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  • 1.
    Chajara, Khalil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Claes-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Luo, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    The reagent-free, microwave-assisted purification of carbon nanotubes2010In: New Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 1144-0546, E-ISSN 1369-9261, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 2275-2280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a microwave-assisted, reagent-free method for the efficient primary purification of MW and SW carbon nanotubes that is extremely fast compared to previously reported processes. The treatment dissociates and disperses non-nanotube carbon in an organic solvent to yield very pure carbon nanotubes within a few minutes of heating and a simple filtration, without the involvement of acidic/oxidative reagents. According to thermogravimetric analysis, Raman and IR spectroscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the process yields pure nanotubes with a low degree of defects.

  • 2.
    Cheah, Seng Kian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Perre, Emilie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Rooth, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Fondell, Mattis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Simon, Patrice
    CIRIMAT, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Self-Supported Three-Dimensional Nanoelectrodes for Microbattery Applications2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 3230-3233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nanostructured three-dimensional (3D) microbattery has been produced and cycled in a Li-ion battery. It consists of a current collector of aluminum nanorods, a uniform layer of 17 nm TiO2 covering the nanorods made using ALD, an electrolyte and metallic lithium counter electrode. The battery is electrochemically cycled more than 50 times. The increase in total capacity is 10 times when using a 3D architechture compared to a 2D system for the same footprint area.

  • 3. Ghandi, R.
    et al.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    Hållstedt, J.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Wise, R.
    Wejtmans, H.
    Östling, M.
    Radamson, H. H.
    High boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth of SiGe layers2007In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 747-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of high amount of boron in the range of 1 x 10(20)-1 x 10(21) cm(-3) in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si1-xGex (x = 0.15-0.315) layers for recessed or elevated source/drain junctions in CMOS has been studied. The effect of high boron doping on growth rate, Ge content and appearance of defect in the epi-layers was investigated. In this study, integration issues were oriented towards having high layer quality whereas still high amount of boron is implemented and the selectivity of the epitaxy is preserved.

  • 4. Jogi, Indrek
    et al.
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskela, Markku
    Aarik, Jaan
    Aidla, Aleks
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Atomic layer deposition of high capacitance density Ta2O5-ZrO2 based dielectrics for metal-insulator-metal structures2010In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated electrical properties of laminated atomic layer deposited films: ZrO2-Ta2O5, ZrO2-Nb2O5-Ta2O5, ZrO2-TaxNb1-xO5 and Ta2O5-ZrxNbyOz. Even though the capacitances of laminates were often higher compared to films of constituent materials with similar thickness, considerably higher charge storage factors, Q were achieved only when tetragonal ZrO2 was stabilized in ZrO2-Ta2O5 laminate and when the laminate thickness exceeded 50 rim. The decreased Q values in the case of most laminates were the result of increased leakage currents. In the case of thinner films only Ta2O5-ZrxNbyOz, stack possessed capacitance density and Q value higher than reference HfO2. Concerning the conduction mechanisms, in the case of thinner films, the Ta2O5 or TaxNb1-xO5 apparently controlled the leakage either by Richardson-Schottky emission or Poole-Frenkel effect. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  • 5.
    Li, Ling-Guang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Smith, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Oxygen out-diffusion from buried layers in SOI and SiC-SOI substrates2010In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 153-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have made a comparative study of the oxygen out-diffusion process during heat treatment of SOI wafers and SiC-SOI hybrid substrates. SOI materials with three different thicknesses (2, 20 and 410 nm) of buried oxide (BOX) were used in the investigation High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) together with laser interferometry was used to determine the remaining thickness of the BOX-layer after heat treatment. After complete removal of the BOX-layer of SOI wafers, the St/Si interface appears to be sharp and defect-free. Similar results were obtained for SiC-SOI hybrid substrates after removal of the entire buried oxide layer. For all combinations investigated oxide removal was accompanied by a thickness reduction and roughening of the silicon surface layer as verified by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  • 6.
    Lindahl, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Epitaxial NiO(100) and NiO(111) films grown by atomic layer deposition2009In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 311, no 16, p. 4082-4088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial NiO (1 1 1) and NiO (1 0 0) films have been grown by atomic   layer deposition on both MgO (1 0 0) and alpha-Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates   at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C by using   bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)Ni(II) and water as   precursors. The films grown on the MgO (1 0 0) substrate show the   expected cube on cube growth while the NiO (1 1 1) films grow with a   twin rotated 180 degrees on the alpha-Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrate surface.   The films had columnar microstructures on both substrate types. The   single grains were running throughout the whole film thickness and were   significantly smaller in the direction parallel to the surface. Thin   NiO (1 1 1) films can be grown with high crystal quality with a FWHM of   0.02-0.05 degrees in the rocking curve measurements.

  • 7.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Heinrichs, Jannica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ericson, Fredric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Thomsen, Peter
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hydroxylapatite growth on single-crystal rutile substrates2008In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 29, no 23, p. 3317-3323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium is widely used as an implant material. In addition to the bulk properties of titanium, the biological response is to a large degree controlled via the surface. The native amorphous titanium oxide that forms spontaneously on the surface gives a very good biological response. Lately it has been shown that crystalline titanium oxides (rutile and anatase) have in vitro bioactive properties. In addition to its potential for new materials development, this finding also opens up for the possibility of studying the mechanisms of bioactivity on materials with strictly controlled surfaces. In this paper the mechanisms behind the in vitro bioactivity are studied, using rutile single crystals. Three single-crystal rutile substrates: (100), (110), and (001), and a polycrystalline rutile substrate obtained by physical vapour deposition were soaked in a phosphate buffered saline solution for up to 4 weeks. The hydroxylapatite films that formed were analysed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydroxylapatite grew faster on the (001) surface than on the other two. It was also found that on the (001) surface the direction of fast growth in hydroxylapatite was aligned parallel to the surface. This is in contrast to the (110) rutile surface where the fast growth of the hydroxylapatite crystal was directed outwards from the surface. The (100) face had poor adhesion at the interface. The orientations of the precipitated crystallites play a significant role in the faster coverage of the (001) rutile face. Based on the experimental results, a model for the hydroxylapatite growth process is given.

  • 8. Sammelselg, V.
    et al.
    Tarre, A.
    Luo, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Aarik, J.
    Niilisk, A.
    Uustare, T.
    Netsipailo, I.
    Rammula, R.
    Parna, R.
    Rosental, A.
    Structural characterization of TiO2–Cr2O3 nanolaminates grown by atomic layer deposition2010In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 12-13, p. 2015-2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiO2-Cr2O3 nanolaminates were atomic layer deposited on (0 1 2)-oriented sapphire and (1 0 0)-oriented silicon. The thickness of the alternating layers in the eight-layer laminates grown was close to 10 nm. The laminates were characterized by cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A highly oriented growth of the laminate on sapphire and its growth with a very little preferred orientation on silicon were revealed. The laminate grown on sapphire had, along with better crystallinity. more exactly defined and more planar interphase boundaries. The amount of indefiniteness of the boundaries increased with the layer distance from the substrate. The crystalline phase of titania was rutile in the laminate grown on sapphire and anatase in the laminate grown on silicon, while the crystalline phase of chromia had eskolaite structure. In the laminate grown on sapphire, titania contained numerous twins: compressively strained chromia had in this case more perfect structure.

  • 9. Santala, Eero
    et al.
    Hamalainen, Jani
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Leskela, Markku
    Ritala, Mikko
    Metallic Ir, IrO2 and Pt Nanotubes and Fibers by Electrospinning and Atomic Layer Deposition2009In: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, ISSN 1941-4900, E-ISSN 1941-4919, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-dimensional iridium and iridium oxide fibers were prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone ethanol solution which contained iridium(III) acetylacetonate as iridium precursor. The Ir precursors/polymer composite fibers were subsequently thermally annealed at 500 degrees C in air for 4 hours to remove the organic parts and leave IrO2 fibers. Metallic iridium fibers were obtained by reducing the IrO2 fibers with hydrogen. Also tubes by fiber templates-process is used to demonstrate how metallic Ir, IrO2 and Pt nanotubes can be produced by combining atomic layer deposition and electrospinning.

  • 10. Sychugov, I.
    et al.
    Lu, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Elfström, N.
    Linnros, J.
    Structural imaging of a Si quantum dot: Towards combined PL and TEM characterization2006In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 353-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual silicon quantum dots were fabricated by electron-beam lithography, plasma etching and a two-step oxidation process. This enables photoluminescence (PL) from individual dots at various temperatures to be detected and spectrally resolved using a sensitive charge-coupled device camera-imaging system, as reported previously. The regular array-like arrangement of oxidized pillars containing individual nanocrystals, in principle, enables combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and low-temperature PL characterization of the same Si quantum dot. To this end, a technique employing focused ion beam was developed for preparation of the pillar/nanocrystal of interest for TEM. It is shown that silicon quantum dots of several nanometers in size can be characterized using such a method.

  • 11.
    Zlotea, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Formation of one-dimensional MgH2 nano-structures by hydrogen induced disproportionation2006In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 426, no 1-2, p. 357-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remarkable formation of one-dimensional single crystalline MgH2 structures in the nano- and micro-meters ranges is reported. These structures have been tailored by hydrogen absorption and subsequent disproportionation of bulk Mg24Y5. The MgH2 whiskers have been structurally and morphologically characterized by X-rays diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microcopies. A growth model is proposed for the early stage of the whiskers formation by combining surface chemical and morphological investigations. The formation of MgH2 whiskers opens new engineering explorations and challenges for further experimental and theoretical studies.

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