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  • 1.
    Alex, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction.
    Business Navigator: Användarcentrerad utveckling av framtidens internetbank2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with an iterative user-centered IT-development project in a bank setting. The aim is to present a solution for deployment of future Internet banking for small businesses. The project features a design of IT-related concepts and ideas with a strong emphasis on scenario-based design and the usage of patterns as a documentation tool.

    The project plan featured an iterative framework and was carried out by a group of designers in collaboration with a reference group representing the future users of the system. This group consisted of company managers and bank employees, all from the small town of Åtvidaberg in Sweden.

    The method used in the development process was Scrum. A total of three sprints were completed with user meetings at the end of every sprint. In these meetings, focus groups were utilized to obtain information from the users. Throughout the process patterns were used to document important concepts and ideas as well as to create project outlines. In meetings with the reference group there was extensive usage of scenario based design.

    The outcome of the project was a prototype demonstrating some of the desired functions in the future software as well as a large pattern map showing the entire project as a whole with all the concepts and ideas that were discovered during the process.

    Patterns were successfully used for documentation as well as development and helped to enhance the communication within the group of designers. Also, scenario based design worked well in the context to bridge the gap between developers and users throughout the project.

  • 2.
    Blomkvist, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    User-centred design and agile development of IT systems2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the knowledge on the interaction between humans and computers, too many IT systems show great deficits when it comes to usability. Every day we run into technology that makes our every day life and our work unnecessarily complex and difficult because of the IT systems that are not designed to support our tasks in a usable way. This thesis deals with different aspects of usability and the process of how to develop usable IT systems effectively. Primarily, the systems concerned are used in professional work, such as case handling systems in large government organisations.

    The main objective of this research is to understand which essential factors in the system development process that facilitate the development of usable IT systems. Another key subject is how human-computer interaction (HCI) knowledge can be integrated into systems development, in particular the integration of user-centred design (UCD) and agile software development. The research is based on a qualitative approach and on reflections from my own experience in development projects. It also includes exploratory studies and design cases.

    The attempts of bridging the gap between HCI and software engineering have not been notably successful in practice. To address some of these problems, there is a need for a more precise definition of user-centred design, which is proposed in the thesis. Also, the complicated reality of systems development is not considered enough by HCI researchers and practitioner. To reach better results, UCD has to be integrated as a natural part of the development process. In the thesis, I argue that the agile approach together with UCD can be a good starting point for this integration. The agile approach emphasises that responding to change in development is more important than strictly adhering to a plan. Also, it prioritises regular deliveries of working software over extensive models and documentation. However, from an HCI perspective, agile processes do not inherently provide the required support for user-centred design. Nevertheless, the basic values and specific methods of agile development may have the potential to work very well together with UCD. For instance, iterative development is fundamental to both user-centred design and agile development.

    Finally, the research addresses how iterative methods can be used to find design solutions that support the users to cope with the problems of overview and control in case handling work.

  • 3.
    Boivie, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    A Fine Balance: Addressing Usability and Users’ Needs in the Development of IT Systems for the Workplace2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IT systems with poor usability are a serious problem in many workplaces. Many workers, particularly office workers, spend a large part of their workday at the computer, and usability problems can cause frustration and impact negatively on productivity. This thesis discusses some of the problems associated with addressing usability and users’ needs in IT systems development.

    Usability issues and users’ needs are often marginalised or even abandoned in systems development. Technical issues and deadlines are given precedence, while usability activities and user activities are cut back or cancelled. Research shows that there are various obstacles to usability and user involvement, including difficulties with understanding the usability concept, insufficient usability expertise and a lack of time and resources.

    This thesis presents a number of studies that look at the problem from different angles. The main question is why usability and users’ needs are marginalised in bespoke systems development, where IT systems are built for a specific work context. The research presented in this thesis also addresses user-centred systems design as a way of integrating usability issues and users’ needs into systems development. The thesis concludes with a discussion about different ways of viewing and representing the users’ work: the systems theoretical view and the view of work as a social process. The former emphasises the formal aspects of work and views users as components in an overall system, whereas the latter focuses on work as a social process and people as active agents. The discussion concludes with the argument that the conflict between these two views is played out in the systems development process, which may help explain some of the difficulties that arise when working with usability and users’ needs.

    List of papers
    1. The Lonesome Cowboy: A Study of the Usability Designer Role in Systems Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Lonesome Cowboy: A Study of the Usability Designer Role in Systems Development
    2006 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 601-634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the usability designer role as applied in two Swedish systems development organisations. The role was initially defined by us, but evolved in these two organisations. We conducted interviews with usability designers, project managers and a user representative. Our main research question was whether or not the introduction of a usability designer has been successful in terms of changes in the systems development process and the impact the role has had on products, projects and organisations. To some extent, the role has met our expectations and intentions for instance, in helping the usability designers shift their focus towards design, and assume some kind of "users' advocate" role. But in other ways, the role "failed". The usability designers in our study are still facing the kind of problems and obstacles that usability professionals have always had to deal with.

    Keywords
    user-centred systems design; UCSD; usability; usability practitioner; usability professional; software development
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-76432 (URN)10.1016/j.intcom.2005.10.003 (DOI)000238876500005 ()
    Available from: 2006-03-21 Created: 2006-03-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Making a Difference: A Survey of the Usability Profession in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making a Difference: A Survey of the Usability Profession in Sweden
    Show others...
    2004 In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 2004, 2004, p. 207-215Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93521 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Usability professionals: current practices and future development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usability professionals: current practices and future development
    2006 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 568-600Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The usability concept has now received such a wide recognition in information technology (IT) development that working with usability can be regarded as a profession in its own right. In recent research projects, we have surveyed and studied usability work on an individual level in a number of Swedish development organisations, including success factors and obstacles. What we have seen relates to the individual usability professional and her background and experiences, the organisation in which she operates, the development process, communication and communication means, and finally the attitudes and basic values held by the people involved.

    In this paper, we compile and reflect on selected findings from different studies on usability work in practical systems1 development in a number of Swedish organisations. We discuss our findings from a practical point of view and relate them to the research of others within the international HCI community. Finally, we discuss some issues we consider important for the future development of the practice of usability that we believe is of interest to the international community of usability professionals.

    Keywords
    Usability, Design, User-centred design, Organisation, Software development, Practice, Role, Profession
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-76433 (URN)10.1016/j.intcom.2005.10.005 (DOI)000238876500004 ()
    Available from: 2006-03-21 Created: 2006-03-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Show others...
    2003 In: Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 397 – 409-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93523 (URN)
    Funder
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30 Last updated: 2010-11-22Bibliographically approved
    5. Why Usability Gets Lost or Usability in In-house Software Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Usability Gets Lost or Usability in In-house Software Development
    2003 In: Interacting with Computers, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 623-639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93524 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30Bibliographically approved
    6. Addressing Users' Health Issues in Software Development: An Exploratory Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing Users' Health Issues in Software Development: An Exploratory Study
    2003 In: Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 411-420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93525 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30Bibliographically approved
    7. From Piles to Tiles: Designing for Overview and Control in Case Handling Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Piles to Tiles: Designing for Overview and Control in Case Handling Systems
    2004 In: Conference Proceedings of OZCHI 2004, 2004, p. 161-170Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93526 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Boivie, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Usability and users’ health issues in systems development2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The figures of reported health problems in computer-supported, administrative, work are alarmingly high and increasing. The main health problems are visual discomfort, repetitive strain injuries (RSI) and stress-related disorders. Some important risk factors are poor workstation design, constrained work postures, repetitive work and long hours of computer use every day. Others are high demands, poor control over workload and work pace and poor relations to management and colleagues. There is also evidence that poor design and usability of the computer systems as well as technical problems with the computer add to the pressure perceived by the user, which may in its turn cause stress-related disorders.

    Systems (software) development is often technology-driven and the design and contents of the resulting system shapes the work situation, including factors affecting the users' health and well-being. There are numerous examples in the literature describing how poorly designed systems fail to support the real work practices, introducing new ones that are inadequate and more time-consuming. Thus these, supposedly supporting, computer systems get in the way of efficient and effective work, adding a burden on the workers rather than helping them out.

    This thesis tries to describe some of the relations between the systems development process and users' health complaints, in a work context. I also discuss whether or not the concepts of usability and user experience can be used to address users' health issues in the systems development process. The main results indicate that although usability must be addressed, it is not sufficient. Occupational health issues must be explicitly integrated in systems development, and be given priority. This thesis also describes some potential methods and techniques for doing that.

  • 5.
    Borälv, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Design and usability in telemedicine2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A design of computer systems, that effectively supports the user, is a major goal within human-computer interaction. To achieve this, we must understand and master several tasks. These tasks concern firstly what to develop and secondly how to develop the system.

    The design and implementation of effective and efficient user interfaces is a prerequisite for the successful introduction of computer support in the medical domain. We base our work on a fundamental understanding of cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction, as well as on detailed analysis of the specific needs and requirements of the end users, i.e., the medical professionals.

    This thesis presents several approaches for development of systems for computer-supported work in health care. The solutions described concern vital problem areas: (1) the focus on the work tasks to be performed, (2) the cost of software and the way competition works in a networked world. Solutions to these problems can lead to more usable systems from a user's perspective but may also change the nature of computer applications.

  • 6.
    Borälv, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Design in Telemedicine: Development and Implementation of Usable Computer Systems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing computer systems that effectively support the user is the major goal within human-computer interaction. To achieve this, we must understand and master several tasks. This process must initially deal with the question of knowing what to develop and later, with the question of knowing how to design and develop the system. This view might seem off-target at first, since it does not explicitly mention the goals or functions of the system. However, more often than not, there is no objective goal to aim for that can be formally specified and used as a target criterion that will signal when we have designed an appropriate system. Instead, there is a large set of vague goals – some of which may last through the entire project and some that will not. It is therefore somewhat confounding that most of the current methods of systems development require that these goals are explicitly laid out, in order to steer development.

    For researchers in Human-Computer Interaction, the existence of many varying – and possibly conflicting goals – presents is a great challenge. The constructive main focus on producing usable systems is a matter of understanding this complex situation and knowing how to proceed from there.

    There are many existing approaches that can be used to carry out this complex development process. This thesis presents one approach, based on the notion that the elements that constitute a successful system are also a part of the solution.

    This thesis presents this approach as it is applied to the development of systems for computer-supported work in health care. The projected solution suggests that we need to focus more intently on active user involvement in iterative development that is significantly long-term. The traditional, rather narrow circle of focus that encompasses design, development and evaluation is not sufficient.

    List of papers
    1. Domain Specific Style Guides - Design and Implementation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domain Specific Style Guides - Design and Implementation
    1993 In: Proceedings of the Motif & COSE International User Conference, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92534 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-01-14 Created: 2005-01-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Usability and Efficiency - the Helios approach to development of user interfaces
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usability and Efficiency - the Helios approach to development of user interfaces
    1994 In: Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, Vol. 45, p. 47-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92535 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-01-14 Created: 2005-01-14Bibliographically approved
    3. A Teleradiology System Design Case
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Teleradiology System Design Case
    1997 In: Conference proceedings of Designing Interactive Systems 1997: ACM’s Special Interest Group in Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) in co-operation with the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIPWG 13.2), 1997, p. 27-30Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92536 (URN)0-89791-863-0 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2005-01-14 Created: 2005-01-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Design and evaluation of the CHILI system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and evaluation of the CHILI system
    2004 In: Technical reports from the Department of Information Technology at Uppsala University, ISSN 1404-3203, no 56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92537 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-01-14 Created: 2005-01-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Evaluation and reflections on the design of the WeAidU system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and reflections on the design of the WeAidU system
    2004 In: Technical reports from the Department of Information Technology at Uppsala University, ISSN 1404-3203, no 57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-92538 (URN)
    Available from: 2005-01-14 Created: 2005-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Usability – Who Cares?: The Introduction of User-Centred Systems Design in Organisations2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the difficulties encountered in the promotion of usability, especially in relation to occupation health issues, when developing IT systems in a public authority. It examines what happens when User-Centred Systems Design (UCSD) approaches are introduced to organisations with in-house systems development for their employees. It studies how stakeholder values affect the outcomes in terms of usability, occupational health, and institutional acceptance. Moreover, new methods are examined and evaluated as potential tools for assisting the adoption of UCSD. These methods are for example Field studies for system developers, Usability coaching for stakeholders and Management views of usability.

    A stated aim is to influence systems development in practice. Hence an action research paradigm has been employed, carrying out research and change in real life settings, gathering and analysing data using qualitative techniques.

    This thesis is based on a constructivist perspective, where theories in the areas of learning and organisational change have been used in order to better understand the research questions.

    The research demonstrates that most people are enthusiastic to, and interested in, UCSD with a focus on the computerised work environment. Many of the stakeholder groups, such as managers, users, project managers and system developers, changed their construct of identity as well as practice when UCSD was introduced.

    However, this research shows that there are several values that affect systems development and hinder usability work. These include for example value of rationality and objectivity, and differing values and perspectives underpinning descriptions and discourse on work and systems development. Values such as automation, efficiency, and customer satisfaction shape the development of new technology, and ultimately the tasks, work practices integrated in IT systems.

    Moreover, the results demonstrate that even though many consider usability as important, few take active responsibility for it, as the title of this thesis suggests.

    List of papers
    1. Work environment and computer systems development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work environment and computer systems development
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Behaviour and Information Technology, ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 375-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Work environment and occupational health problems of different nature are constantly increasing in computer supported work. Most efforts to improve the work environment are focused primarily on physical aspects, and to some extent on psychosocial aspects. Mental workload and cognitive problems are of a more complex nature, more difficult to measure and provide efficient solutions to, and are more seldom studied or solved. Solutions to work environment problems are usually applied to already existing work situations through improved equipment and work place design, health programmes, education, reorganizations, etc. The problems are seldom prevented by means of applying relevant methods early in the systems development process, before the artefacts have been designed and implemented. This paper, and the following papers of this special issue, will focus on the need to integrate different interdisciplinary methods at different phases in the development process of computerized support systems, with the ultimate goal to prevent work environment problems and decrease the health risks to the users.

    Keywords
    dator, informationsteknologi, kommunikationsteknologi, arbetsmiljö, användbarhet, organisation, organisationsutveckling, datoretik; computer, information, communication, technology, work environment, usability, organizational development, computer ethics
    National Category
    Computer Sciences Psychology Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-46656 (URN)10.1080/01449290310001624356 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-03-19 Created: 2007-03-19 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Show others...
    2003 In: Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 397 – 409-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93523 (URN)
    Funder
    Available from: 2005-09-30 Created: 2005-09-30 Last updated: 2010-11-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Usability and User’s Health Issues in Systems Development - Attitudes and Perspectives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usability and User’s Health Issues in Systems Development - Attitudes and Perspectives
    2007 (English)In: Maturing Usability: Quality in Software, Interaction, and Value, Springer Verlag , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag, 2007
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14949 (URN)978-1846289408 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-02-01 Created: 2008-02-01 Last updated: 2012-09-28Bibliographically approved
    4. User-Centred Systems Design as Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Action Research Project to Improve Usability and the Computerized Work Environment in a Public Authority
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>User-Centred Systems Design as Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Action Research Project to Improve Usability and the Computerized Work Environment in a Public Authority
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, ISSN 1548-3908, E-ISSN 1548-3916, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 13-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Attitudes, Field Studies, Management Perspectives, Organizational Change, Public Authority, Usability, Stress, Systems Development Models, Usability Policy, Usability Index, User Centred Systems Design, User Participation, Vision Seminars, Work Environment
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100307 (URN)10.4018/jthi.2009070102 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-30 Created: 2009-03-30 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Introducing Usability Roles in Public Authorities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing Usability Roles in Public Authorities
    2008 (English)In: Proc. 5th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Building Bridges, New York: ACM Press , 2008, p. 113-122Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Press, 2008
    Keywords
    Usability professional, usability expert, case study, public authority
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-87374 (URN)10.1145/1463160.1463173 (DOI)978-1-59593-704-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-11-17 Created: 2008-09-11 Last updated: 2010-04-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Management Perspectives on Usability in a Public Authority - A Case Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management Perspectives on Usability in a Public Authority - A Case Study
    2006 (English)In: NordiCHI 2006: Changing Roles, 2006, p. 521-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In trying to understand the problem of poor usability in

    computer-supported work, this article looks at management

    and their perspective on usability in a public authority.

    What are their underlying basic values, assumptions and

    attitudes? Why do managers interpret usability as they do,

    and what are the consequences for the organization and for

    usability? The empirical basis is an interpretive case study

    where 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Results indicate that usability is interpreted differently,

    depending on the formal roles of informants. Furthermore, a

    majority of the informants express personal, but limited,

    responsibility for usability. Moreover, we found that basic

    values are based on an instrumental view of work where

    efficiency and economy are important constituents. We

    identified that even though users participate in IT

    development, they have no formal responsibility or

    authority. They have become IT workers in that they

    perform highly technical tasks such as integral testing.

    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-22200 (URN)1-59593-325-5 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-01-12 Created: 2007-01-12 Last updated: 2010-04-13
    7. Hello World!: Experiencing usability methods without usability expertise
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hello World!: Experiencing usability methods without usability expertise
    2009 (English)In: Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2009: Part II, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 550-565Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 5727
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122356 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-03658-3_60 (DOI)000270204900060 ()978-3-642-03657-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    INTERACT 2009
    Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    8. Towards a usability coaching method for institutionalizing usability in organisations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a usability coaching method for institutionalizing usability in organisations
    2010 (English)In: Human-Computer Interaction, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2010, p. 86-97Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2010
    Series
    IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology ; 332
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122357 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-15231-3_10 (DOI)978-3-642-15230-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    World Computer Congress 2010
    Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Values and perspectives affecting IT systems development and usability work2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer supported work is often stressful and inadequate computer systems and poor usability contribute to the problem. Still the work situation, and work environment of users are seldom considered when developing computer systems, and it is difficult to incorporate the ideas of User Centred Systems Design (UCSD) in practice. Hence, this research addresses the difficulty in integrating usability, UCSD and occupational health issues in IT systems development in order to improve the resulting work situation and well-being of users. How do basic values and perspectives of stakeholders in systems development projects affect the work with UCSD, usability and users’ health issues in the organisations studied?

    This research aims at influencing systems development in practice; hence, research is carried out in real life settings with an action research approach. Data is gathered and analysed with a qualitative research approach with interview studies, meetings with stakeholders, analysis of documentation, observations and field studies. The theoretical framework adheres to situated action, participatory design, and UCSD that stresses the importance of involving users in the design process.

    This research shows that several basic values and perspectives affect systems development and hinder the usability work, for example, the perspective on user representatives, the value of rationality and objectivity, and the perspective underpinning descriptions and discourse on work. Moreover, this research indicates that the strong business values of automation, efficiency and customer satisfaction shape the development of new technology, and ultimately the tasks and work practices of the civil servants. In short, the studies show that there are some contradictions in business values and the implementation of user-centred systems design, usability and health issues in systems development.

    Attitudes and perspectives are not easily changed, and change comes gradually. In these organisations, we continuously discuss the integration of health issues in systems development, and by introducing and changing the models of systems development these will hopefully enable communication and change forwards of new perspectives and values. However, a focus on models alone is insufficient and therefore we need to develop a systematic approach to include reflection and new perspectives. Perhaps the reflection itself would help us see our values and perspectives and to alter them?

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Making sense of usability: Organizational change and sensemaking when introducing user-centred systems design in public authorities2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become an everyday encounter, not at least in work settings. These computers must support the user in order for her to work in an effective and efficient manner. The field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has among other things been focusing on this issue, and there are numerous methods and activities that aim at helping developers to develop usable computer systems. However, the methods and activities must be used in practice in order to be beneficial, not only within research, thus the methods must make sense to the system developers, as well as the organization in which they shall be applied. Furthermore, the organization must change in order to incorporate these methods and activities, and this change must impact a larger part of the organization than just the IT-department.

    My research has revolved around the introduction of usability methods in public authorities, in particular user-centred systems design (UCSD). My methodology has been action research, which implies a close collaboration with practitioners. Some of the methods used to gather data have been interviews, participatory observations, research diaries and field studies.

    In this licentiate thesis I present my work up to date and the theories that have informed my understanding of organizations and organizational change. Furthermore I have been influenced by the sensemaking theory, which can be used in order to understand how people make sense of technology, methods and organizational change. With the help of these theories, I extend my results further than presented in the papers.

    The notion of organizational change when introducing usability issues has not achieved sufficient attention in the HCI-field. This thesis is a step towards an understanding of this issue. Furthermore, I have, with the results from my papers together with the theories presented shown that although formal documents can be used to promote change, it is not enough. Rather there is a need to further explore the interplay between formal aspects and the situated work, and how to enhance sensegiving in this sensemaking process.

  • 10.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Usability in Transportation: Improving the analysis of cognitive work tasks2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most vehicle domains within the transportation sector, traffic is increasing and vehicles are becoming more technologically advanced. In addition to this, drivers are faced with conflicting goals, such as punctuality, maintaining safety, minimizing fuel consumption, ensuring passenger comfort, etc. When accidents occur, the drivers' actions and mishaps are often in focus, even though the work environment, the organization behind the drivers, and the educational level may provide equally important explanations for incidents and actions.

    In this thesis, factors influencing operators' behaviour are acknowledged and attempts are made to understand how these factors affect vehicle operators in their daily work. Even though modern vehicles are equipped with new technology that supposedly aids drivers, studies of actual work typically reveal that these tools are not necessarily suited for their purpose.

    In a larger perspective, it is necessary not only to improve this technology, but to redesign how vehicle drivers perform their work. In practice, also traditional processes for development of technology affect how the operators work, although then simply a side effect of technology being introduced. Based on a deep understanding of the operators' work, the long-term goal here is to instead design new ways of working that allows the operators to use their skills to do meaningful driving tasks supported by technology.

    To acquire this understanding of how the operators work, a new method of information acquisition has been developed and tested within the rail and marine domains. These studies resulted with an understanding of what train and high-speed ferry operators are occupied with during their journeys, as well as insights into why they perform in certain manners and how they think and reason about these tasks.

  • 11.
    Göransson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Usability Design: A framework for designing usable interactive systems in practice2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies have started to become aware of the advantages of doing user-centred design. However, it is extremely rare that companies adopt a fully integrated user-centred design approach in one strategic shift. Rather, companies tend to adopt practices and methods in stages or adopt a particular method or practice only when a complex set of factors align to create readiness. There is a big market for companies vending usability methods, but poor usability of systems and products is still very common, the vendors often blaming it on factors outside their immediate influence. This among other things is a call for us to work for a user-centred design attitude as a major strategy for the system development process.

    The content of this thesis is dedicated to the question of how to develop usable interactive systems in practice. Main focus is on how we can raise the awareness of usability; articulate the need for user-centred design within the industry and development organisations; and practice user-centred design. A framework for usability design as an unpretentious way of applying user-centred design is described and discussed.

  • 12.
    Göransson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    User-Centred Systems Design: Designing Usable Interactive Systems in Practice2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Have you ever been frustrated with that IT system at work that does not behave the way you expect it to? Or had problems with using the features on your new mobile phone? When systems and appliances do not support us in what we are doing, and do not behave the way we expect them to, then usability is neglected. Poor usability may be frustrating and irritating when trying out your mobile phone, but in a critical work situation poor usability may be disastrous.

    In this thesis, user-centred systems design (UCSD) is advocated as an approach for facilitating the development of usable interactive systems. Systems that suit their intended use and users do not just “emerge”. They are the result of a UCSD process and a user-centred attitude during the development. This means in short that the real users and their needs, goals, context of use, abilities and limitations, drive the development – in contrast to technology-driven development. We define UCSD as: a process focusing on usability throughout the entire development process and further throughout the system life cycle. I argue that this definition along with a set of key principles do help organisations and individual projects in the process of developing usable interactive systems. The key principles include the necessity of having an explicit focus on users and making sure that users are actively involved in the process.

    The thesis provides knowledge and insights gained from real-life situations about what UCSD is and how it can be put into practice. The most significant results are: the proposal of a clear definition of UCSD and a set of key principles encompassing UCSD; a process for usability design and the usability designer role. Furthermore, design cases from different domains are provided as examples and illustrations.

    List of papers
    1. Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key Principles for User-Centred Systems Design
    Show others...
    2003 In: Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 397-409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91782 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    2. The Usability Design Process: Integrating User-Centred Systems Design in the Software Development Process
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Usability Design Process: Integrating User-Centred Systems Design in the Software Development Process
    2003 In: Software Process: Improvement and Practice, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91783 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Usability Design: Extending Rational Unified Process with a New Discipline
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usability Design: Extending Rational Unified Process with a New Discipline
    2003 In: Interactive Systems: Design, Specification and Verification, 10th International Workshop, DSV-IS 2003, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal, June 2003, Revised Papers, LNCS 2844, 2003, p. 316-330Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91784 (URN)3-540-20159-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    4. The Lonesome Cowboy: A Study of the Usability Designer Role in Systems Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Lonesome Cowboy: A Study of the Usability Designer Role in Systems Development
    2006 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 601-634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the usability designer role as applied in two Swedish systems development organisations. The role was initially defined by us, but evolved in these two organisations. We conducted interviews with usability designers, project managers and a user representative. Our main research question was whether or not the introduction of a usability designer has been successful in terms of changes in the systems development process and the impact the role has had on products, projects and organisations. To some extent, the role has met our expectations and intentions for instance, in helping the usability designers shift their focus towards design, and assume some kind of "users' advocate" role. But in other ways, the role "failed". The usability designers in our study are still facing the kind of problems and obstacles that usability professionals have always had to deal with.

    Keywords
    user-centred systems design; UCSD; usability; usability practitioner; usability professional; software development
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-76432 (URN)10.1016/j.intcom.2005.10.003 (DOI)000238876500005 ()
    Available from: 2006-03-21 Created: 2006-03-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. A User-Centred Approach to Object-Oriented User Interface Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A User-Centred Approach to Object-Oriented User Interface Design
    2001 In: Designing Interactive Systems: Object Modeling and User Interface Design, 2001Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91786 (URN)0-201-65789-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    6. Reengineering the Systems Development Process for User Centred Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reengineering the Systems Development Process for User Centred Design
    2001 In: Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT ‘01, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91787 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    7. The Re-Design of a PDA-based System for Supporting People with Parkinson’s Disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Re-Design of a PDA-based System for Supporting People with Parkinson’s Disease
    2005 (English)In: People and Computers XVIII — Design for Life: Proceedings of HCI 2004, Springer London, 2005, p. 181-196Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the re-design of the user interface and the interaction for the PDA-based (Personal Digital Assistant) system mediPal. The aim with the system is to help people with Parkinson’s disease to a better life by supporting them in their day-to-day struggle with their chronic illness. In the paper we discuss the re-design — the process and the resulting user interface. The focus is on the evaluation of an earlier version of the system and how that led up to an improved user interface through user-centred systems design (UCSD). The paper also discusses how a practitioner can accomplish UCSD in the context of product development and consultant work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer London, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91788 (URN)10.1007/1-84628-062-1_12 (DOI)978-1-85233-900-5 (ISBN)978-1-84628-062-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Eight Conference on HCI, 2004
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29 Last updated: 2013-06-18Bibliographically approved
    8. The Design Of A Smart Card-Based Home-Help System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Design Of A Smart Card-Based Home-Help System
    2001 In: Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT ‘01Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91789 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
    9. A Teleradiology System Design Case
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Teleradiology System Design Case
    1997 In: DIS’97 Conference Proceedings of the ACM Special Interest Group in Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI), p. 27-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91790 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-04-29 Created: 2004-04-29Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Hardenborg, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction.
    Designing Work and IT Systems: A Participatory Process that Supports Usability and Sustainability2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the use of computers and IT systems has become an essential part of many people’s daily work, the quality of IT systems’ is becoming more important for efficient, healthy and sustainable work. It has often been argued that the full potential of a new, supportive IT system seldom is achieved, because – despite implementation of the new system - outdated work procedures are still being preserved. We can also see an increase in occupational health problems that are related to the use of poorly designed IT systems.

    This thesis addresses the questions of how to create a process for developing a sustainable, IT- supported work for the future and how to provide a solid foundation for the development of IT systems. What underlying perspectives should be applied and how can such a process be carried out in practice?

    Utilizing an action research approach inspired by participatory design methods, a user-centred seminar process called the Vision Seminar Process (VSP) has been developed to address these questions. Observations are presented from three cases in which the VSP has contributed to the organizations’ development and during which the Vision Seminar Process itself continued to evolve.

    The process provides a framework where practitioners and designers cooperate in the design of both sustainable work and usable IT systems. It is of central importance that a reflective in-depth analysis of users’ work practices is carried out, that their entire work situation and organization is questioned and discussed, and that the design process is carried out with a focus on healthy and sustainable work. Underlying perspectives that advocate a focus on a future work are essential for the successful implementation of the process, in that IT should be the engine that drives the development of work and creates the conditions for a healthy, sustainable work.

    List of papers
    1. Usability in IT Systems for Mobile Work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usability in IT Systems for Mobile Work
    2005 In: Mobile Virtual Work – A new Paradigm?, 2005, p. 177-202Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96546 (URN)3540283641 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23Bibliographically approved
    2. VIHO – Efficient IT Support in Home Care Services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>VIHO – Efficient IT Support in Home Care Services
    2006 In: Human Work Interaction Design: Designing for Human Work, 2006, p. 47-66Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96547 (URN)9780-387-36790-X (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-11-23 Created: 2007-11-23Bibliographically approved