homosexual identity. A non-heteronormative law was thus introduced on a heteronormative discursive basis, enforcing extended norms of coupledom in the process. Thirdly, the question of what discursive role marriage plays in relation to society is explored. By enforcing differentiation between sexual and non-sexual, reproductive and non-reproductive, coupled and non-coupled relationships, social order is maintained. For one hundred years, despite major changes, coupledom is constant.

  • 8.
    Hedman, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Residential Mobility and Neighbourhood Effects: A Holistic Approach2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of studies estimating neighbourhood effects has increased rapidly during the last two decades. Although results from these studies vary, a majority find at least small effects. But to what extent can we trust these estimates? Neighbourhood effect studies face many serious methodological challenges, of which some are related to the fact that people move. The mobility of individuals may cause neighbourhoods to change over time, result in exposure times that are too short and seriously bias estimates. These methodological problems have not been given enough attention in the neighbourhood effect literature: no study controls for them all, and implications of mobility are rarely included in theoretical discussions of neighbourhood effects.

    In a comprehensive summary and five different papers, I argue that the two scholarly fields of residential mobility and neighbourhood effect studies are intrinsically connected and that any arbitrary separation between the two is both conceptually problematic and risks leading to erroneous conclusions. Studies of neighbourhood effects must address the problems caused by mobility, before it can be convincingly argued that results actually show neighbourhood effects. To do this, longitudinal data are necessary. Furthermore, the connection between the two fields may also have implications for studies of residential mobility.

    Delarbeten
    1. The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Impact of Residential Mobility on Measurements of Neighbourhood Effects
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 501-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhoods and cities are dynamic; their characteristics and relative positions change over time due to constant moves in and out. However, neighbourhood effect theory and most attempts to quantitatively estimate neighbourhood effects seem to treat neighbourhoods as if they were static. This paper argues that such a view is not only strange but may also result in biased estimates. Four methodological challenges are highlighted that are directly related to mobility: (1) measures of exposure time; (2) neighbourhood change; (3) selection bias; and (4) endogeneity. These are all topics worthy of scholarly interest in themselves, but also challenges that all neighbourhood effect studies must address to convincingly argue that their results are indicative of causal relationships-results of neighbourhood transmission mechanisms-and not just statistical correlations. The paper discusses how and to what extent these challenges have been met by the quantitative neighbourhood effect literature and gives directions to future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]   Copyright of Housing Studies is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2011
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159183 (URN)10.1080/02673037.2011.559753 (DOI)000290684600002 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-23 Skapad: 2011-09-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Understanding neighbourhood effects: selection bias and residential mobility
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Understanding neighbourhood effects: selection bias and residential mobility
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives / [ed] Maarten van Ham, David Manley, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, Duncan Maclennan, Dordrecht ;: Springer, 2011, s. 79-100Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Dordrecht ;: Springer, 2011
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165132 (URN)94-007-2308-3 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-01-03 Skapad: 2012-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-22Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood reproduction
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Neighbourhood choice and neighbourhood reproduction
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1381-1399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although we know a lot about why households choose certain dwellings, we know relatively little about the mechanisms behind their choice of neighbourhood. Most studies of neighbourhood choice focus only on one or two dimensions of neighbourhoods: typically poverty and ethnicity. In this paper we argue that neighbourhoods have multiple dimensions and that models of neighbourhood choice should take these dimensions into account. We propose the use of a conditional logit model. From this approach we can gain insight into the interaction between individual and neighbourhood characteristics which lead to the choice of a particular neighbourhood over alternative destinations. We use Swedish register data to model neighbourhood choice for all households which moved in the city of Uppsala between 1997 and 2006. Our results show that neighbourhood sorting is a highly structured process where households are very likely to choose neighbourhoods where the neighbourhood population matches their own characteristics. We find that income is the most important driver of the sorting process, although ethnicity and other demographic and socioeconomic characteristics play important roles as well.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Pion, 2011
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159186 (URN)10.1068/a43453 (DOI)000293770100010 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-23 Skapad: 2011-09-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Moving Near Family?: The Influence of Extended Family on Neighbourhood Choice in an Intra-urban Context
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Moving Near Family?: The Influence of Extended Family on Neighbourhood Choice in an Intra-urban Context
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 32-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Social ties are among the most important factors explaining destination choices on the international or national scale but much less is known about their role in short-distance mobility. In this paper, I analyse how the presence of extended family in a neighbourhood affects destination choices on a local housing market the city of Uppsala, Sweden. I employ a probit model to investigate who is more likely to move to neighbourhoods where extended family members reside, followed by a conditional logit model that tests the importance of the presence of family in relation to other neighbourhood characteristics. Results show that the presence of family is indeed a strong determinant for neighbourhood choice and that non-Western immigrants, middle-aged adults, individuals with low socio-economic status, and individuals who have previously resided in the neighbourhood are most likely to move near family.

    Nyckelord
    family, social networks, residential mobility, neighbourhood choice, conditional logit
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189120 (URN)10.1002/psp.1703 (DOI)000311406500004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-25 Skapad: 2012-12-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Neighbourhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighbourhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Neighbourhood Income Sorting and the Effects of Neighbourhood Income Mix on Income: A Holistic Empirical Exploration
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 107-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An econometric model is specified in which an individual’s income and the income mix of the neighbourhood in which the individual resides are endogenous, thus providing a holistic model of phenomena that previously have been fragmented into neighbourhood effects and neighbourhood selection literatures. To overcome the biases from selection and endogeneity, the parameters of this model are estimated using instrumental variables in a fixed-effect panel analysis employing annual data on 90 438 working-age males in Stockholm over the 1995–2006 period. Evidence is found of both neighbourhood effects and neighbourhood selection, but more importantly, it is found that the magnitudes of these effects are substantially altered when taking selection and endogeneity biases into account, compared with when only controlling for selection. When taking endogeneity into account, the apparent impact of neighbourhood income mix on individual income is magnified and the effect of individual income on the percentage of high income in the neighbourhood is magnified.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-181572 (URN)10.1177/0042098012452320 (DOI)000312548000008 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-09-26 Skapad: 2012-09-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 9.
    Bergsten, Zara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning (IBF).
    Bättre framtidsutsikter? Blandade bostadsområden och grannskapseffekter: En analys av visioner och effekter av blandat boende2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, the effect of social composition in urban neighbourhoods on individuals’ life opportunities has been given increased attention both by researchers and policymakers. Socially mixed neighbourhoods have been seen by policymakers as a measure to create better prerequisites for social upward movement and increased social integration. The international debate on neighbourhood effects has mainly focused on the impact of concentrated poverty, but there is a growing body of literature that has also addressed the question of social mix policies. However, in the Swedish context the research on social mix policies and neighbourhood effects are still quiet limited. Hence, there is a call for research on the effects of the Swedish social mix policy.

    The purpose of the present thesis was to analyse the policy aim and the implementation of such policy, and to analyse the effects of socially and physically mixed environments. Can socially and physically mixed environments create better opportunities for youth and young adults? To analyse the effects of the neighbourhood environment on individuals’ socioeconomic careers, advanced multilevel analysis methods has been used. These methods offer advantages for analysing neighbourhood effects, which the ordinary regression model can’t provide, as it can separate effects belonging to different contexts.