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  • 1. Cichon, M
    et al.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Hillström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Wiggins, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Mass-dependent mass loss in breeding birds: getting the null hypothesis right1999In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An assumption central to many tests of statistical association between two variables is the null expectation of zero association. Here, we draw attention to the fact that in many published tests of mass-dependent mass loss in breeding birds, this assumption has been violated. We show that a correct null hypothesis can be derived by using resampling methods, and analyse three data sets (two previously published) from passerine birds to illustrate the approach. Our results show, that under a correct null hypothesis, the biological interpretation of the previously published results is reversed-initially heavy birds do actually lose less mass (relative to their weight) than the initially light birds.

  • 2.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Genetic and Ecological Consequences of Fish Releases: With Focus on Supportive Breeding of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Translocation of European Eel Anguilla anguilla2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the practice of releasing fish into the wild is common in the management and conservation of fish populations, the success of release programmes and the potential harmful genetic and ecological effects that may follow are rarely considered. This thesis focuses on genetic and ecological consequences of fish releases, exemplified by supportive breeding of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and translocation of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Specific questions addressed include: What is the relative performance of hatchery produced fish released to support wild populations, and do released hatchery fish contribute to the natural productivity? What is the variation in reproductive success in the wild, and how does it affect the genetic consequences of a supportive breeding programme? Is there a spatial genetic structure in the European eel that must be considered in the management of this rapidly declining species?

    Experiments conducted under natural and near-natural conditions in the River Dalälven, Sweden, suggest that hatchery produced trout can reproduce in the wild. In fact, when the pronounced variation between individual breeders was accounted for, there were no detectable differences between hatchery produced and wild born trout in reproductive success or offspring survival. These results were supported by molecular genetic data suggesting a pronounced gene flow from hatchery to wild trout in the river. Hatchery reared trout were, however, found to exhibit reduced survival rates immediately following release into the wild, an effect that was most likely due to phenotypic responses to the hatchery environment during ontogeny and a lack of experience of the wild.

    In sharp contrast to recently published studies, the present genetic analyses of European eels sampled across the whole distribution range suggest no spatial genetic structure but a subtle temporal genetic heterogeneity within sampled locations. These results emphasise the need to consider temporal replication when assessing population structure of marine species.

    The results obtained have general implications for the management and conservation of fish populations. First, supportive breeding of threatened salmonid populations might be successful, not only for boosting the census size and thereby reducing the short-term probability of extinction, but also for reducing the risks of inbreeding depression and loss of adaptive potential in future generations. However, the results also highlight the need to restore the natural productivity of a population under supportive breeding to avoid a potential reduction in fitness due to hatchery selection. Further, the lack of a detectable spatial genetic structure in the European eel suggests that the management strategy of translocating juvenile eels from locations were they are overabundant to other suitable freshwater habitats does not necessarily have to include genetic considerations with respect to the geographical origin of the translocated eels.

    List of papers
    1. Effects of sea-ranching and family background on fitness traits in brown trout Salmo trutta reared under near-natural conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sea-ranching and family background on fitness traits in brown trout Salmo trutta reared under near-natural conditions
    2003 In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91038 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-11-13 Created: 2003-11-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Lack of molecular genetic divergence between sea-ranched and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lack of molecular genetic divergence between sea-ranched and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta)
    Show others...
    2003 In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 2057-2071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91039 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-11-13 Created: 2003-11-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Reproductive success of hatchery produced and wild born brown trout Salmo trutta in an experimental stream
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reproductive success of hatchery produced and wild born brown trout Salmo trutta in an experimental stream
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    1.Although releases of hatchery-produced salmonids to support conspecific wildpopulations have increased dramatically during recent decades, little information isavailable about the performance in the wild of hatchery fish and their offspring.Important factors determining the success and genetic outcomes of supportive breedingprogrammes include (i) the relative reproductive success of released hatchery fish in thewild, and (ii) the extent to which the propagation affects the variance in reproductivesuccess in the population as a whole.2.We performed two field experiments on brown troutSalmo truttafrom the RiverDalälven in Sweden, where we examined reproductive success in an experimental stream.In experiment 1 we compared reproductive success between trout from a seventhgenerationhatchery stock of native origin and wild-born trout from the river. In experiment2, we compared reproductive success between seventh-generation hatchery troutand hatchery-reared trout derived from wild-born parents. Individual reproductivesuccess, based on the number of offspring assigned using microsatellite markers, wasassessed on three occasions after reproduction: immediately after hatching and after thefirst and second growth seasons.3.In experiment 1 there were no significant differences in reproductive success betweenseventh-generation hatchery trout and wild-born trout. In experiment 2, males from wildbornparents were more successful than males from the seventh-generation hatcherystock, but this difference was not observed among females.4.There was some evidence for a positive association between body size and reproductivesuccess among females but not males. For males, the number of mates was significantlyassociated with reproductive success, but this relationship was not evident among females.5.The variance in reproductive success was pronounced in both experiments, yieldingestimates of the ratio between the genetically effective size and the census size of ourexperimental populations ranging from 0·12 to 0·59.6.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that the reproductive success in thewild of hatchery-produced and wild-born trout with a common genetic backgroundmay be rather similar. These findings, in combination with the pronounced variancein reproductive success observed among breeders, indicate that supportive breedingcan be managed to increase not only the census but also the genetically effective sizeof small, endangered salmonid populations. However, to minimize negative effects ofhatchery selection, it is important to give priority to the restoration of natural habitatsand thereby increase the reproductive output from individuals in the wild.

    Keywords
    conservation, domestication, effective population size, microsatellite DNA, supportive breeding
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91040 (URN)10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00895.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-11-13 Created: 2003-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Survival, morphology and phenotypic plasticity of wild and sea-ranched brown trout stocked as eyed eggs or as 0+ parr
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Survival, morphology and phenotypic plasticity of wild and sea-ranched brown trout stocked as eyed eggs or as 0+ parr
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91041 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-11-13 Created: 2003-11-13 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Lack of a temporally stable genetic structure in the European eel: the panmixia hypothesis revisited
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lack of a temporally stable genetic structure in the European eel: the panmixia hypothesis revisited
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91042 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-11-13 Created: 2003-11-13 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Maes, Gregory E.
    Johansson, Leif
    Wickström, Håkan
    Volckaert, Filip A.M.
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Lack of a temporally stable genetic structure in the European eel: the panmixia hypothesis revisitedManuscript (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Effects of sea-ranching and family background on fitness traits in brown trout Salmo trutta reared under near-natural conditions2003In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eggers, Sönke
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Behaviour and life-history responses to chick provisioning under risk of nest predation2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines risk management in breeding Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus), which is indigenous to the northern taiga. Parent behaviour and the nest are cryptic. A new nest is built each year. It is placed on spruce or pine branches close to the trunk and well insulated with lichens, feathers and reindeer hair.

    Nest failure rate was the main factor driving annual variations in jay numbers. The probability for nesting attempts to be successful ranged annually between 0.08 and 0.70. Nest predation was rampant and a main cause of nest failure. Nest predators were mainly other corvids (primarily the Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius). Habitat quality was the main factor determining the risk of predation. The risk for nest failure due to predation was higher in thinned forests with an open structure and with a high abundance of man-associated corvid species (jays, crows, raven).

    Siberian jay parents show several strategic adjustments in life-history and behaviour to the risk of nest predation. Parents traded reduced feeding rates for a lower predation risk and allocated feeding to low risk situations. Chick provisioning imposes a cost by drawing the attention of visually hunting predators to the location of nests, and parents adjusted their daily routines and avoided exposure by allocating provisioning to times of low activity among nest predators. These strategic adjustments of feeding efforts were estimated to reduce the exposure to nest predators by 26 percent. Also, parents adjusted their reproductive efforts to the perceived presence of predators in a playback experiment. Siberian jays reduced their reproductive investment by laying a smaller clutch size when high risk of nest predation reduced the value of current reproduction, as predicted from life-history theory.

  • 6.
    Ekblom, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Sæther, Stein Are
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Fiske, Peder
    Kålås, John Atle
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Major histocompatibility complex variation and mate choice in a lekking bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media)2004In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 3821-3828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a major part in the activation of the vertebrate immune system. In addition, they also appear to function as cues for mate choice. In mammals especially, several kinds of MHC-dependent mate choice have been hypothesized and observed. These include choice of mates that share no or few alleles with the choosing individual, choice of mates with alleles that differ as much as possible from the choosing individual, choice of heterozygous mates, choice of certain genotypes and choice of rare alleles. We investigated these different aspects of mate choice in relation to MHC in a lekking bird species, the great snipe (Gallinago media). We found no evidence for MHC disassortative mating, no preference for males with many MHC alleles and no preference for rare alleles. However, we did find that some allelic lineages were more often found in males with mating success than in males without mating success. Females do not seem to use themselves as references for the MHC-dependent mate choice, rather they seem to prefer males with certain allele types. We speculate that these alleles may be linked to resistance to common parasites.

  • 7.
    Ekblom, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Sæther, Stein Are
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Hannersjö, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Fiske, Peder
    Kålås, John Atle
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Female choice and male humoral immune response in the lekking great snipe (Gallinago media)2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasites and diseases constitute major evolutionary forces in many natural populations, and thus having an efficient immune defense to resist infections is crucial for many organisms. Properties of the immune response may also influence mate choice decisions in many animals. Theory predicts several advantages for females when choosing males with superior immune systems. These benefits can be both direct (e.g. increased paternal care and reduced disease transmission) and indirect (good genes). We have investigated female choice with respect to antibody response to two novel antigens in males of a lekking bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media). Because of the lek mating system, female choice probably mainly incurs indirect (genetic) rather than direct benefits. Males responded to vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by producing specific antibodies to both antigens. Triggering the immune system had no negative impact on display activities or survival. Males that were chosen by females as mates had on average higher antibody response to the tetanus antigen than their neighbors. We did not, however, find any covariance between the strength of the antibody response and male mating success.

  • 8.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Nepotistic alarm calling in the Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus2004In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 933-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a life history perspective, parents have an incentive to protect their reproductive investment, and so may provide care even after their offspring are independent. Such prolonged parental care could lead to postponed dispersal of the offspring and thereby facilitate the formation of kin groups. We tested whether alpha birds in Siberian jays protected their independent, retained offspring by giving alarm calls during simulated predator attacks. We compared the responses to predator attacks simulated by flying a hawk model over a dyad of birds on a feeder for dyads composed of an alpha bird and either a relative or a nonrelative. Alpha females were nepotistic in their alarm-calling behaviour, in that they called more frequently when accompanied by their retained offspring than by unrelated immigrants, but alpha males called indiscriminately. This difference in alarm calling could reflect dominance relationships in Siberian jay groups, because the presence of immigrants may be less costly to alpha males, but alpha females are more vulnerable to competition from immigrants. Alarm calls were usually given during escape, when both individuals in the dyad had left the feeding site. However, results of a playback experiment suggest that alarm calls conveyed information about danger and incited an immediate escape reaction. Our results indicate that alarm calling can be nepotistic, and that factors other than kinship influence alarm-calling behaviour. Nepotistic antipredator behaviours are benefits that offspring can gain only in their natal territory. Hence, in the absence of preferential treatment by their parents, offspring may be more likely to disperse and kin groups are prevented from forming.

  • 9.
    Hemborg, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Reproductive investment and moult-breeding overlap in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis: an experimental approach1999In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We manipulated brood sizes of 132 pairs of the collared flycatcher to investigate whether or not an investment in reproduction was traded against an investment and timing of the post-nuptial moult. Our manipulations did not affect the probability of moult-breeding overlap in males, and there was no effect on their moult scores at fledging time of the young. Males and young birds initiated moult earlier than females and old birds, respectively. Very few females started moulting during the period of nestling care. Reproductive success in terms of recruitment rate of fledglings was independent of parental moult stage during reproduction, which indicates that the manipulation did not induce a trade-off between moult and post-fledging care. Furthermore, the survival probability of adults was independent of brood size manipulations and their moult stage at fledging time. Thus, our brood size manipulations showed no evidence for a trade-off between reproductive and moult investments in the collared flycatcher.

  • 10. Hoffmann, AA
    et al.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Heritable variation and evolution under favourable and unfavourable conditions1999In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 96-101Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variability in quantitative traits can change as a direct response to the environmental conditions in which they are expressed. Consequently, similar selection in different environments might not be equally effective in leading to adaptation. Several hypotheses, including recent ones that focus on the historical impact of selection on populations, predict that the expression of genetic variation will increase in unfavourable conditions. However, other hypotheses lead to the opposite prediction. Although a consensus is unlikely, recent Drosophila and bird studies suggest consistent trends for morphological traits under particular conditions.

  • 11.
    Höglund, Jacob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Wang, Biao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Axelsson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Quintela, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Phylogeography of willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) in the Arctic: taxonomic discordance as inferred from molecular data2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 77-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using independently segregating nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial control region sequences, we found an east-west division among sampled willow grouse Lagopus lagopus subspecies. This division cut across the range of the subspecies with the largest distribution (lagopus) and thus contradicted existing taxonomic classifications. Russian Lagopus lagopus lagopus tended to cluster with North American willow grouse partly classified as other subspecies. Scandinavian willow grouse (L.l. lagopus) clustered with red grouse from Britain and Ireland (Lagopus lagopus scoticus and Lagopus lagopus hibernicus) but substructuring confirmed the monophyly of the latter. In North America, we could not detect any major genetic divisions apart from two birds described as alexandrae from the Heceta Island (Alaska) when using mitochondrial sequences. Other samples from North America were intermingled regardless of whether they were described as muriei, alexandrae or lagopus. A specimen described as alexandrae was to some extent distinct when analysing the SNP data. The genetic analyses indicated some concordance between genetics and taxonomy but not complete congruence. This is particularly evident for mitochondrial DNA network analyses. We suggest that the taxonomy of this species would benefit by a careful re-examination of the available evidence for subspecies. It appears as if subspecies status is a poor proxy for assigning evolutionary significant units and management units in this species.

  • 12. Kaar, P
    et al.
    Jokela, J
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Helle, T
    Kojola, I
    Sexual conflict and remarriage in preindustrial human populations: Causes and fitness consequences1998In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual conflict is said to occur when one mating partner has an opportunity to increase its fitness at the cost of the other. We analyzed the effect of remarriage on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in three preindustrial (1700–1900) socially monogamous Sami populations. In all populations, ever-married women’s age-specific mortality rates exceeded those of ever-married men during reproductive years. After the death of a spouse, men had a higher probability of remarriage than did women of the same age. Remarried men had a higher LRS than men who married only once, but this was not true for women. The higher LRS of the twice-married men was probably due to their longer (+5 years; p < .05) reproductive lifespan (RLS) as compared to once-married men. There was no difference in the RLS of women who married once or twice. These results suggest the sexual conflict in these populations was won by men because women paid a higher cost from reproduction (i.e., reduced survival), and men were able to remarry more often than women, thereby realizing more of their higher reproductive potential. Consequently, serial monogamy seem to have been an important male reproductive strategy in these historical populations.

  • 13.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Jönsson, J. Ingemar
    Söderman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann’s rule?2005In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 717-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Does intraspecific extension of Bergmanns rule – larger size within a species incooler areas – hold true for ectotherms in general, and for the common frog (Rana temporaria)in particular? What is the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. directenvironmental induction) in determining latitudinal patterns of body size variation in commonfrogs?Methods: We tested for a positive association between mean body size and latitude incommon frogs (Rana temporaria) across a 1600 km long latitudinal gradient in Scandinaviaboth for wild-collected adults and laboratory-reared metamorphs.Results: In adults, the mean body size increased from south to mid-latitudes, and declinedthereafter. This occurred despite the fact that the mean age of adult frogs increased withincreasing latitude, and age and body size were positively correlated. The latitudinal pattern ofbody size variation in metamorphs reared in a common garden experiment was similar to thatobserved among wild-caught adults.Conclusions: The results suggest that the concave pattern of body size variation across thelatitudinal cline may be at least partly genetically determined, and that although there isconsiderable geographic variation in mean body size of R. temporaria, this variation does notconform with Bergmann’s rule.

  • 14.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Latitudinal and temperature-dependent variation in embryonic development and growth in Rana temporaria2003In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 135, no 4, p. 548-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in seasonal time constraints and temperature along latitudinal gradients are expected to select for life history trait differentiation, but information about the relative importance of these factors in shaping patterns of divergence in embryonic traits remains sparse. We studied embryonic survival, growth and development rates in the common frog (Rana temporaria) along a 1,400-km latitudinal gradient across Sweden by raising embryos from four populations in the laboratory at seven temperatures (9 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 27 degrees C). We found significant differences in mean values of all traits between the populations and temperature treatments, but this variation was not latitudinally ordered. In general, embryonic survival decreased at the two highest temperatures in all populations, but less so in the southernmost as compared to the other populations. The northernmost population developed slowest at the lowest temperature, while the two mid-latitude populations were slowest at the other temperatures. Hatchling size increased with increasing temperature especially in the two northern populations, whereas the two southern populations showed peak hatchling size at 15 degrees C. Analyses of within-population genetic variation with a half-sib design revealed that there was significant additive genetic variation in all traits, and egg size-related maternal effects were important in the case of hatchling size. Overall, our results indicate that unlike larval growth and development, variation in embryonic development and growth in R. temporaria cannot be explained in terms of a latitudinal gradient in season length. While adaptation to a latitudinal variation in temperature might have contributed to the observed differentiation in embryonic performance, the effects of other, perhaps more local environmental factors, seem to have overridden them in importance.

  • 15.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Maternal and genetic contributions to geographical variation in Rana temporaria larval life-history traits2002In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of genetic, environmental, and maternal effects as determinants of geographical variation in vertebrate life-histories has not often been explored. We examined the role of genetic and maternal effects as determinants of population divergence in survival and three important larval life-history traits (growth rate, age, and size at metamorphosis) using reciprocal crosses between two latitudinally separated populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus). Genetic effects were important in all three traits as indicated by the significant effect of male origin, but there was also evidence for nonadditive genetic contributions on metamorphic size and growth rate. Likewise, maternal effect contributions to population divergence were large, partially environment dependent, and apparently acting primarily through egg size in two of three traits. These results suggest that both genetic and maternal effects are important determinants of geographical variation in amphibian life-histories, and that much of the differentiation resulting from maternal effects is mediated through variation in egg size.

  • 16.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Räsänen, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Latitudinal countergradient variation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) developmental rates: evidence for local adaptation2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 996-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive genetic differentiation along a climatic gradient as a response to natural selection is not necessarily expressed at phenotypic level if environmental effects on population mean phenotypes oppose the genotypic effects. This form of cryptic evolution--called countergradient variation--has seldom been explicitly demonstrated for terrestrial vertebrates. We investigated the patterns of phenotypic and genotypic differentiation in developmental rates of common frogs (Rana temporaria) along a ca. 1600 km latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Developmental rates in the field were not latitudinally ordered, but displayed large variation even among different ponds within a given latitudinal area. In contrast, development rates assessed in the laboratory increased strongly and linearly with increasing latitude, suggesting a genetic capacity for faster development in the northern than the southern larvae. Experiments further revealed that environmental effects (temperature and food) could easily override the genetic effects on developmental rates, providing a possible mechanistic explanation as to why the genetic differentiation was not seen in the samples collected from the wild. Our results suggest that the higher developmental rates of the northern larvae are likely to be related to selection stemming from seasonal time constrains, rather than from selection dictated by low ambient temperatures per se. All in all, the results provide a demonstration of environmental effects concealing substantial latitudinally ordered genetic differentiation understandable in terms of adaptation to clinal variation in time constrains.

  • 17.
    Laugen, Ane Timenes
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Local Adaptation, Countergradient Variation and Ecological Genetics of Life-history Traits in Rana Temporaria2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this work was to identify local adaptation processes in amphibian populations, thereby improving the general understanding of genetics and mechanisms behind the evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. Phenotypic and genetic variation in life-history traits was studied within and between populations common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along a 1600 km transect from southern Sweden to northern Finland.

    Embryonic and larval development and growth was investigated both under field and laboratory conditions. The results suggest ample genetic diversity in larval life-history traits among Fennoscandian common frog populations. Larval developmental rate along the gradient has evolved a countergradient variation pattern of genotypes and phenotypes as indicated by the positive relationship between developmental rate and latitude under laboratory conditions and the lack of such a relationship in the field. The data suggest that this pattern has evolved because of time constraints due to decreasing length of growth season with latitude. Neither field-caught adults nor laboratory raised larvae displayed a linear latitudinal size cline as expected from the so called Bergmanns rule. Rather, size increased towards the mid-latitude populations and decreased thereafter, indicating that body size is a product of direct environmental induction or a trade-off with other life-history characters. Age and size at hatching showed no consistent latitudinal pattern, indicating that the embryonic stage is not as time constrained as the larval stage.

    A large part of the variation in age and size at metamorphosis among populations was due to additive genetic effects. However, small, but significant maternal effects, mostly due to variation in egg size and non-additive genetic effects also contributed to among population variation. A comparison of divergence in presumably neutral molecular genetic markers (FST) and quantitative characters (QST) revealed that although both estimates of divergence were relatively high, estimates of QST was generally higher than those of FST, indicating that the genetic variation observed in larval traits is primarily a result of natural selection rather than genetic drift. Hence, our results reinforce the conclusion that intraspecific genetic heterogeneity in the young northern European ecosystems may be more widespread than previously anticipated

    List of papers
    1. Latitudinal and temperature-dependent variation in embryonic development and growth in Rana temporaria
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitudinal and temperature-dependent variation in embryonic development and growth in Rana temporaria
    2003 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 135, no 4, p. 548-554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in seasonal time constraints and temperature along latitudinal gradients are expected to select for life history trait differentiation, but information about the relative importance of these factors in shaping patterns of divergence in embryonic traits remains sparse. We studied embryonic survival, growth and development rates in the common frog (Rana temporaria) along a 1,400-km latitudinal gradient across Sweden by raising embryos from four populations in the laboratory at seven temperatures (9 degrees C, 12 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 21 degrees C, 24 degrees C, 27 degrees C). We found significant differences in mean values of all traits between the populations and temperature treatments, but this variation was not latitudinally ordered. In general, embryonic survival decreased at the two highest temperatures in all populations, but less so in the southernmost as compared to the other populations. The northernmost population developed slowest at the lowest temperature, while the two mid-latitude populations were slowest at the other temperatures. Hatchling size increased with increasing temperature especially in the two northern populations, whereas the two southern populations showed peak hatchling size at 15 degrees C. Analyses of within-population genetic variation with a half-sib design revealed that there was significant additive genetic variation in all traits, and egg size-related maternal effects were important in the case of hatchling size. Overall, our results indicate that unlike larval growth and development, variation in embryonic development and growth in R. temporaria cannot be explained in terms of a latitudinal gradient in season length. While adaptation to a latitudinal variation in temperature might have contributed to the observed differentiation in embryonic performance, the effects of other, perhaps more local environmental factors, seem to have overridden them in importance.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90158 (URN)10.1007/s00442-003-1229-0 (DOI)16228254 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Latitudinal countergradient variation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) developmental rates: evidence for local adaptation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitudinal countergradient variation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) developmental rates: evidence for local adaptation
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 996-1005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive genetic differentiation along a climatic gradient as a response to natural selection is not necessarily expressed at phenotypic level if environmental effects on population mean phenotypes oppose the genotypic effects. This form of cryptic evolution--called countergradient variation--has seldom been explicitly demonstrated for terrestrial vertebrates. We investigated the patterns of phenotypic and genotypic differentiation in developmental rates of common frogs (Rana temporaria) along a ca. 1600 km latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Developmental rates in the field were not latitudinally ordered, but displayed large variation even among different ponds within a given latitudinal area. In contrast, development rates assessed in the laboratory increased strongly and linearly with increasing latitude, suggesting a genetic capacity for faster development in the northern than the southern larvae. Experiments further revealed that environmental effects (temperature and food) could easily override the genetic effects on developmental rates, providing a possible mechanistic explanation as to why the genetic differentiation was not seen in the samples collected from the wild. Our results suggest that the higher developmental rates of the northern larvae are likely to be related to selection stemming from seasonal time constrains, rather than from selection dictated by low ambient temperatures per se. All in all, the results provide a demonstration of environmental effects concealing substantial latitudinally ordered genetic differentiation understandable in terms of adaptation to clinal variation in time constrains.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90159 (URN)10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00560.x (DOI)14635915 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann’s rule?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do common frogs (Rana temporaria) follow Bergmann’s rule?
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 717-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Does intraspecific extension of Bergmanns rule – larger size within a species incooler areas – hold true for ectotherms in general, and for the common frog (Rana temporaria)in particular? What is the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. directenvironmental induction) in determining latitudinal patterns of body size variation in commonfrogs?Methods: We tested for a positive association between mean body size and latitude incommon frogs (Rana temporaria) across a 1600 km long latitudinal gradient in Scandinaviaboth for wild-collected adults and laboratory-reared metamorphs.Results: In adults, the mean body size increased from south to mid-latitudes, and declinedthereafter. This occurred despite the fact that the mean age of adult frogs increased withincreasing latitude, and age and body size were positively correlated. The latitudinal pattern ofbody size variation in metamorphs reared in a common garden experiment was similar to thatobserved among wild-caught adults.Conclusions: The results suggest that the concave pattern of body size variation across thelatitudinal cline may be at least partly genetically determined, and that although there isconsiderable geographic variation in mean body size of R. temporaria, this variation does notconform with Bergmann’s rule.

    Keywords
    age, amphibians, body size, cline, growth, latitude, temperature
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90160 (URN)
    Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Maternal and genetic contributions to geographical variation in Rana temporaria larval life-history traits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal and genetic contributions to geographical variation in Rana temporaria larval life-history traits
    2002 (English)In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relative importance of genetic, environmental, and maternal effects as determinants of geographical variation in vertebrate life-histories has not often been explored. We examined the role of genetic and maternal effects as determinants of population divergence in survival and three important larval life-history traits (growth rate, age, and size at metamorphosis) using reciprocal crosses between two latitudinally separated populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus). Genetic effects were important in all three traits as indicated by the significant effect of male origin, but there was also evidence for nonadditive genetic contributions on metamorphic size and growth rate. Likewise, maternal effect contributions to population divergence were large, partially environment dependent, and apparently acting primarily through egg size in two of three traits. These results suggest that both genetic and maternal effects are important determinants of geographical variation in amphibian life-histories, and that much of the differentiation resulting from maternal effects is mediated through variation in egg size.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90161 (URN)10.1111/j.1095-8312.2002.tb01714.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Latitudinal divergence of common frog (Rana temporaria) life-history traits by natural selection: evidence for a comparison of molecular and quantitative genetic data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latitudinal divergence of common frog (Rana temporaria) life-history traits by natural selection: evidence for a comparison of molecular and quantitative genetic data
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1963-1978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relative roles of natural selection and direct environmental induction, as well as of natural selection and genetic drift, in creating clinal latitudinal variation in quantitative traits have seldom been assessed in vertebrates. To address these issues, we compared molecular and quantitative genetic differentiation between six common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along an approximately 1600 km long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. The degree of population differentiation (QST approximately 0.81) in three heritable quantitative traits (age and size at metamorphosis, growth rate) exceeded that in eight (neutral) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.24). Isolation by distance was clear for both neutral markers and quantitative traits, but considerably stronger for one of the three quantitative traits than for neutral markers. QST estimates obtained using animals subjected to different rearing conditions (temperature and food treatments) revealed some environmental dependency in patterns of population divergence in quantitative traits, but in general, these effects were weak in comparison to overall patterns. Pairwise comparisons of FST and QST estimates across populations and treatments revealed that the degree of quantitative trait differentiation was not generally predictable from knowledge of that in molecular markers. In fact, both positive and negative correlations were observed depending on conditions where the quantitative genetic variability had been measured. All in all, the results suggest a very high degree of genetic subdivision both in neutral marker genes and genes coding quantitative traits across a relatively recently (< 9000 years) colonized environmental gradient. In particular, they give evidence for natural selection being the primary agent behind the observed latitudinal differentiation in quantitative traits.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90162 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01865.x (DOI)12803645 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2003-03-06 Created: 2003-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Genetic architecture of fitness and nonfitness traits: empirical patterns and development of ideas1999In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative studies of the genetic architecture of different types of traits were initially prompted by the expectation that traits under strong directional selection (fitness traits) should have lower levels of genetic variability than those mainly under weak stabilizing selection (nonfitness traits). Hence, early comparative studies revealing lower heritabilities of fitness than nonfitness traits were first framed in terms of giving empirical support for this prediction, but subsequent treatments have effectively reversed this view. Fitness traits seem to have higher levels of additive genetic variance than nonfitness traits — an observation that has been explained in terms of the larger number loci influencing fitness as compared to nonfitness traits. This hypothesis about the larger functional architecture of fitness than nonfitness traits is supported by their higher mutational variability, which is hard to reconcile without evoking capture of mutational variability over many loci. The lower heritabilities of fitness than nonfitness traits, despite the higher additive genetic variance of the former, occur because of their higher residual variances. Recent comparative studies of dominance contributions for different types of traits, together with theoretical predictions and a large body of indirect evidence, suggest an important role of dominance variance in determining levels of residual variance for fitness-traits. The role of epistasis should not be discounted either, since a large number of loci increases the potential for epistatic interactions, and epistasis is strongly implicated in hybrid breakdown.

  • 19. Palm, Stefan
    et al.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Petersson, Erik
    Prestegaard, Tore
    Ryman, Nils
    Lack of molecular genetic divergence between sea-ranched and wild sea trout (Salmo trutta)2003In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 2057-2071Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Palo, Jukka
    et al.
    O'Hara, Robert B.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Primmer, Craig R
    Merilä, Juha
    Latitudinal divergence of common frog (Rana temporaria) life-history traits by natural selection: evidence for a comparison of molecular and quantitative genetic data2003In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1963-1978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative roles of natural selection and direct environmental induction, as well as of natural selection and genetic drift, in creating clinal latitudinal variation in quantitative traits have seldom been assessed in vertebrates. To address these issues, we compared molecular and quantitative genetic differentiation between six common frog (Rana temporaria) populations along an approximately 1600 km long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. The degree of population differentiation (QST approximately 0.81) in three heritable quantitative traits (age and size at metamorphosis, growth rate) exceeded that in eight (neutral) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.24). Isolation by distance was clear for both neutral markers and quantitative traits, but considerably stronger for one of the three quantitative traits than for neutral markers. QST estimates obtained using animals subjected to different rearing conditions (temperature and food treatments) revealed some environmental dependency in patterns of population divergence in quantitative traits, but in general, these effects were weak in comparison to overall patterns. Pairwise comparisons of FST and QST estimates across populations and treatments revealed that the degree of quantitative trait differentiation was not generally predictable from knowledge of that in molecular markers. In fact, both positive and negative correlations were observed depending on conditions where the quantitative genetic variability had been measured. All in all, the results suggest a very high degree of genetic subdivision both in neutral marker genes and genes coding quantitative traits across a relatively recently (< 9000 years) colonized environmental gradient. In particular, they give evidence for natural selection being the primary agent behind the observed latitudinal differentiation in quantitative traits.

  • 21. Petersson, Erik
    et al.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Järvi, Torbjörn
    Dahl, Jonas
    Survival, morphology and phenotypic plasticity of wild and sea-ranched brown trout stocked as eyed eggs or as 0+ parrManuscript (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Räsänen, Katja
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Evolutionary implications of acidification: a frog’s eye view2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the diversity of life is one of the main aims of evolutionary biology, and requires knowledge of the occurrence and causes of adaptive genetic differentiation among geographically distinct populations. Environmental stress caused by acidity may cause strong directional selection in natural populations, but is little explored from an evolutionary perspective. In this thesis, a series of laboratory experiments and field data was used to study evolutionary and ecological responses of amphibians to environmental acidity.

    Local adaptation to acid stress was studied in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).The results show that acid origin populations have higher acid stress tolerance during the embryonic stages than neutral origin populations, and that acid and neutral origin populations have diverged in embryonic and larval life-histories. The mechanisms underlying adaptive differentiation are partially mediated by maternal effects related to extra-embryonic membranes and egg size. Acid origin females invest in larger eggs and have a stronger egg size-fecundity trade-off than females from neutral areas, likely reflecting adaptive differentiation in maternal investment patterns.

    Potential carry-over effects of low pH, and the effects of UV-b/pH interaction were investigated in the common frog (R. temporaria). The results suggest that amphibian larvae are able to compensate for the negative effects of acidity experienced early in life, if conditions later turn beneficial. R. temporaria populations differed in their sensitivity to synergistic effects of low pH/UV-B, indicating variation in population responses to environmental stress.

    In conclusion, these results suggest rapid evolution in response to human induced environmental change, much of which may be mediated via adaptive maternal effects. Acidification may be a powerful selective force shaping life-history evolution.

  • 23.
    Shorey, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Genetic Structuring and the Evolution of Lekking Behaviour in the White-bearded Manakin, Manacus manacus2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic structuring is common in natural populations. It is important to identify and consider population structure when studying evolutionary processes. Recently, the discovery of genetic structuring in some lekking bird species has opened up new perspectives on our understanding of the evolution of lek mating systems.

    This thesis uses molecular data to identify patterns of broad and fine scale genetic structuring in the lekking white-bearded manakin Manacus manacus. Additionally, data on male mating success, female visiting patterns and behavioural, morphological and territorial characteristics of individual males are used to identify variables that may influence the distribution of matings in this species.

    Analysis of genetic divergence within the genus Manacus revealed genetic sub-structuring and limited gene flow between species/subspecies. There was no significant isolation by distance relationship. Factors such as physical barriers to gene flow may play a role in shaping the genetic structure of the bearded manakin genus.

    White-bearded manakin leks on Trinidad were composed of groups of related males. More than one such kin group existed on each lek. That related males gather in groups suggests that genetic structuring is not simply a consequence of limited dispersal. Active choices must take place by both residential and newly arrived birds.

    Female visits to, and matings with, males were non-random. Centrality of male display court was the only measured variable that consistently correlated with male mating success. More aggressive displays were made as the distance between courts decreased. There was no significant relationship between the number of aggressive displays made between males and relatedness levels. Males with high mating success spent more time in aggressive behaviours.

    In conclusion, white-bearded manakin lek formation and display court acquisition is likely to be influenced by genetic relatedness levels and male-male interactions. Centrality of court seemed important in mating success and may be an indicator of male dominance. However, a variety of other factors may also influence mating success and may be variable over time.

  • 24.
    Wang, Biao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Ekblom, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Castoe, Todd A.
    Jones, Eleanor P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Kozma, Radoslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Pollock, David D.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Transcriptome sequencing of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) for immune gene discovery and microsatellite development2012In: Open Biology, ISSN 2046-2441, E-ISSN 2046-2441, Vol. 2, p. 120054-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a galliform bird species that is important forboth ecological studies and conservation genetics. Here, we report the sequencing of the spleen transcriptome of black grouse using 454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing. We performed a large-scale gene discovery analysis with a focus on genes that might be related to fitness in this species and also identified a large set of microsatellites. In total, we obtained 182 179 quality-filtered sequencing reads that we assembled into 9035 contigs. Using these contigs and 15 794 length-filtered (greater than 200 bp) singletons, we identified 7762 transcripts that appear to be homologues of chicken genes. A specific BLAST search with an emphasis on immune genes found 308 homologous chicken genes that have immune function, including ten major histocompatibility complex-related genes located on chicken chromosome 16. We also identified 1300 expressed sequence tag microsatellites and were able to design suitable flanking primers for 526 of these. A preliminary test of the polymorphism of the microsatellites found 10 polymorphic microsatellites of the 102 tested. Genomic resources generated in this study should greatly benefit future ecological, evolutionary and conservation genetic studies on this species.

1 - 24 of 24
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