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  • 1.
    Armstrong, Chelsey
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Shoemaker, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    McKechnie, Iain
    Department of Anthropology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Hakai Institute, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Lane, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa .
    McAlvay, Alex C.
    Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America .
    Boles, Oliver
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Walshaw, Sarah
    Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada .
    Petek, Nik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gibbons, Kevin
    Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.
    Quintana Morales, Erendira
    Department of Anthropology, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America .
    Anderson, Eugene
    Department of Anthropology, University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America .
    Ibragimow, Aleksandra
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Podruczny, Grzegorz
    Adams Mickiewicz Univ, Polish German Res Inst, Poznan, Poland.; European Univ, Viadrina, Germany.
    Vamosi, Jana
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada .
    Marks-Block, Tony
    Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    LeCompte, Joyce
    Independent Scholar, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
    Awâsis, Sākihitowin
    Department of Geography, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, Atlohsa Native Family Healing Services, Canada, London, Ontario, Canada .
    Nabess, Carly
    Department of Anthropology, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America; Integrated History of Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) Initiative, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, e0171883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

  • 2.
    Badenhorst, Shaw
    et al.
    Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Faunal remains from Chibuene, an Iron Age coastal trading station in central Mozambique2011In: Southern African Humanities, ISSN 1681-5564, Vol. 23, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the small faunal assemblage from the Iron Age coastal trading station of Chibuene, situated on the coastal littoral of central Mozambique. The faunal assemblage was excavated in 1995 and contains bones from a variety of animals, including livestock, chickens, wild game animals, as well as aquatic species such as turtles and fish. Fish, turtle and shark remains dominate the assemblage. The fauna from the first and second millennium AD occupations share similarities with other contemporaneous sites to the north on the East African coast, rather than with sites located in South Africa.

  • 3.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: Sources of resilience forlong-term food security in cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, 224-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security fromhistoric and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established amodernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship.Drawing on two case studies fromwidely different historical and cultural contexts – the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople – this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social–ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue–green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not “the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Jonas
    et al.
    UV, Riksantikvarieämbetet.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Heimdahl, Jens
    UV, Riksantikvariämbetet.
    Makrofossilanalys och stratigrafibedömning.:  Bilaga 6 s.225-2302011Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Blundell, Geoffrey
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Nqabayo’s Nomansland: San Rock Art and the Somatic Past2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The most significant challenge facing modern southern African rock art research is the integration of rock paint­ings into the construction of San history. This challenge is made all the more difficult because of poor chronologi­cal control over the images. In the absence of reliable dating techniques, the challenge to interdigitate image and history becomes a profoundly theoretical one. Drawing on theoretical studies of body and embodiment, this work takes up the challenge of incorporating rock paintings into the production of the past.

    Primarily concerned with a small area, previously known as Nomansland, in the south-eastern mountains of South Africa, the work uses embodiment as a tool for extending present interpretations of the art before moving on to arguing that a focus on body allows us to detect change in certain images in Nomansland. Finally, embodiment is used to re-evaluate present understandings of the social consumption of the paintings.

    In using embodiment to investigate issues of meaning, change and the production and consumption of San rock art, it becomes clear that this theoretical concept offers a way of incorporating rock paintings into the writing of San history in Nomansland. This work, then, contributes to the broader field of southern African San historiog­raphy, where the question of San interaction with other peoples is sometimes treated too simply and in a manner that is not consistent with broader postcolonial writing.

  • 6.
    Bouasisengpaseuth, Bounheuang
    et al.
    Lao National Museum, MInistry of Information and Culture, Vientiane, Laos.
    Karlström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Källén, Anna
    Stockholm University, Department of Archaeology.
    Lao Pako Project Survey 20002000Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Costanza, Robert
    et al.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    Hibbard, Kathy
    Aulenbach, Steve
    Brewer, Simon
    Burek, Michael
    Cornell, Sarah
    Crumley, Carole
    Dearing, John
    Folke, Carl
    Graumlich, Lisa
    Hegmon, Michelle
    Heckbert, Scott
    Jackson, Stephen T.
    Kubiszewski, Ida
    Scarborough, Vernon
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Sorlin, Sverker
    Steffen, Will
    Developing an Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE)2012In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, Vol. 4, no 1, 106-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated History and future of People on Earth (IHOPE) initiative is a global network of researchers and research projects with its International Program Office (IPO) now based at the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC), Uppsala University, Arizona State University, Portland State University, and the Australian National University. Research linked to IHOPE demonstrates that Earth system changes in the past have been strongly associated with changes in the coupled human-environment system. IHOPE supports integrating knowledge and resources from the biophysical and the social sciences and the humanities to address analytical and interpretive issues associated with coupled human-earth system dynamics. This integration of human history and Earth system history is a timely and important task. Until recently, however, there have been few attempts at such integration. IHOPE will create frameworks that can be used to help achieve this integration. The overarching goal is to produce a rich understanding of the relationships between environmental and human processes over the past millennia. HOPE recognizes that one major challenge for reaching this goal is developing 'workable' terminology that can be accepted by scholars of all disciplines. The specific objectives for IHOPE are to identify slow and rapidly moving features of complex social-ecological systems, on local to continental spatial scales, which induce resilience, stress, or collapse in linked systems of humans in nature. These objectives will be reached by exploring innovative ways of conducting interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science, including theory, case studies, and integrated modeling. Examples of projects underway to implement this initiative are briefly discussed.

  • 8.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    A cattle Country2015In: Seminar, Vol. september, no 673Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeology, Historical Sciences, and Environmental Conservation2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology / [ed] Christian Isendahl and Daryl Stump, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conservation has long been orientated towards reconstructing or conserving ‘naturalness’. The historical sciences in combination with new ecological thinking have taught us that landscapes are constantly in flux. We now know that many landscapes that previously were regarded as natural in fact have been shaped and reshaped by people over millennia, and that human disturbance of different kinds may enhance landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity. This chapter presents cases from different parts of Africa that demonstrate how archaeology, palaeoecology, and historical analysis have contributed to reform the traditional outlook of environmental conservation and revise misconstrued landscape histories. It shows that historical studies can offer insights that contribute a better understanding of species conservation, ecosystem function, prediction of ecosystem behaviour, and sound management of cultural landscapes. The long-term historical continuities in the landscape raise awareness of the importance of traditional practices and their benefits for environmental conservation.

  • 10.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Changing Landscapes: An Environmental History of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the dynamics of environmental change and its embeddedness in the long term interactions of social history and rainfall variability through the building of an environmental history of the Chibuene locality, the coastal plain of southern Mozambique, 5 km south of the town Vilanculos, from 400 AD to present day. Land-use practices over time are discussed on the basis of vegetation and land-use history based pollen analysis, charcoal influx and diatom analysis. It is shown that the savanna vegetation is a long term feature of the Chibuene landscapes and that there have been several expansions of savannas and subsequent retractions of forests through time, linked primarily with rainfall variation. Written sources and archaeological material are drawn upon for a discussion on changing practices of environmental management and it is argued that as the Chibuene landscape is marked by a high degree of environmental insecurity, it is the competent management of resources that has enabled the continuous occupation of Chibuene from c. the 7th century AD, through management of natural resources, flexible farming practices and wide reaching social networks. The last two decades have seen a marked change in land-use patterns, reflected in a decrease in forests of the Chibuene area, the reasons for which are complex and needs to be further studied. Interviews with individual elders in the village community provide alternative ways of understanding environmental degradation as merely the loss of disappearance of forests, or the failure of crops due to droughts, but also as the erosion of local power, wars and social unrest. In a similar way, through a long-term perspective this study stresses that socio-political life, climatic variability and environmental dynamics are interlinked, highlighting the importance of the complimentarity of different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing the Chibuene landscape.

  • 11.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Forest-savanna dynamics in the coastal lowland of southern Mozambique since 400 AD2008In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 18, 1247-1257 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coastal lowlands of Mozambique, an expansion of savannas at the cost of forests has been attributed to anthropogenic influence. There are few investigations that have studied vegetation dynamics over the long term. Pollen analysis from two sedimentary cores in the Chibuene area, 7 km south of Vilanculos presented in this paper show that the coastal area 1600 years ago consisted of a mosaic of forests, Miombo woodlands and grasslands. The data also show that the area supported extensive forests in the past until AD 1400–1600 when the forests declined dramatically. Changing settlement patterns, as suggested from archaeological excavations, cannot be correlated with the forest decline and the charcoal abundance, in the sedimentary cores does not suggest an intensification of farming. Instead the decline of forests appears to be temporally correlated with a prolonged period of repeated dry spells associated with the ‘Little Ice Age’, which caused a shift in vegetation whereby typical forest species as Trema, Celtis and Moraceae were outcompeted on account of the droughts. This study challenges rooted assumptions about the cause of decline of forests in the coastal region. It also suggests that the forest fragments present on the Mozambique coast today are naturally subject to threat from climatic stress and as such are highly sensitive areas to future climate change.

  • 12.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Livelihood Security, Vulnerability and Resilience: A Historical Analysis of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 41, no 5, 479-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.

  • 13.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development.
    Miljöhistoria och dess frestelser2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental history is a wide field that encompasses many of our traditional disciplines. This paper gives a short introduction and historical overview over the different directions that environmental history as a field entails. It also gives a brief introduction to the Philosophy of History. The historical overview is based on the categories: Natural History, History of ideas, Traditional Environmental History, Historical Ecology and what I refer to here as ‘Postcolonial Environmental History’  – a direction that is yet to develop. In the second part of the paper, specific problems or ‘temptations’ related to environmental history are raised. The aim of this paper is to advocate an inclusive and broad environmental history that does not shy away from the complexities of interactions within society, within nature and in the interactions between them.

  • 14.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Samhälle, beslutsfattande och miljö2012In: Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid. / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Michel Notelid, CSD Uppsala och Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2012, 53-62 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har det varit en renässansför synteser över Global miljöhistoria, speciellt synteser i syfte att kommenteradagens hållbarhets-problem. Som en arkeolog delar jag detta intresse förhistoria. Men problemet är att miljöhistoria i mitt tycke sällan tar upp just de frågor som är relevanta idag. Berättelserna om ekologiska självmord,miljöförstöring och kollaps av samhällen på grund av klimatförändringar är visserligenbra historier. De ger oss, som Cronon (1992) skulle säga, moraliska pekpinnarochde kan övertyga oss om att vi behöver förändra vårt samhälle. Men de kommerinte att hjälpa oss att förstå hur förändringen ska gå till. Om vi är överensom att samhälleligaomställningar är nödvändiga för att möta de utmaningar somen mer hållbar framtid innebär, ja då måste vi ha verktyg för att forma dessa omställningar. Vi behöver veta vilka omställningar som är mer hållbara än andra och  vi måste vara tydliga med vad vi vill att dessa omställningar ska leda till.. Historien kan hjälpa oss här, eftersom en rad olika lösningar redan har testats och utvärderats i det förflutna. Men för att förstå och utvärdera dessa lösningar måste vi intressera oss för detspecifika och det komplexa samhälleliga samspelet mellan individer, normer, och politiska och sociala system (se texterna i denna bok; Balée 2006; Crumley2007; Costanza et al. 2007; Chakrabarty 2009). Vi måste bättre förstå vilka de faktorerär som tenderar att driva omställningar i samhället: är det starka individer, kollektiva krav, statlig kontroll, innovation, resiliens, långsamma gradvisa övergångareller revolutionära förändringar, tryck från miljö eller klimat ellerekonomiska, sociala krafter eller en kombination? – listan skulle kunna varal ängre. Här kommer jag att hävda vikten av att ta dess frågor på allvar genom att lyfta fram några utvalda exempel från det förflutna och nutid och jag kommer strukturera texten på basis av ett antal påståenden om relationen mellan samhälle och miljö

  • 15.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Eichhorn, Barbara
    Institut für Archäologische Wissenschaften, Archäologie und Archäobotanik Afrikas, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität.
    Sinclair, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Badenhorst, Shaw
    Department of Archaeozoology, Transvaal Museum, Department of anthropology and Archaeology, University of South Africa.
    Berger, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Land use history and resource utilisation from A.D. 400to the present, at Chibuene, southern Mozambique2014In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, no 1, 15-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses changing patterns of resource utilisation over time in the locality of Chibuene, Vilankulos, situated on the coastal plain of southern Mozambique. The macroscopic charcoal, bone and shellassemblages from archaeological excavations are presented and discussed against the off-site palaeoecological records from pollen, fungal spores and microscopic charcoal. The Chibuene landscape has experienced four phases of land use and resource utilisation that have interacted with changes in the environment. Phase 1 (A.D. 400–900), forest savanna mosaic, low intensity cattle herding and cultivation, trade of resources for domestic use. Phase 2 (A.D. 900–1400), forest savanna mosaic, high intensity/extensive cultivation and cattle herding. Phase 3 (A.D. 1400–1800), savanna woodland and progressive decrease in forests owing to droughts. Decline of agricultural activities and higher reliance on marine resources. Possible trade of resources with the interior. Phase 4 (A.D. 1800–1900), open savanna with few forest patches. Warfare and social unrest. Collapse of trade with the interior. Decline in marine resources and wildlife. Loss of cattle herds. Expansion of agriculture locally and introduction of New World crops and clearing of Brachystegia trees. The study shows the importance of combining different environmental resources for elucidating how land use and natural variability have changed over time.

  • 16.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dung fungi as indicators of past herbivore abundance, Kruger and Limpopo National Park2010In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 296, no 1-2, 14-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective wildlife management needs historical data on herbivore abundance and its interactions with vegetation, climate and disturbance over longer time periods than is available through observational and archive data. Spores specific to herbivore dung provide a potential source of information on past herbivore abundances. This paper sets out to evaluate the potential of fungal spores as environmental indicators and in particular the use of coprophilous fungi in understanding past herbivore densities and their impact on the savanna landscape of Kruger and Limpopo National Parks (South Africa and Mozambique). Spore assemblages from six sedimentary cores are analysed and compared with the pollen data. Spores of coprophilous fungi, Coniochaeta cf ligniaria, and Sordariaceae in particular provide a valuable source of information about past herbivore densities.  The spore assemblages of investigated localities show historical fluctuations in herbivore abundance. Peaks in wild/domestic herbivore densities can be seen, on a local scale from 800– 900 AD and another at 1400 AD, however, these cannot be linked with any significant changes in vegetation. The last 200-300 years have seen an increased abundance of herbivores in the Limpopo floodplain sites, particularly domestic cattle. There is no clear correspondence between changes in herbivore abundance and local vegetation in this period or the 20th century. However, domestic cattle, together with wild herbivores, probably contributed to creating a mosaic type of landscape with heterogeneous tree cover.

  • 17.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Fire history and fire ecology of Northern Kruger (KNP) and Limpopo National Park (PNL), southern Africa2010In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 20, no 7, 1063-1077 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the general correlations between fire and grass/tree relationships, as represented by fossil charcoal and pollen, from different vegetation types in the savanna ecosystems of the neighbouring Kruger (KNP) and Limpopo (PNL) national parks. Our analysis suggests that the basic presumption that fire is a main driver of vegetation dynamics in the savanna ecosystem by suppressing tree seedlings and encouraging grasses needs to be re-examined. An improved approach is to understand how fire may act both as a negative and positive feedback in different vegetational phases and both as a driver and responder in transitions between phases. The correlation between arboreal pollen (AP) percentages and charcoal influx suggests that in the grassland phase (< 5% AP), fire acts as a driver of woody recruitment and as a positive feedback, i.e. potentially driving the system to shift into a savanna phase. In the savanna phase (5–10% AP) fire limits woody recruitment and acts as a negative feedback in maintaining the savanna. Thus, in the savanna phase other factors than fire alone drive the transition from savanna to woodland-forest. In the riparian phase, where evidence of farming is present particularly from ad 1600 onwards, fire appears to facilitate tree recruitment where AP ranges between c. 10 and 20% AP. Though a decline in AP abundance can be seen contemporaneously with charcoal peaks, our analysis suggests that overall, human-induced fires do not seem to have a negative impact on woody cover. Our results have implications for fire management as riparian-dominated phases and savannas with a sufficient woody cover are less sensitive to changes in fire policies than open grasslands that may, with a change in fire frequency, change into another state.

  • 18.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    University of Cape Town.
    Hierarchy and scale: testing the long term role of water, grazing and nitrogen in the savanna landscape of Limpopo National Park (Mozambique)2010In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 25, no 10, 1529-1546 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares vegetation dynamics at two sites in the savanna landscape of Limpopo National Park (PNL), Mozambique. In order to test the relationship between vegetation cover and hydrology, nutrient availability and disturbance from grazing and fire over the last 1,200 years at local (100 m2) scales, we use palaeoecological data (i.e. pollen assemblages, charcoal abundance, C/N ratio, stable isotopes and herbivore-associated spore abundance). Two pans governed by similar rainfall regimes (on average 600 mm/year) but different hydrologies are compared. Chixuludzi Pan is responsive to the Limpopo River and is more water rich than Radio Pan, which is situated in a dry landscape with little surface water. The analysis suggests that in savannas where water is scarce, the recruitment of woody taxa is constrained mainly by the availability of underground water. In the Radio Pan sequence, the present grassland savanna has been stable throughout the time studied. In contrast, the Chixuludzi Pan savanna landscape where local hydrology, due to the proximity of Limpopo River, allows for a higher water availability the relationship between grass-arboreal pollen suggests a greater variability in vegetation cover, and other factors such as grazing, herbivory and nitrogen availability are important as controlling mechanisms for woody cover. The historical depth of the analysis enables a sub-hierarchy of local scale process to be identified, in this case local hydrology. Local water availability is shown to override the effect of regional rainfall and, in turn, to control the influence of other local scale factors such as nutrients and grazing.

  • 19.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    A Historical Ecology of the Limpopo and Kruger National Parks and Lower Limpopo Valley2011In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History, ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 1, no 1, 1-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper uses new palaeo-ecological data and a selective review of archaeological and written sources to show how social and natural history over the last 1200 years have interacted to form the present day landscape of Limpopo National Park and Northern Kruger National Park. The long-term mosaic of different communities in this landscape, hunter and gatherers, pastoralists, farmers and traders has, over time, contributed to shape and reshape a heterogeneous landscape. While some features in this landscape, such as water scarcity, have remained stable over time, there have also been major transformations in both the physical landscape and social life. The natural mosaics have been utilised and enhanced over time and the combination of natural and cultural mosaics are reflected in the landscape through archaeological sites, the pollen record and in the present day landscape.

  • 20.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Water flow, ecological dynamics,and management in the lowerLimpopo Valley: a long-term view2017In: WIREs Water, ISSN 0935-879X, E-ISSN 2049-1948, 1-13 p., e1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we review long-term (millennial

    –decadal scale) river-flow

    changes, climate interactions, and interlinkage with vegetation dynamics, as well

    as society and policy, focusing on the lower Limpopo Valley (from the

    South African border through Mozambique). Drawing on paleoecological data,

    we address the valley

    ’s potential for defining critical ecological thresholds and

    managing an adaptive ecological landscape, by focusing on the dynamic relationship

    between different drivers (

    fire, hydrology, and grass/tree relationships). We

    brie

    fly review the long-term interactions between water flow, climate variability,

    and society using archeological records and written sources. Lastly, we analyze

    the social and political context of water management, focusing on the last

    100 years and transboundary water management. We also discuss planning and

    mitigation in relation to climate change and rainfall extremes that are projected

    to increase. It is stressed that forward-thinking policies must heed long-term climate

    variability, hydrology and biological and social impact and to plan and mitigate

    for environmental events. The discussion also brings to the fore the

    importance of an adaptable and equitable strategy in cross-border water sharing.

  • 21.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany department, University of Cape Town.
    Risberg, Jan
    Bert Bolin Centre for Climate research, Stockholm University.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Bert Bolin Centre for Climate research, Stockholm University.
    Chidoub, Zara
    Rainfall variability and vegetation dynamics of the lower Limpopo Valley, Southern Africa, 500 AD to present2012In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 363, 69-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long‐term responses of vegetation to climate variability are of relevance for predicting present and future vegetation change, and have implications for the management of savanna and riparian ecosystems. This paper explores the links between regional rainfall, hydrology and vegetation dynamics in the savannas and riverine forests of the lower Limpopo Valley, southern Africa, from 800 AD to the present, reviewing palaeoecological data (fossil pollen, spores, diatoms and lithology) from several hydrological systems in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa and Limpopo National Park (PNL), Mozambique. The PNL–KNP records show that riverine arboreal taxa expanded during wetter periods, including 800–1400 AD and after 1800 AD. Between 1400 and 1800 AD, grasses, savanna taxa and generalist taxa were favored over riparian taxa, a change that is linked with the onset of dry spells in the region (corresponding to the so-called Little Ice Age). The most extreme drought events around 1700 AD resulted in a marked decline of riparian forest taxa near Lake Mapimbi, KNP. In contrast, many water-scarce sequences away from the riverine environment, such as Radio Pan, Mafayeni Pan, Malahlapanga Pan and Lake Makwadzi show stable grassland vegetation throughout the last 1200 years. The results demonstrate the resilience of the grassland–savanna ecosystems to projected climate change with warmer and overall drier climate. The riverine forests are predicted to be more vulnerable especially as more extreme weather events are projected.

  • 22.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Lagerstedt, Anna
    Arkeologikonsult.
    Att hitta till stallet, en gård från förromersk järnålder i Falltorp.2007In: Arkeologi E18. Från Bergslagsbygd till Bondebygd 2007, 66-77 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    A White Man’s Bush?: A Comparison of Socio-Politics in the Creation of Kruger and Limpopo National Parks2010In: Politicized Nature: Global Exchange, Resources and Power / [ed] Eva Friman & Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández, Uppsala: Centre for Environment and Development Studies, (Cemus) , 2010, 93-117 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Arkadien2013In: Institutionens historier: En vänbok till Gullög Nordquist / [ed] Weiberg, Erica, Carlsson, Susanne, Ekroth, Gunnel, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2013, 3-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Få landskap har ett sådant symbolvärde som det grekiska och särskilt gäller det regionen Arkadien. Det arkadiska landskapet spred välljud, dofter och bilder till barockens, renässansens och romantikens poeter och konstnärer. I herdediktningen, som ju hade sitt ursprung i antikens diktning, blev Arkadien scenen för en hängiven längtan efter pastorala och lantliga idyller. Men vid sidan av det som lite nedsättande (och missvisande) brukar kallas ”bonderomantik” bär bilden av Arkadien också på teman för en historiskt återkommande civilisationskritik. Idag liksom igår är människor ibland oense om hur jorden bäst ska brukas, hur landskap ska formas, omformas och förskönas för att passa människors och till och med gudars behov idag och i morgon. Ekvationen har blivit mycket komplex nu när vi också måste ta ställning till långsiktiga effekter på biologisk mångfald och ekologisk hållbarhet. Rötterna till denna komplexitet kan vi finna i den feta, mjuka, grekiska jorden som redan på Platons tid kunde uppfattas som hotad. Vill vi följa miljöhistoriens hemliga meanderbana bör vi emellertid börja vid en punkt där den antika människan försökte finna sig en plats i ett redan besjälat landskap.

     

  • 25.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, MichelUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid.2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även miljön har en historia och denna historia har stor relevans för hållbarhetsfrågor idag.

     

    Genom att följa ekologiska skeenden och debatter kring miljöfrågor historiskt närmar sig studenter och forskare här frågor kring miljö, ekonomi och social rättvisa.  

     

    Texterna följer företeelser eller olika debatter genom tid både utifrån lokala och globala per-

    spektiv: från Uppsalabornas relation till sopor och vatten och matvanor och sociala roller,

    eller Sundsvalls hantering av industriavfall; till energiförsörjningens ekologiska historia,

    vetets globala miljöhistoria eller konstens roll när det gäller att väcka samhällsdebatt kring

    miljöfrågor.

    Cemus (Centre for Sustainable Development, Uppsala) har sedan lång tid tillbaka haft ett intresse för miljöhistoria som ett sätt att ge perspektiv och uppslag på hållbarhetsfrågor i dag. Boken är ett resultat av Cemus kurs i Global miljöhistoria och innehåller texter från både studenter och föreläsare på kursen.

  • 26.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Natur skövlas i miljöns namn2012In: Uppsala nya tidning, Vol. 22, no JuniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Varför denna bok?2012In: Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, nutid och framtid. / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Michel Notelid, Uppsala: CSD Uppsala och Institution för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2012, 3-8 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna bok är det intresse för miljöhistoria och dess roll i att förklara och förändra de problem vi står inför idag som se­dan lång tid tillbaka har funnits på Cemus (Centrum för miljö och utvecklingstudier, CSD Uppsala). Bokens olika medförfattare har kanske olika syn på miljöhistoriens roll och hur själva miljöproblematiken ska han­teras. Men tanken om att miljöhistoria är ett relevant verktyg för att förklara och förändra är något som förenar bokens författare 

  • 28.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Sillén, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeological surveys in the lower Limpopo valley, Limpopo national park2015In: South African Archaeological Bulletin, ISSN 0038-1969, E-ISSN 2224-4654, Vol. 70, no 202, 201-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of the first archaeological surveys in Limpopo National Park (Parque Nacional do Limpopo - PNL) in Mozambique. We discuss the different categories of sites, their research potential, and the possible relative ages. Sites dating from the Early Stone Age (ESA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) have been identified as farming community settlements from both the first and second millennium AD. PNL is of particular interest when it comes to hunter-gatherer and farmer interactions, as foraging communities were reported in the area until the 1870s, and we raise the potential of further studies to elucidate this interaction.

  • 29.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Witter, Rebecca
    Appalachian State Univ, Dept Sustainable Dev, Boone, NC 28608 USA.
    Negotiating identity and heritage through authorised vernacular history, Limpopo National Park2017In: Journal of social archaeology, ISSN 1469-6053, E-ISSN 1741-2951, Vol. 7, no 1, 49-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we assess vernacular history, traditional authority and the use of heritage places as mediums for negotiating ancestry, identity, territory and belonging based on conversations, interviews and visitations to heritage places together with residents in Limpopo National Park. We explore how particular vernacular histories become dominant village history through the authorisation of traditional leaders and their lineage histories and how traditional leaders use heritage places to mediate narratives. Authorised vernacular histories are narratives about mobility and identity, but they are also localised narratives about ‘home’ in terms of access to resources and heritage places. We discuss how lineage histories and traditional authority are mobilised or questioned in the context of the ongoing displacement of local residents through resettlement programmes and make comparisons with the historical experiences of evictions in the neighbouring Kruger and Gonarezhou National Parks. We emphasise the need for residents to remain connected to and in control of heritage places; otherwise, the linkages between these places, ancestral authority, and present-day authority risk being severed.

  • 30.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Risberg, Jan
    Holmgren, Karin
    Coastal forest and Miombo woodland history of the Vilankulo region, Mozambique2014In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 24, no 3, 284-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present day distribution of Miombo savanna-woodland in Mozambique has been attributed to an expansion due to the clearing of original coastal forests through agriculture and use of fire. Here, we test this hypothesis using palaeoecological data from Lake Nhauhache, situated in the Vilankulo region. Our analysis shows that Brachystegia, one of the main constituents of the Miombo, has varied over time, and its variability seems to be driven by hydrological changes related to climatic variability rather than by land-use changes. The analyses show that Brachystegia was most common during ad 200-700 when a marshy forest/shrub community was dominant. After ad 700, this community changes to a dominance of Syzygium and Fagara linked to gradually rising water levels. Brachystegia remains in low abundance and fluctuating over time. From ad 1000, a general decline in trees/shrubs in favour of grasses concurs with an increase in grass pollen (possibly cereal) and charcoal, most probably as a result of farming activities. The decline in tree taxa was probably exacerbated by periodic droughts after c. ad 1200 as indicated by the diatom assemblage. In the period ad 1700 to late 1800, arboreal pollen is well represented, and this is concurrent with the diatom record suggesting high lake levels.

  • 31.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Stabell, Bjørg
    Department of Geoscience, University of Oslo.
    Paleohydrology of Lake Nhaucati (southern Mozambique),c. 400 AD to present2008In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 40, 1127-1141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the correlations between lake level change, rainfall variability and general atmospheric forcing in southern Africa. The analysis of fossil diatom assemblages in a sediment sequence from the small, rain-fed Lake Nhaucati, southern Mozambique, is presented and discussed in relation to regional palaeoclimate data. The accumulation of organic sediments in Lake Nhaucati began 1,600 years ago when the lake level was rising. Lithology and pollen suggest a low stand at 800 AD, which correlates with other climate proxies from the summer rainfall region of southern Africa. The diatom assemblage suggests that lake levels were high between 900 and 1300 AD, with shorter low stands at c.1100 and 1200 AD. The period after 1400 AD was marked by a slow rate of accumulation and consequently a low temporal resolution. The correlation with other climate proxies in the summer rainfall region, written sources, and pollen data suggests repeated droughts corresponding to the Little Ice Age, though the driest periods may have caused complete desiccation of the lake. Higher lake levels are suggested after 1800 AD, though written sources suggest droughts in the beginning of the twentieth century. The analysis shows a good correlation with palaeoclimate data from the summer rainfall region and confirms the presence of an antiphase relationship between the summer rainfall region of southern Africa and the bi-modal rainfall region of east tropical Africa. It also supports the general hypothesis that variation in the intensity of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone is the main agent modulating rainfall over southern and eastern Africa on centennial timescales.

  • 32.
    Esterhuysen, Amanda
    et al.
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Lane, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeology and education2013In: The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology / [ed] Peter Mitchell & Paul J. Lane, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 239-252 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Forsman, Camilla
    et al.
    Societas archaeologica Upsaliensis.
    Anneli, Ekblom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Sädeskorn i ritualen under äldre bronsåldern i Sommaränge skog2007In: Att nå andra sidan, om begravning och ritual i Uppland. / [ed] Notelid Michel, Uppsala: Societas archaeologica Upsaliensis , 2007, 349-364 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Resilience and Thresholds in Savannas: Nitrogen and Fireas Drivers and Responders of Vegetation Transition2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, 1189-1203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience theory suggests that ecosystems can persist for long periods, before changing rapidly to a new vegetation phase. Transition between phases occurs when ecological thresholds have been crossed, and is followed by a reorganization of biotic and environmental interactions, leading to the emergence of a new vegetation phase or quasistable state. Savannas are dynamic, complex systems in which fire, herbivory, water and nutrient availability interact to determine tree abundance. Phase and transition has been observed in savannas, but the role of these different possible drivers is not always clear. In this study, our objectives were to identify phase and transition in the fossil pollen record, and then to explore the role of nitrogen and fire in these transitions using d15N isotopes and charcoal abundance. We present palaeoenvironmental data from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, which show transition between grassland and savanna phases. Our results show transition at the end of the ninth century A.D. from a nutrient and herbivore-limited grazing lawn, in which fire was absent and C4 grasses were the dominant and competitively superior plant form, to a water-, fire and herbivory-limited semi-arid savanna, in which C4 grasses and C3 trees and shrubs co-existed. The data accord with theoretical frameworks that predict that variability in ecosystems clusters in regions of higher probability space, interspersed by rapid transitions between these phases. The data are also consistent with the idea that phase transitions involve switching between different dominant driving processes or limiting factors.

  • 35.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University of Cape Town.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Untangling anthropogenic and climatic influence on riverineforest in the Kruger National Park, South Africa2009In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 18, no 2, 171-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the interplay between climatic and anthropogenic factors is a major challenge in palaeoecology. In particular, it is often difficult to distinguish anthropogenic and ‘‘natural’’ fire in the charcoal record. In this paper, analysis of fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms and isotopic evidence from Mapimbi, a small lake in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, suggests that for most of the past ca. 700 years, the riverine gallery forests surrounding Mapimbi were primarily influenced by climate, and benefited during warmer, wetter periods. The transitions between four, statistically different phases in the time-series data coincide with regional climate records previously constructed from speleothem data, and are consistent with the transition from the medieval warm period ending in the 14th century A.D. to the cooler, drier conditions prevailing during the little ice age of ca. A.D. 1400–1800. The data also suggest a period of significant, anthropogenic influence after A.D. 1800, when maize was grown and the incidence of localised fires increased. An increase in woody cover in recent decades may be associated with the management of the area by Kruger National Park. A decline in cultivation occurred in the end of the 20th century linked with changes in socio-political organisation.

  • 36.
    Gillson, Lindsey
    et al.
    Plant Conservation Unit, Botany Department, University.
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Willis, Kathy J
    Oxford Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity.
    Froyd, Cynthia
    Oxford Long-Term Ecology Laboratory, Biodiversity.
    Holocene palaeo-invasions: the link between pattern,process and scale in invasion ecology?2008In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 23, no 7, 757-769 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasion ecology has made rapid progress in recent years through synergies with landscape

    ecology, niche theory, evolutionary ecology and the ecology of climate change. The palaeo-record of

    Holocene invasions provides a rich but presently underexploited resource in exploring the pattern and

    process of invasions through time. In this paper, examples from the palaeo-literature are used to illustrate the spread of species through time and space, also revealing how interactions between invader and invaded communities change over the course of an invasion. The main issues addressed are adaptation and plant migration, ecological and evolutionary interactions through time, disturbance history and the landscape ecology of invasive spread. We consider invasions as a continuous variable, which may be influenced by different environmental or ecological variables at different stages of the invasion process, and we use palaeoecological examples to describe how ecological interactions change over the course of an invasion. Finally, the use of palaeoecological information to inform the management of invasions for biodiversity conservation is discussed.

  • 37.
    Graham, Angus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Strutt, Kristian David
    University of Southampton.
    Toonen, Willem H. J.
    Aberystwyth University.
    Pennington, Benjamin Thomas
    University of Southampton.
    Löwenborg, Daniel J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Masson-Berghoff, Aurélia
    British Museum.
    Emery, Virginia Leigh
    American University in Dubai.
    Barker, Dominic S.
    University of Southampton.
    Hunter, Morag Ann
    University of Cambridge.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Johansson, Carolin
    Medelhavsmuseet, Museums of World Culture, Stockholm.
    Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey, 20152016In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, ISSN 0307-5133, Vol. 101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Holmgren, Karin
    et al.
    Risberg, Jan
    Freudendahl, Johan
    Achimo, Mussa
    Ekblom, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Mugabe, Joao
    Norström, Elin
    Sitoe, Sandra
    Water-level variations in Lake Nhauhache, Mozambique, during the last 2,300 years2012In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 48, no 2, 311-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratigraphic variations in diatom composition and phytolith abundance in a sediment core from a small, hydrologically isolated waterbody, Lake Nhauhache, Mozambique, provide evidence of water-level fluctuations over the past 2,300 years. Ten AMS radiocarbon dates on bulk sediment samples show that the lake came into existence about 2,300 years ago and that it has dried out since then, but only for brief time periods. Changes in the diatom assemblage composition indicate that lake level fluctuated in response to shifting humidity conditions. The changes reflect wetter conditions ca. 300 BC-AD 800, more variable conditions between AD 800 and 1150, a distinct dry phase within the time span AD 1150-1700 and a return thereafter to more humid conditions until present. There is general agreement between the Lake Nhauhache record and other records from the Southern Hemisphere summer rainfall region. This suggests that sediments from small interdunal lakes, which are abundant along the coast of southern Africa, provide reliable, regional paleoenvironmental information about an area from which more such data are needed.

  • 39. Hornborg, Alf
    et al.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Lund Conference on World System History and Global Environmental Change.2004In: Anthropology News, ISSN 1556-3502, Vol. 45, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    2008. Applied Archaeology in the Bolivian Yungas.2008In: Anthropology News, ISSN 1556-3502, Vol. 49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Agro-urban landscapes: the example of Maya lowland cities2012In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 86, no 334, 1112-1125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author sets out to explain why Maya cities are so dispersed, with a ceremonial core surrounded by spacious neighbourhoods. Using the case study of Xuch, and the judicious application of phosphate analysis, he shows that these were clusters of farmsteads, growing food. Tackling the apparent confrontation of town and country in the same settlement he urges us to reconsider 'urbanism' as being too narrow a term in archaeology. Solutions that combine food production and ritual can be seen as increasingly diverse. The paper provides valuable reflections for archaeologists studying settlement evolution the world over.

  • 42.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Agro-urbana landskap2012In: Miljöhistorier: Personliga, lokala, globala berättelser om dåtid, samtid och framtid. / [ed] Anneli Ekblom, Michel Notelid, Uppsala: CSD Uppsala och Institution för arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet , 2012, 45-52 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Säkra matförsörjningssystem är det mest grundläggande problemet för alla städer och ärnyckeln till hållbara urbana system, oavsett plats och tid. Den förhärskandebilden som vi har idag av staden som fenomen präglas i mycket av eurocentrism, recentism och gigantism, eller enkelt uttryckt: på samtida eller sentida förtätade mega-städer av europeisk modell. Denna bild riskerar att blockera vår förmåga att planera och forma nya städer i framtiden, liksom det ofta harförsvårat vår förståelse av andra former av städer i det förflutna. I denna text ges, med utgångspunkt från Maya områdets arkeologi, exempel på andra modeller av städer som kan inspirera oss idag.

  • 43.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Applied Agro-Archaeological Research in the Bolivian Yungas.2008In: SAA Archaeological Record, ISSN 1532-7299, Vol. 8, no 3, 21-27 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Archaeology’s potential to contribute to pools of agronomic knowledge: a case of applied agro-archaeology in the Bolivian Yungas2013In: Humans and the environment: new archaeological perspectives for the twenty-first century / [ed] Matthew Davies and Freda Nkirote, Oxford University Press , 2013, 135-152 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Det förflutnas odlingar banar väg för framtidens jordbruk.2008In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 2, 40-43 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Greening the ancient city: the agro-urban landscapes of the pre-hispanic Maya2010In: The urban mind: cultural and environmental dynamics / [ed] Paul Sinclair, Frands Herschend, Gullög Nordquist and Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala University , 2010, 527-552 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Introducing the Past Ahead2012In: The Past Ahead: Language, Culture, and Identity in the Neotropics / [ed] Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2012, 1, 7-12 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Investigating Urban Experiences, Deconstructing Urban Essentialism2012In: UGEC (Urbanization & Global Environmental Change) Viewpoints, ISSN 1935-9160, no 8, 25-28 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Maya Urban Gardens at Xuch, Campeche, Mexico2013In: Sourcebook for Garden Archaeology: Methods, Techniques, Interpretations and Field Examples / [ed] Amina-Aicha Malek, Bern: Peter Lang , 2013, 685-690 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Afrikansk och jämförande arkeologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    New Perspectives in Maya Archaeology.: Review essay of Kepecs, Susan and Rani T. Alexander (eds) (2005) The Postclassic to Spanish-Era Transition in Mesoamerica: Archaeological Perspectives. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press; Prufer, Keith M. and James E. Brady (eds) (2005) Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context. Boulder: University Press of Colorado; Shaw, Justine M. and Jennifer P. Matthews (eds) (2005) Quintana Roo Archaeology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.2006In: Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol. 11, no 2, 510-514 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 131
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