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  • 1.
    Aagaard, Sunniva M. D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Greilhuber, Johann
    University of Vienna, Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany.
    Zhang, Xian-Chun
    Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences .
    Wikström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Occurrence and evolutionary origins of polyploids in the club moss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)2009In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two polyploid taxa are commonly recognized in the genus Diphasiastrum, D. wightianum from Asia and D. zanclophyllum from South Africa and Madagascar. Here we present results from Feulgen DNA image densitometry analyses providing the first evidence for the polyploid origin of D. zanclophyllum. Reported for the first time is also data confirming that D. multispicatum and D. veitchii, representing putative parent lineages for D. wightianum, are diploids. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear regions RPB2, LEAFY and LAMB4 reveal that putative tetraploid accessions are of allopolyploid origin. Diphasiastrum zanclophyllum shows close relationships to the North American taxon D. digitatum on the maternal side, but the paternal relationship is less clear. Two accessions from Asia, both found to be polyploid, have D. veitchii as maternal parent, whereas the paternal paralogs show relationships to D. multispicatum and D. tristachyum, respectively. None of these parental combinations have previously been hypothesized.

  • 2.
    Aagaard, Sunniva Margrethe Due
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Reticulate Evolution in Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis relationships and the occurrence of reticulate evolutionary events in the club moss genus Diphasiastrum are investigated. Diphasiastrum is initially established as a monophyletic group within Lycopodiaceae using non recombinant chloroplast sequence data. Support is obtained for eight distinct parental lineages in Diphasiastrum, and relationships among the putative parent taxa in the hypothesized hybrid complexes; D. alpinum, D. complanatum, D. digitatum, D. multispicatum, D. sitchense, D. tristachyum and D. veitchii are presented.

    Feulgen DNA image densitometry data and sequence data obtained from three nuclear regions, RPB2, LEAFY and LAMB4, were used to infer the origins of three different taxa confirmed to be allopolyploid; D. zanclophyllum from South Africa, D. wightianum from Malaysia and an undescribed taxon from China. The two Asian polyploids have originated from two different hybrid combinations, D. multispicatum x D. veitchii and D. tristachyum x D. veitchii. Diphasiastrum zanclophyllum originates from a cross between D. digitatum and an unidentified diploid taxon.

    The occurrence of three homoploid hybrid combinations commonly recognized in Europe, D. alpinum x D. complanatum, D. alpinum x D. tristachyum and D. complanatum x D. tristachyum, are verified using the same three nuclear regions. Two of the three hybrid combinations are also shown to have originated from reciprocal crosses. Admixture analyses performed on an extended, dataset similarly identified predominately F1 hybrids and backcrosses. The observations and common recognition of hybrid species in the included populations are hence most likely due to frequent observations of neohybrids in hybrid zones. Reticulate patterns are, however, prominent in the presented dataset. Hence future studies addressing evolutionary and ecological questions in Diphasiastrum should emphasize the impact of gene flow between parent lineages rather than speciation as the result of hybridization.

    List of papers
    1. Resolving maternal relationships in the clubmoss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resolving maternal relationships in the clubmoss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)
    2009 (English)In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 835-848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Diphasiastrum comprises 20-30 species. In addition to a number of species with a circumboreal distribution, several island endemics and putative diploid hybrid species contribute to the diversity of the group. To assess the integrity and relationships of the recognized species, a global phylogeny of Diphasiastrum is constructed using five chloroplast regions comprising ~9000 bp. Six monophyletic groups are identified. Accessions identified as hybrid species cluster in all but one case together with one of its putative parents. Two microsatellite loci are identified, and allelic information combined with sequence information is found diagnostic for the three putative parental taxa in the Central Europe hybrid complexes. Haplotype screening is performed on six Central European populations, from where one or more putative diploid hybrid species have been reported to grow in sympatry with their parent species. The most common parental haplotypes are identified in all populations. Additional intraspecific variation, restricted to single populations, is identified in all sympatric populations at very low frequencies. Taking the low degree of sequence and microsatellite variation into consideration, the acknowledged morphological diversity in Central Europe is probably best explained by phenotypic plasticity, ancestral polymorphisms or relatively recent events of reticulate evolution.

    Keywords
    Chloroplast microsatellites, Diphasiastrum, Diploid hybrid species, Lycopodium, Lycopodiaceae, Plastid phylogeny
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99576 (URN)000269774900012 ()
    Available from: 2009-03-16 Created: 2009-03-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Occurrence and evolutionary origins of polyploids in the club moss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and evolutionary origins of polyploids in the club moss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)
    2009 (English)In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two polyploid taxa are commonly recognized in the genus Diphasiastrum, D. wightianum from Asia and D. zanclophyllum from South Africa and Madagascar. Here we present results from Feulgen DNA image densitometry analyses providing the first evidence for the polyploid origin of D. zanclophyllum. Reported for the first time is also data confirming that D. multispicatum and D. veitchii, representing putative parent lineages for D. wightianum, are diploids. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear regions RPB2, LEAFY and LAMB4 reveal that putative tetraploid accessions are of allopolyploid origin. Diphasiastrum zanclophyllum shows close relationships to the North American taxon D. digitatum on the maternal side, but the paternal relationship is less clear. Two accessions from Asia, both found to be polyploid, have D. veitchii as maternal parent, whereas the paternal paralogs show relationships to D. multispicatum and D. tristachyum, respectively. None of these parental combinations have previously been hypothesized.

    Keywords
    Diphasiastrum, Feulgen DNA image densitometry, Lycopodium, Lycopodiaceae, low-copy nuclear genes, phylogenies, polyploidy
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99577 (URN)10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.004 (DOI)000268265800016 ()
    Available from: 2009-03-16 Created: 2009-03-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Reticulate phylogenetic patterns in diploid European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reticulate phylogenetic patterns in diploid European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Central Europe, three species belonging to Diphasiastrum are considered to be of homoploid hybrid origin. Diphasiastrum issleri is suggested to have originated from a cross between D. alpinum and D. complanatum, D. oellgaardii from D. alpinum and D. tristachyum, and D. zeilleri from D. complanatum and D. tristachyum. Variation at three nuclear regions and two chloroplast microsatellites verify the presence of all three putative parental combinations in Europe. Data obtained with Feulgen DNA image densitometry confirms that all specimens displaying such pattern are diploid. Also, two of three parental combinations have probably arisen repeatedly, implied by the occurrence of chloroplast haplotypes associated with different parents. The presented dataset cannot be used as argument for the existence of independent evolutionary entities hybrid origin. This is nonetheless an important first step in order to address the influence of reticulate evolutionary events in European Diphasiastrum

    Keywords
    Keywords – Diphasiastrum, homoploid hybridization, Lycopodiaceae, Lycopodium, low copy nuclear genes, phylogenies, Feulgen DNA image densitometry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99578 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-16 Created: 2009-03-16 Last updated: 2010-01-14
    4. Homoploid hybridization in Central European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Homoploid hybridization in Central European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three species of homoploid hybrid origin are commonly recognized among Central European Diphasiastrum, and reticulate evolutionary events have for a long time been acknowledged as an important factor contributing to the species count in the genus. Presented evidence obtained from molecular data has until recently been scarce and inconclusive. Recent studies have, however, documented reticulate phylogenetic patterns involving all putative parental combinations reported from Central Europe. Reciprocal crosses involving the same parental combinations have also been confirmed. In order to further explore these putative reticulate events, admixture analyses using a Bayesian approach as implemented in the program NewHybrids are conducted on an expanded dataset obtained from six Central European populations from where putative hybrid taxa are reported. A majority of the accessions included in the analyses were inferred to represent pure bred D. alpinum, D. complanatum, D. tristachyum, F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids or backcrosses with one of the parent species. Accessions displaying ambiguous classification were found in both allopatric parent populations as well as in Central European hybrid populations. Presented results indicate the presence of frequently occurring hybrid zones with first and second generation hybrids as well as backcrosses.

    Keywords
    admixture analysis, Bayesian clustering, Diphasiastrum, homoploid hybridization, Lycopodiaceae, Lycopodium, NewHybrids.
    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany; Population Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99579 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-16 Created: 2009-03-16 Last updated: 2010-01-14
    5. Revised lectotypification of Lycopodium complanatum L. (Lycopodiaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revised lectotypification of Lycopodium complanatum L. (Lycopodiaceae)
    2009 (English)In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 974-976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The currently accepted lectotype of the circumboreal species Lycopodium complanatum L., or Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub, is a specimen of the related species L. tristachyum Pursh, or D. tristachyum (Pursh) Holub, mainly distributed in eastern North America and Europe. This lectotype, in LINN, is here superseded in favour of an alternative original element in the Celsius herbarium in Uppsala, supported by an epitype, on the grounds of conflict with the protologue. Thereby the traditional usage of the well-known name L. complanatum can be maintained.

    Keywords
    Diphasiastrum, nomenclature, Lycopodium, Lycopodiaceae, typification.
    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany; Biology with specialization in Systematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-99572 (URN)000269774900026 ()
    Available from: 2009-03-16 Created: 2009-03-16 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Aagaard, Sunniva M.D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Greilhuber, Johann
    Vogel, Johannes C.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Reticulate phylogenetic patterns in diploid European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Central Europe, three species belonging to Diphasiastrum are considered to be of homoploid hybrid origin. Diphasiastrum issleri is suggested to have originated from a cross between D. alpinum and D. complanatum, D. oellgaardii from D. alpinum and D. tristachyum, and D. zeilleri from D. complanatum and D. tristachyum. Variation at three nuclear regions and two chloroplast microsatellites verify the presence of all three putative parental combinations in Europe. Data obtained with Feulgen DNA image densitometry confirms that all specimens displaying such pattern are diploid. Also, two of three parental combinations have probably arisen repeatedly, implied by the occurrence of chloroplast haplotypes associated with different parents. The presented dataset cannot be used as argument for the existence of independent evolutionary entities hybrid origin. This is nonetheless an important first step in order to address the influence of reticulate evolutionary events in European Diphasiastrum

  • 4.
    Aagaard, Sunniva M.D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Wikström, Niklas
    Homoploid hybridization in Central European Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae).Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three species of homoploid hybrid origin are commonly recognized among Central European Diphasiastrum, and reticulate evolutionary events have for a long time been acknowledged as an important factor contributing to the species count in the genus. Presented evidence obtained from molecular data has until recently been scarce and inconclusive. Recent studies have, however, documented reticulate phylogenetic patterns involving all putative parental combinations reported from Central Europe. Reciprocal crosses involving the same parental combinations have also been confirmed. In order to further explore these putative reticulate events, admixture analyses using a Bayesian approach as implemented in the program NewHybrids are conducted on an expanded dataset obtained from six Central European populations from where putative hybrid taxa are reported. A majority of the accessions included in the analyses were inferred to represent pure bred D. alpinum, D. complanatum, D. tristachyum, F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids or backcrosses with one of the parent species. Accessions displaying ambiguous classification were found in both allopatric parent populations as well as in Central European hybrid populations. Presented results indicate the presence of frequently occurring hybrid zones with first and second generation hybrids as well as backcrosses.

  • 5.
    Aagaard, Sunniva MD
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Såstad, Sigurd M
    Greilhuber, J
    Moen, A
    A secondary hybrid zone between diploid Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp cruenta and allotetraploid D-lapponica (Orchidaceae)2005In: Heredity, Vol. 94, p. 488-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aagaard, Sunniva M.D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Vogel, Johannes C.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Resolving maternal relationships in the clubmoss genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae)2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 835-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diphasiastrum comprises 20-30 species. In addition to a number of species with a circumboreal distribution, several island endemics and putative diploid hybrid species contribute to the diversity of the group. To assess the integrity and relationships of the recognized species, a global phylogeny of Diphasiastrum is constructed using five chloroplast regions comprising ~9000 bp. Six monophyletic groups are identified. Accessions identified as hybrid species cluster in all but one case together with one of its putative parents. Two microsatellite loci are identified, and allelic information combined with sequence information is found diagnostic for the three putative parental taxa in the Central Europe hybrid complexes. Haplotype screening is performed on six Central European populations, from where one or more putative diploid hybrid species have been reported to grow in sympatry with their parent species. The most common parental haplotypes are identified in all populations. Additional intraspecific variation, restricted to single populations, is identified in all sympatric populations at very low frequencies. Taking the low degree of sequence and microsatellite variation into consideration, the acknowledged morphological diversity in Central Europe is probably best explained by phenotypic plasticity, ancestral polymorphisms or relatively recent events of reticulate evolution.

  • 7. Aarrestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Masunga, G.
    Skarpe, C.
    Vegetation: Between Soils and Herbivores2014In: Elephants and Savanna Woodland Ecosystems: A Study from Chobe National Park, Botswana / [ed] Christina Skarpe, Johan T. du Toit and Stein R. Moe, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 61-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vegetation of the study area in Chobe National Park is influenced by a range of factors, including inundation by the Chobe River, soil moisture and fertility, and the impacts of different-size grazers and browsers. This chapter focuses on how the structure and species composition of the present vegetation in northern Chobe National Park is related to recent herbivory by elephants, as agents shaping the vegetation, and by mesoherbivores acting as controllers or responders, along with abiotic controllers such as soil type and distance to the river. In the study, a two-way indicator species analysis classified the vegetation data into four more or less distinct plant community groups (i) Baikiaea plurijuga-Combretum apiculatum woodland, (ii) Combretum mossambicense-Friesodielsia obovata wooded shrubland, (iii) Capparis tomentosa-Flueggea virosa shrubland and (iv) Cynodon dactylon-Heliotropium ovalifolium floodplain, named after the TWINSPAN indicator or preferential species with high cover, and the relative amount of shrubs and trees.

  • 8. Aarrestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Masunga, G. S.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pitlagano, M. L.
    Marokane, W.
    Skarpe, C.
    Influence of soil, tree cover and large herbivores on field layer vegetation along a savanna landscape gradient in northern Botswana2011In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 290-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of the field layer vegetation to co-varying resource availability (soil nutrients, light) and resource loss (herbivory pressure) was investigated along a landscape gradient highly influenced by elephants and smaller ungulates at the Chobe River front in Botswana. TWINSPAN classification was used to identify plant communities. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used to explore the vegetation-environment relationships. Four plant communities were described: Panicum maximum woodland, Tribulus terrestris woodland/shrubland, Chloris virgata shrubland and Cynodon dactylon floodplain. Plant height, species richness and diversity decreased with increasing resource availability and resource loss. The species composition was mainly explained by differences in soil resources, followed by variables related to light availability (woody cover) and herbivory, and by interactions between these variables. The vegetation structure and species richness, on the other hand, followed the general theories of vegetation responses to herbivory more closely than resource related theories. The results suggest a strong interaction between resource availability and herbivory in their influence on the composition, species richness and structure of the plant communities.

  • 9.
    Abarenkov, Kessy
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia..
    Adams, Rachel I.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Plant & Microbial Biol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Irinyi, Laszlo
    Westmead Hosp, Ctr Infect Dis & Microbiol, Mol Mycol Res Lab, Sydney Med Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Marie Bashir Inst Infect Dis & Biosecur, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Agan, Ahto
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Ambrosio, Elia
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.;Via Calamandrei 2, I-53035 Siena, Italy..
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Gothenburg Bot Garden, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22A, S-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Guldhedsgatan 10, S-41346 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bok, Gunilla
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Box 857, S-50115 Boras, Sweden..
    Cangren, Patrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Coimbra, Victor
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, Dept Micol, CCB, Av Prof Nelson Chaves S-N, BR-50670901 Recife, PE, Brazil..
    Coleine, Claudia
    Univ Tuscia, Dept Ecol & Biol Sci, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy..
    Gustafsson, Claes
    Univ Gothenburg, Herbarium GB, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    He, Jinhong
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, 723 Xingke Rd, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Hofmann, Tobias
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Chalmers, Dept Math Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Larsson, Ellen
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Larsson, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Liu, Yingkui
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Martinsson, Svante
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Meyer, Wieland
    Westmead Hosp, Ctr Infect Dis & Microbiol, Mol Mycol Res Lab, Sydney Med Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Panova, Marina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Pombubpa, Nuttapon
    Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Plant Pathol & Microbiol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA.;Univ Calif Riverside, Inst Integrat Genome Biol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA..
    Ritter, Camila
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Svantesson, Sten
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Scharn, Ruud
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Töpel, Mats
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Unterseher, Martin
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Bot & Landscape Ecol, Soldmannstr 15, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany..
    Visagie, Cobus
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Biodivers Mycol, 960 Carling Ave, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada..
    Wurzbacher, Christian
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Taylor, Andy F. S.
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland.;Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Cruickshank Bldg, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, Scotland..
    Köljalg, Urmas
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Schriml, Lynn
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Genome Sci, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Nilsson, R. Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard - a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)2016In: MycoKeys, ISSN 1314-4057, E-ISSN 1314-4049, no 16, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).

  • 10.
    Abbassi, Nasrollah
    et al.
    Univ Zanjan, Dept Geol, Fac Sci, Zanjan, Iran..
    Kundrat, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ataabadi, Majid Mirzaie
    Univ Zanjan, Dept Geol, Fac Sci, Zanjan, Iran..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala Univ, Sub Dept Evolut & Dev, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Dept Organismal Biol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Avian ichnia and other vertebrate trace fossils from the Neogene Red Beds of Tarom valley in north-western Iran2016In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1075-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neogene Red Beds of the Tarom valley (north-western Iran) include conglomerate, sandstone, marl and gypsum. Avian and mammal footprints were discovered in one of the sandstone layers at the base of a third Miocene stratigraphical unit in the Gilankesheh area located in the east Tarom valley. The avian ichnia include Aviadactyla vialovi, Avipeda filiportatis, Charadriipeda disjuncta, Charadriipeda isp. A and B and cf. Ornithotarnocia lambrechti. Bird feeding traces are preserved as bilobate, loop-shaped, sinusoidal and ring-like traces. We have also identified a reticulate texture of sole scale imprints in some of the avian ichnia. Two mammal footprints of camelid-like artiodactyls are also present with the avian ichno-assemblage.

  • 11.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, UMR ECOBIO 6553, F-35014 Rennes, France.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Bowden, William B.
    Univ Vermont, Rubenstein Sch Environm & Nat Resources, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.;Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Dept Biology& Wildlife, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, PNW Res Stn, USDA Forest Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Mack, Michelle C.
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    McGuire, A. David
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Cooperat Fish & Wildlife Res Unit, US Geol Survey, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.;Univ Notre Dame, Environm Change Initiat, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA..
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Aiken, George R.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Mississippi State Univ, Forest & Wildlife Res Ctr, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA..
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Texas A&M Univ, Galveston, TX USA..
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA..
    Bergeron, Yves
    Univ Quebec Abitibi Temiscamingue, Forest Res Inst, Rouyn Noranda, PQ, Canada..
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. wedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Univ Montreal, Dept Geog, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Pacific NW Natl Lab, Richland, WA 99352 USA..
    Breen, Amy L.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Scenarios Network Alaska & Arctic Planning, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Buffam, Ishi
    Univ Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA..
    Cai, Yihua
    Xiamen Univ, State Key Lab Marine Environm Sci, Xiamen, Peoples R China..
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Ecole Prat Hautes Etud, UMR5023, CNRS Lyon 1, Lyon, France..
    Carey, Sean K.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada..
    Chen, Jing M.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada..
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Lakehead Univ, Fac Nat Resources Management, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada..
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Lund Univ, Arctic Res Ctr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Univ Maryland, Ctr Environm Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Syst Ecol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    de Groot, William J.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Univ Washington, Sch Environm & Forest Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Fetcher, Ned
    Wilkes Univ, Inst Environm Sci & Sustainabil, Wilkes Barre, PA 18766 USA..
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland..
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Michigan Tech Res Inst, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Max Planck Inst Chem, Global Fire Monitoring Ctr, Berlin, Germany..
    Gough, Laura
    Towson Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Towson, MD USA..
    Grogan, Paul
    Queens Univ, Dept Biol, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada..
    Guo, Laodong
    Univ Wisconsin Milwaukee, Sch Freshwater Sci, Milwaukee, WI USA..
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Univ Montana, Dept Ecosyst & Conservat Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA..
    Hinzman, Larry
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Univ Illinois, Dept Plant Biol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA.;Univ Illinois, Dept Geol, Chicago, IL 60680 USA..
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA..
    Jandt, Randi
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Fire Sci Consortium, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Biol, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W0, Canada..
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Kelly, Ryan
    Neptune & Co Inc, North Wales, PA USA..
    Keuper, Frida
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;INRA, AgroImpact UPR1158, New York, NY USA..
    Kling, George W.
    Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environm Inst, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kuhry, Peter
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Inst Natl Rech Sci, Ctr Eau Terre Environm, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Inst Ocean Sci, Dept Fisheries & Oceans, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mann, Paul J.
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Geog, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Joensuu, Finland..
    McClelland, James W.
    Univ Texas Austin, Inst Marine Sci, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Olefeldt, David
    Univ Alberta, Dept Revewable Resources, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M7, Canada..
    Pare, David
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, Laurentian Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Nat Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Serv, No Forestry Ctr, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Payette, Serge
    Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, Quebec City, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada..
    Peng, Changhui
    Univ Quebec, Ctr CEF, ESCER, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada.;Northwest A&F Univ, Coll Forestry, State Key Lab Soil Eros & Dryland Farming Loess P, Xian, Peoples R China..
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    CNRS, Georesources & Environm, Toulouse, France.;Tomsk State Univ, BIO GEO CLIM Lab, Tomsk, Russia..
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Marine Biol Lab, Ctr Ecosyst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA..
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Yale Univ, Sch Forestry & Environm Studies, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA..
    Rein, Guillermo
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Mech Engn, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Reynolds, James F.
    Lanzhou Univ, Sch Life Sci, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China.;Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Robards, Martin
    Arctic Beringia Program, Wildlife Conservat Soc, New York, NY USA..
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA..
    Schaedel, Christina
    No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA..
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA..
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.;Sukachev Inst Forest, Moscow, Russia..
    Sky, Jasper
    Cambridge Ctr Climate Change Res, Cambridge, England..
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Earth Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Starr, Gregory
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Striegl, Robert G.
    US Geol Survey, Natl Res Program, Boulder, CO USA..
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, ECOLAB,UPS, Toulouse, France..
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Environm Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Zimov, Sergei
    Russian Acad Sci, Northeast Sci Stn, Moscow 117901, Russia..
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 034014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  • 12.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 161-169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual conflict with sexual dimorphism, but there is no a priori reason why intra-locus sexual conflict cannot occur in hermaphroditic organisms as well. Here, I discuss the potential for intra-locus sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals and review the available evidence for such conflict, and for the existence of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphrodites. I argue that mutations with asymmetric effects are particularly likely to be important in mediating sexual antagonism in hermaphroditic organisms. Moreover, sexually antagonistic genetic variation is likely to play an important role in inter-individual variation in sex allocation and in transitions to and from gonochorism (separate sexes) in simultaneous hermaphrodites. I also describe how sequential hermaphrodites may experience a unique form of intra-locus sexual conflict via antagonistic pleiotropy. Finally, I conclude with some suggestions for further research.

  • 13.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Bedhomme, Stéphanie
    Evolutionary Systems Virology Group, University of Valencia.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Biology Department, Queen's University.
    Sexual conflict in wing size and shape in Drosophila melanogaster2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1989-1997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict occurs when opposing selection pressures operate on loci expressed in both sexes, constraining the evolution of sexual dimorphism and displacing one or both sexes from their optimum. We eliminated intralocus conflict in Drosophila melanogaster by limiting transmission of all major chromosomes to males, thereby allowing them to win the intersexual tug-of-war. Here, we show that this male-limited (ML) evolution treatment led to the evolution (in both sexes) of masculinized wing morphology, body size, growth rate, wing loading, and allometry. In addition to more male-like size and shape, ML evolution resulted in an increase in developmental stability for males. However, females expressing ML chromosomes were less developmentally stable, suggesting that being ontogenetically more male-like was disruptive to development. We suggest that sexual selection over size and shape of the imago may therefore explain the persistence of substantial genetic variation in these characters and the ontogenetic processes underlying them.

  • 14. Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Innocenti, Paolo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Epigenetics and Sex-Specific Fitness: An Experimental Test Using Male-Limited Evolution in Drosophila melanogaster2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e70493-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  • 15.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Obtaining snapshots of genetic variation using hemiclonal analysis2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 359-368Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemiclones are naturally occurring or artificially produced individuals that share a single specific genetic haplotype. Natural hemiclones are produced via hybridization between two closely related species, whereas hemiclonal analysis in Drosophila is carried out in the laboratory via crosses with artificially created 'clone-generator' females with a specific genetic make-up. Hemiclonal analysis in Drosophila has been applied successfully to date to obtain measures of standing genetic variation for numerous traits. Here, we review the current hemiclonal literature and suggest future directions for hemiclonal research, including its application in molecular and genomic studies, and the adaptation of natural hemiclonal systems to carry out Drosophila-type studies of standing genetic variation.

  • 16.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    Lund University.
    Morph-specific variation in intersexual genetic correlations in an intra-specific mimicry system2010In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Positive intersexual genetic correlations are typically viewed as constraining the evolution of sexual dimorphism, when traits are subject to sexually antagonistic selection. Our study species, the damselfly Ischnura elegans, has a female-limited colour polymorphism with three female colour morphs (males are monomorphic), one of which is considered a male mimic.

    Question: Are there morph-specific differences in the magnitude of intersexual genetic correlations in I. elegans? Specifically, do male-mimic (Androchrome) females have higher intersexual genetic correlations for morphological traits than non-mimic (Infuscans) females?

    Methods: We collected copulating pairs in the field and raised offspring from these pairs in the laboratory. We measured five morphological traits in both parent and offspring generations and investigated their heritabilities and genetic correlations.

    Results: We found a negative overall relationship between the degree of sexual dimorphism for a trait and its intersexual genetic correlation. But the magnitude and direction of intersexual genetic correlations depended on the female morph. As expected, male mimic (Androchrome) females had higher intersexual genetic correlations. In addition, the genetic correlations between the morphs were in all cases significantly lower than unity. Male mimic (Androchrome) females had higher mother-son covariances than the non-mimic (Infuscans) morph, and this difference is the proximate explanation for the difference in intersexual genetic correlations between the morphs.

  • 17. Abbott, R.
    et al.
    Albach, D.
    Ansell, S.
    Arntzen, J. W.
    Baird, S. J. E.
    Bierne, N.
    Boughman, J.
    Brelsford, A.
    Buerkle, C. A.
    Buggs, R.
    Butlin, R. K.
    Dieckmann, U.
    Eroukhmanoff, F.
    Grill, A.
    Cahan, S. H.
    Hermansen, J. S.
    Hewitt, G.
    Hudson, A. G.
    Jiggins, C.
    Jones, J.
    Keller, B.
    Marczewski, T.
    Mallet, J.
    Martinez-Rodriguez, P.
    Möst, M.
    Mullen, S.
    Nichols, R.
    Nolte, A. W.
    Parisod, C.
    Pfennig, K.
    Rice, A. M.
    Ritchie, M. G.
    Seifert, B.
    Smadja, C. M.
    Stelkens, R.
    Szymura, J. M.
    Väinölä, R.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Zinner, D.
    Hybridization and speciation2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 229-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization.

  • 18.
    Abbu, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Effect of long-term exposure to oxazepam on whole-body cortisol concentration in stickleback2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are common contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Pharmaceutical residues in aquatic systems have gained increased interest the last decades and are now recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems around the globe. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are a class of psychiatric pharmaceuticals classified as anxiolytics, i.e. pharmaceuticals used to treat anxiety disorders. A study reports that dilute concentrations of the BZD oxazepam influences fish behavior, which potentially can damage ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 7-day exposure to the benzodiazepine oxazepam (1 or 100 ug/L tank water) on whole-body cortisol concentration in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Cortisol concentrations were measured using RIA (Radioimmunoassay). Our results show that the highest oxazepam concentration (100 μg/L) we tested displayed a significantly reduced cortisol concentrations compared to controls when analyzed separately. But when fish were exposed to the lower concentration of oxazepam (1 μg/L), an effect on cortisol levels was not shown. After all, our results show that oxazepam have no effect on cortisol levels and therefore will not influence the behavior of three-spined stickleback regarding cortisol. Our result contradicts several earlier studies and it is imperative to do further studies regarding this manner using other protocols. The complexity of how benzodiazepines affect aquatic life and ecosystems remains largely unknown and environmental predictions are difficult to make. However, it is necessary to study how pharmaceuticals potentially can affect aquatic life because of its alarming effects.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-20 11:59
  • 19.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Örebro University Hospital.
    Kirsebom, Leif A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
    Olcén, Per
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction2009In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 366-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 104 DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization.

  • 20.
    Abdulkarim, Farhad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Ehrenberg, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Mutants of EF-Tu defective in binding aminoacyl-tRNA1996In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 382, no 3, p. 297-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five single amino acid substitution variants of EF-Tu from Salmonella typhimurium were tested for their ability to promote poly(U)-translation in vitro. The substitutions are Leu120Gln, Gln124Arg and Tyr160 (Asp or Asn or Cys). They were selected by their kirromycin resistant phenotypes and all substitutions are in domain I at the interface between domains I and III of the EF-Tu · GTP configuration. The different EF-Tu variants exhibit a spectrum of phenotypes. First, k(cat)/K(M) for the interaction between ternary complex and the programmed ribosome is apparently reduced by the substitutions Leu120Gln, Gln124Arg and Tyr160Cys. Second, this reduction is caused by a defect in the interaction between these EF-Tu variants and aminoacyl-tRNA during translation. Third, in four cases out of five the affinity of the complex between EF-Tu · GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA is significantly decreased. The most drastic reduction is observed for the Gln124Arg change, where the association constant is 30-fold lower than in the mild-type case. Fourth, missense errors are increased as well as decreased by the different amino acid substitutions. Finally, the dissociation rate constant (k(d)) for the release of GDP from EF-Tu is increased 6-fold by the Tyr160Cys substitution, but remains unchanged in the four other cases. These results show that the formation of ternary complex is sensitive to many different alterations in the domain I-III interface of EF-Tu.

  • 21.
    Abdulkarim, Farhad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Homologous recombination between the tuf genes of Salmonella typhimurium1996In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 260, no 4, p. 506-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genes coding for the translation factor EF-Tu, tufA and tufB are separated by over 700 kb on the circular chromosome of Salmonella typhimurium. The coding regions of these genes have 99% identity at the nucleotide level in spite of the presumed ancient origin of the gene duplication. Sequence comparisons between S. typhimurium and Escherichiacoli suggest that within each species the two tuf genes are evolving inconcert. Here we show that each of the S. typhimurium tuf genes cantransfer genetic information to the other. In our genetic system thetransfers are seen as non-reciprocal, i.e. as gene conversion events.However, the mechanism of recombination could be reciprocal, with sisterchromosome segregation and selection leading to the isolation of aparticular class of recombinant. The amount of sequence informationtransferred in individual recombination events varies, but can be close tothe entire length of the gene. The recombination is RecABCD-dependent,and is opposed by MutSHLU mismatch repair. In the wild-type, this typeof recombination occurs at a rate that is two or three orders of magnitudegreater than the nucleotide substitution rate. The rate of recombinationdiffers by six orders of magnitude between a recA and a mutS strain.Mismatch repair reduces the rate of this recombination 1000-fold. The rateof recombination also differs by one order of magnitude depending onwhich tuf gene is donating the sequence selected for. We discuss threeclasses of model that could, in principle, account for the sequencetransfers: (1) tuf mRNA mediated recombination; (2) non-allelic reciprocalrecombination involving sister chromosomes; (3) non-allelic geneconversion involving sister chromosomes, initiated by a double-strandbreak close to one tuf gene. Although the mechanism remains to bedetermined, the effect on the bacterial cells is tuf gene sequencehomogenisation. This recombination phenomenon can account for theconcerted evolution of the tuf genes.

  • 22.
    Abdulkarim, Farhad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Liljas, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Mutations to kirromycin resistance occur in the interface of domains I and III of EF-Tu.GTP1994In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 352, p. 118-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antibiotic kirromycin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to EF-Tu and preventing its release from the ribosome after GTP hydrolysis.We have isolated and sequenced a collection of kirromycin resistant tuf mutations and identified thirteen single amino acid substitutions at sevendifferent sites in EF-Tu. These have been mapped onto the 3D structures of EF-Tu’GTP and EF-Tu.GDP. In the active GTP form of EF-Tu themutations cluster on each side of the interface between domains I and III. We propose that this domain interface is the binding site for kirromycin.

  • 23.
    Abdulkarim, Farhad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Tuohy, TMF
    Buckingham, RH
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Molecular Biology.
    Missense substitutions lethal to essential functions of EF-Tu1991In: Biochimie, ISSN 0300-9084, E-ISSN 1638-6183, Vol. 73, no 12, p. 1457-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a simple selection and screening method to isolate function defective mutants of EF-Tu. From 28 mutants tested, 12 different missense substitutions, individually lethal to some essential function of EF-Tu, were identified by sequencing. In addition we found a new non-lethal missense mutation. The frequency of isolation of unique mutations suggests that this method can be used to easily isolate many more. The lethal mutations occur in all three structural domains of EF-Tu, but most are in domain II. We aim to use these mutants to define functional domains on EF-Tu.

  • 24.
    Abjornsson, K
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Wagner, BMA
    Axelsson, A
    Bjerselius, R
    Olsen, KH
    Responses of Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) to chemical cues from perch (Perca fluviatilis)1997In: OECOLOGIA, ISSN 0029-8549, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 166-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that the presence of chemical stimuli from a hungry predator would initiate anti-predator responses, while stimuli from a satiated predator would not. We used chemical stimuli released from starved perch (Perca fluvi

  • 25. Abola, EE
    et al.
    Bairoch, A
    Barker, WC
    Beck, S
    Benson, DA
    Berman, H
    Cantor, C
    Cantor, C
    Doubet, S
    Hubbard, TJP
    Jones, T. A.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Molecular Biology.
    Kleywegt, G J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Molecular Biology.
    Kolaskar, AS
    van Kuik, A
    Lesk, A M
    Mewes, H W
    Neuhaus, D
    Pfeiffer, F
    Ten Eyck, LF
    Simpson, RJ
    Stoesser, G
    Sussman, J L
    Tateno, Y
    Tsugita, A
    Ulrich, EL
    Vliegenthart, JFG
    Quality control in databanks for molecular biology2000In: BioEssays, Vol. 22, p. 1024-1034Article, review/survey (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 26.
    Abraham, D
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Ryrholm, N
    Wittzell, H
    Holloway, JD
    Scoble, MJ
    Lofstedt, C
    Molecular phylogeny of the subfamilies in geometridae (Geometroidea : Lepidoptera)2001In: MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND EVOLUTION, ISSN 1055-7903, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular sequence data from three gene fragments were used to examine critically a provisional phylogenetic classification based on morphological characters of the Geometridae, one of the most species-rich families of moths. The sister group relationship

  • 27.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gill EROD Activity in Fish: A Biomarker for Waterborne Ah-receptor Agonists2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Induction of the cytochrome P450(CYP)1A protein and the connected increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity are common biomarkers in fish. Enhanced activity of this protein signals exposure to Ah-receptor agonists such as chlorinated dioxins, co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The EROD biomarker is commonly analyzed in liver microsomes. However, the gill is directly exposed to waterborne pollutants, and in this thesis the gill filament EROD assay was therefore evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne CYP1A inducers in fish. Originally developed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the assay was here applied in various limnic and marine species. Following exposure to low waterborne concentrations of the readily metabolized CYP1A inducers benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and indigo, a strong EROD induction was observed in the gill but not in the liver. This likely reflected metabolic clearance of the inducers in gill and other extrahepatic tissues. The high sensitivity of the gill was confirmed in studies of fish caged in waters in urban and rural areas in Sweden where the gill consistently showed a more pronounced EROD induction compared with the liver and the kidney. Fish caged in the reference waters showed surprisingly strong gill EROD induction and CYP1A immunostaining. Consequently, there may be CYP1A inducers present in the aquatic environment that are not yet identified. The assay was further applied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a biomarker of exposure to crude oil and produced water (PW) from oil fields in the North Sea. The assay was finally adapted to detect inhibiting compounds, and an imidazole, a triazole and a plant flavonoid turned out to be potent gill EROD inhibitors. The overall conclusion from the studies of this thesis is that the gill filament EROD assay is a practical and sensitive biomarker of exposure to waterborne CYP1A inducers in various fish species. The induction of gill EROD activity in fish also at the reference sites in the field studies calls for further studies on background contamination in Swedish waters.

    List of papers
    1. EROD activity in gill filaments from anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>EROD activity in gill filaments from anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, Vol. 136, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95920 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-09 Created: 2007-05-09 Last updated: 2009-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Cytochrome P4501A induction in rainbow trout gills and liver following exposure to waterborne indigo, benzo(a)pyrene and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cytochrome P4501A induction in rainbow trout gills and liver following exposure to waterborne indigo, benzo(a)pyrene and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl
    2006 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 226-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a gill-filament based ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay to be used as a tool to monitor cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction in caged fish. The present study aimed to compare temporal patterns of EROD induction in gills and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in the laboratory to readily metabolized and persistent CYP1A inducers, i.e. indigo, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB#126). Branchial and hepatic EROD activities were examined in fish exposed for 6, 12, or 24h and in fish exposed for 24h and then held in clean water for 2 or 14 days. Furthermore, branchial CYP1A protein expression was localized by immunohistochemistry. All compounds strongly induced branchial EROD activity within 6 h. The highest EROD inductions observed for indigo, BaP, and PCB#126 were roughly similar in gills (52-, 76-, and 74-fold), but differed considerably in liver (11-, 78-, and 200-fold). In indigo- and BaP-exposed fish, both hepatic and branchial EROD activities decreased rapidly in clean water. In PCB#126-exposed fish, decreased branchial and increased hepatic EROD activities were observed following transfer to clean water. The substances gave rise to immunostaining for CYP1A at different cellular sites. All inducers increased the CYP1A-immunostaining in the gill filament secondary lamellae, but PCB#126 also induced a pronounced CYP1A immunoreactivity in cells near the basal membrane of the epithelium of the primary lamellae. The observation that the low BaP and indigo concentrations induced EROD activity markedly in the gills but only slightly or not at all in the liver, supports the contention that readily metabolized AhR agonists may escape detection when hepatic EROD activity is used for environmental monitoring. The results show that gill filament EROD activity is a sensitive biomarker both for persistent and readily metabolized AhR agonists in polluted water.

    Keywords
    benzo[a]pyrene, CYP1A, gill, indigo, liver, 3, 3 ', 4, 4 ', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB#126)
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95921 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.06.006 (DOI)000240567200003 ()16872689 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-05-09 Created: 2007-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Monitoring contaminants from oil production at sea by measuring gill EROD activity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring contaminants from oil production at sea by measuring gill EROD activity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An ex vivo gill EROD assay was applied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a biomarker for waterborne CYP1A-inducing compounds derived from oil production at sea. Exposure to nominal concentrations of 1 ppm or 10 ppm North Sea crude oil in a static water system for 24 h caused a concentration-dependent gill EROD induction. Further, exposure of cod for 14 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of produced water (PW, diluted 1:200 or 1:1000) from a platform in the North Sea using a flow-through system resulted in a concentration-dependent induction of gill EROD. Crude oil (0.2 ppm) from the same oil field also proved to induce EROD. Finally, gill EROD activity in cod caged for 6 weeks at 500-10 000 m from two platforms outside Norway was measured. The activities in these fish were very low and did not differ from those in fish caged at reference sites.

    Keywords
    Atlantic cod, Biomarker, CYP1A, Crude oil, EROD, Gill, Produced water
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95922 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2007.07.025 (DOI)000255819300020 ()17854961 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2007-05-09 Created: 2007-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish: A study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish: A study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne cytochrome P4501 A (CYP1A) inducers using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban area waters in Sweden. To compare the CYP1A induction response in different tissues, EROD activity was also analyzed in liver and kidney microsomes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize CYP1A protein in gill and kidney. In two separate experiments fish were caged at sites with fairly high expected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. In the first experiment, gill EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-21 days in a river running through Uppsala. The reference site was upstream of Uppsala. In the second, gill, liver and kidney EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-5 days in fresh or brackish waters of Stockholm and in a reference lake 60 km north of Stockholm. Fish exposed for 5 days followed by 2 days of recovery in tap water in the laboratory were also examined. The gill consistently showed a higher EROD induction compared with the liver and the kidney. After I day of caging, gill EROD activity was markedly induced (6-17-fold) at all sites examined. Induction in gill was pronounced (5-7-fold) also in fish caged at the reference sites. In the 21-day exposure study gill EROD activity remained highly induced throughout the experiment (26-fold at most) and the induced CYP1A protein was exclusively confined to the gill secondary lamellae. In the 5-day exposure experiment, EROD activity peaked after I day and then declined in both gill and liver, while CYP1A immunostaining in the gill remained intense over the 5-day period. In the kidney, CYP1A staining was weak or absent. We conclude that gill EROD activity is a more sensitive biomarker of exposure to waterborne CYP1A inducers than EROD activity in liver and kidney.

    Keywords
    fish; gill; CYP1A; EROD; monitoring
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95923 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.07.013 (DOI)000250181300001 ()
    Available from: 2007-05-09 Created: 2007-05-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish detected by the gill filament EROD assay - studies on ketoconazole, bitertanol, acacetin and omeprazole
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish detected by the gill filament EROD assay - studies on ketoconazole, bitertanol, acacetin and omeprazole
    (English)Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95924 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-09 Created: 2007-05-09 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 28. Abrahamson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fogelberg, Oscar
    Orberg, Jan
    Brunstrom, Bjorn
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish - A study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters2007In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Andersson, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fogelberg, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish: A study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters2007In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne cytochrome P4501 A (CYP1A) inducers using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban area waters in Sweden. To compare the CYP1A induction response in different tissues, EROD activity was also analyzed in liver and kidney microsomes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize CYP1A protein in gill and kidney. In two separate experiments fish were caged at sites with fairly high expected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. In the first experiment, gill EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-21 days in a river running through Uppsala. The reference site was upstream of Uppsala. In the second, gill, liver and kidney EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-5 days in fresh or brackish waters of Stockholm and in a reference lake 60 km north of Stockholm. Fish exposed for 5 days followed by 2 days of recovery in tap water in the laboratory were also examined. The gill consistently showed a higher EROD induction compared with the liver and the kidney. After I day of caging, gill EROD activity was markedly induced (6-17-fold) at all sites examined. Induction in gill was pronounced (5-7-fold) also in fish caged at the reference sites. In the 21-day exposure study gill EROD activity remained highly induced throughout the experiment (26-fold at most) and the induced CYP1A protein was exclusively confined to the gill secondary lamellae. In the 5-day exposure experiment, EROD activity peaked after I day and then declined in both gill and liver, while CYP1A immunostaining in the gill remained intense over the 5-day period. In the kidney, CYP1A staining was weak or absent. We conclude that gill EROD activity is a more sensitive biomarker of exposure to waterborne CYP1A inducers than EROD activity in liver and kidney.

  • 30.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Sundt, Rolf
    Jørgensen, Even
    Monitoring contaminants from oil production at sea by measuring gill EROD activity in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)2008In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 153, no 1, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ex vivo gill EROD assay was applied in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a biomarker for waterborne CYP1A-inducing compounds derived from oil production at sea. Exposure to nominal concentrations of 1 ppm or 10 ppm North Sea crude oil in a static water system for 24 h caused a concentration-dependent gill EROD induction. Further, exposure of cod for 14 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of produced water (PW, diluted 1:200 or 1:1000) from a platform in the North Sea using a flow-through system resulted in a concentration-dependent induction of gill EROD. Crude oil (0.2 ppm) from the same oil field also proved to induce EROD. Finally, gill EROD activity in cod caged for 6 weeks at 500-10 000 m from two platforms outside Norway was measured. The activities in these fish were very low and did not differ from those in fish caged at reference sites.