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  • 1.
    Aarnio, Mikko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Wolf, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Eriksson, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Peterson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Linnman, Clas
    Visualization of painful inflammation in patients with pain after traumatic ankle sprain using [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT.2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 17, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand [(11)C]-D-deprenyl has shown increased signal at location of pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic whiplash injury. The binding site of [(11)C]-D-deprenyl in peripheral tissues is suggested to be mitochondrial monoamine oxidase in cells engaged in post-traumatic inflammation and tissue repair processes. The association between [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake and the transition from acute to chronic pain remain unknown. Further imaging studies of musculoskeletal pain at the molecular level would benefit from establishing a clinical model in a common and well-defined injury in otherwise healthy and drug-naïve subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate if [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake would be acutely elevated in unilateral ankle sprain and if tracer uptake would be reduced as a function of healing, and correlated with pain localizations and pain experience.

    METHODS: Eight otherwise healthy patients with unilateral ankle sprain were recruited at the emergency department. All underwent [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT in the acute phase, at one month and 6-14 months after injury.

    RESULTS: Acute [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake at the injury site was a factor of 10.7 (range 2.9-37.3) higher than the intact ankle. During healing, [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake decreased, but did not normalize until after 11 months. Patients experiencing persistent pain had prolonged [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake in painful locations.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The data provide further support that [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET can visualize, quantify and follow processes in peripheral tissue that may relate to soft tissue injuries, inflammation and associated nociceptive signaling. Such an objective correlate would represent a progress in pain research, as well as in clinical pain diagnostics and management.

  • 2.
    Aarnio, Mikko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Linnman, Clas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Whiplash injuries associated with experienced pain and disability can be visualized with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CTManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of etiological mechanisms of whiplash associated disorder is still inadequate. Objective visualization and quantification of peripheral musculoskeletal injury and possible painful inflammation in whiplash associated disorder would facilitate diagnosis, strengthen patients’ subjective pain reports and aid clinical decisions eventually leading to better treatments. In the current study, we further evaluated the potential to use [11C]D-deprenyl PET/CT to visualize inflammation after whiplash injury. Sixteen patients with whiplash injury grade II were recruited at the emergency department and underwent [11C]D-deprenyl PET/CT in the acute phase and at 6 months after injury. Subjective pain levels, self rated neck disability and active cervical range of motion were recorded at each imaging session. Results showed that the molecular aspects of inflammation and possible tissue injuries after acute whiplash injury could be visualized, objectively quantified and followed over time with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT. An altered [11C]D-deprenyl uptake in the cervical bone structures and facet joints was associated with subjective pain levels and self rated disability during both imaging occasions. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of affected peripheral structures in whiplash injury and strengthens the idea that PET/CT detectable organic lesions in peripheral tissue may be relevant for the development of persistent pain and disability in whiplash injury.

    Perspective: This article presents a novel way of objectively visualizing possible structural damage and inflammation that cause pain and disability in whiplash injury. This PET method can bring an advance in pain research and eventually would facilitate the clinical management of patients in pain.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ahlund, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahrin, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Video-based CBT-E improves eating patterns in obese patients with eating disorder: A single case multiple baseline study2018In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Vol. 61, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for treating eating disorders but it may be difficult to reach patients living far from urban centers. Mobile video-based psychotherapy may potentially improve service reach but has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile video-based CBT for eating disorder and to explore the feasibility to use this technology in clinical care.

    METHODS:

    A controlled single case multiple baseline design was used which allowed for statistical analyses with randomization tests and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP). Five patients in the first stage of eating disorder treatment were included and the main outcome variable was daily meal frequency. Secondary outcome variables included eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress and treatment satisfaction.

    RESULTS:

    The treatment resulted in a significant (p < .01) increase in daily meal frequency with medium to large effect sizes (combined NAP = .89). Four participants reported reliable improvements in eating disorder symptoms and three reported improvements in mood. The participants reported high satisfaction with the treatment and with the mobile video-application despite some technical problems.

    LIMITATIONS:

    Self-reported data on eating behavior is prone to be biased and the results of single case studies may have limited generalizability.

    CONCLUSION:

    CBT can be delivered effectively via a mobile video application and, despite some technological issues, can be well received by patients. All participants in this study had previous low access to mental health services and reported high satisfaction with the treatment format.

  • 4. Achard, B.
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of the infant's ability to retrieve food through a slit2002In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants' ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they can feed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrieved through a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, the infant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. The orientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientations require more elaborate modifications of the feeding action than others. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to 17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviour of the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature. The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive grasp configurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the top of the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, with its bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age. The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of the task, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotating the hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientation of the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 5. Achard, Benedicte
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of the Infant’sAbility to Retrieve Food Througha Slit2002In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants’ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they canfeed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrievedthrough a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, theinfant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. Theorientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientationsrequire more elaborate modifications of the feeding action thanothers. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviourof the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature.The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive graspconfigurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the topof the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, withits bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age.The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of thetask, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotatingthe hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientationof the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 6.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 7.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sammanfattning av resultaten från projektet Sparsam körning: longitudinella effekter av utbildning och information via displayenhet.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 8. af Wahlberg, A. E.
    et al.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Empirical Test of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys2015In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 336-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In surveys, nonresponse is considered a source of possible bias, which increases with the size of the nonresponding group. Nonresponse bias was investigated in 3 samples of offending drivers who were required to respond to an online questionnaire before taking a driver improvement course, creating an initial 100% response rate. The next 2 questionnaire waves were voluntary, and response rates were much lower. Results (means, internal consistency, correlations, etc.) in the first wave were compared between those who responded twice or thrice and those who responded only to the first wave. No substantial differences were found. Compared to common method variance, the effects of nonresponse are very small.

  • 9.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att mäta effekter av utbildning i sparsam körning2002In: Transportforum 2002, Väg- och transportforskningsinstitutet , 2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    af, Wåhlberg. A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel efficient driving training - state of the art and quantification of effects2002In: Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    af Wåhlberg, A. E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the validity of self-reported traffic accident data2002In: E140 Proceedings of Soric'02, Center for Transport and Road Studies, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How managers can influence professional drivers' accident rate2007Other (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Making bad look good: The scientific claims of Interactive Driving Systems2007Other (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    af Wåhlberg, AE
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av ökad storlek på lastbilar.2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Göthe, Johan
    Fuel wasting behaviors of truck drivers2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 73-87Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 16.
    af Wåhlberg, A.E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior in training and regular driving2008In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume III:  Third International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Dublin 12-13 November, 2007., Aldershot: Ashgate , 2008, p. 189-199Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 17.
    af Wåhlberg, AE
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior in training and regular driving.2007In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume III, 2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in Driver Celeration Behavior over Time: do Drivers Learn from Collisions?2012In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well known that drivers’ accident risk changes with experience, it has never been specified exactly how this comes about in terms of changes of behaviour, or what features of their experiences are important for this change. One possibility is that drivers learn from their collision involvement, and change their behaviour after such events, as some studies indicate. However, relative accident involvement tends to be very stable over time, which indicates the opposite. Repeated measurements of celeration (speed change) behaviour of bus drivers were compared between two groups; drivers without accidents within the measurement period (about 3 years), and drivers with at least one crash. For the crash group, there was a steady decline in their celeration values over time, but this was not related to their crashes. A similar reduction was also present for the non-crash sample. The results would seem to be in agreement with the theory of accident proneness; there exist stability in driver behaviour over time, despite accident involvement. However, this stability is relative within the sample, and not absolute. The reduction in celeration values for both groups over time would seem to indicate that drivers learn from their experiences in general, but not specifically from accidents. The present study seems to indicate that daily experience of driving situations is the strongest factor for changes in driving behaviour.

  • 19.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport. Part II.2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differential accident involvement of bus drivers2005In: Driver Behaviour and Training: Volume II / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2005, p. 383-391Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relations between 552 bus drivers' low-speed traffic incidents (without consideration of culpability) and their age, exposure (hours of work) and experience (years as a bus driver) were calculated using bus company data from the Swedish city of Uppsala for the years 1999-2003. It was found that risk decreases with age and experience, with experience as the strongest factor, carrying the effect. Exposure (hours worked) had a curvilinear association to accidents. Also, the use of accidents per work hour yielded more easily interpreted results than the absolute number, indicating the importance of taking exposure into account when predicting accidents. These results are mainly in agreement with previous studies on other road user groups. However, two different ways of calculating age effects (individual and group level) gave somewhat different results, indicating that a fairly popular method of calculating risk indexes may be faulty. Furthermore, time for holding a car driver's license did not influence bus accident liability, despite being strongly correlated with age, indicating that bus driving is separate from car driving experience. Also, the extremely small amount of variance accounted for by experience and age point to the importance of other factors, although there seem to be a strong effect during the first years of driving, which thereafter levels off.

  • 21.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver Behaviour and Accident Research Methodology: Unresolved Problems2009Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis2008In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, p. 383-403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents2006In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

  • 24.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driver research myths2010In: Fourth International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2010, p. 3-6Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fuel-efficient driving research: an area in need of exploration2007In: Industrial Psychology Research Trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2007, p. 5-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hourly changes in accident risk for bus drivers2009In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accident risk has in some studies been found to change with the time of day, after controlling for exposure, probably due to diurnal changes in the human body, which changes alertness. However, exposure data are not always of good quality, and culpability for accidents is not always taken into account. The change in culpable accident risk over the day for bus drivers was therefore investigated, with single accidents analysed separately, using induced exposure (non-culpable bus accidents) as well as general traffic density and number of buses on the road as controlling factors. It was found that the risk distribution was fairly similar to some previous results before controlling for exposure, but dissimilar to other, probably indicating that bus drivers have a somewhat different risk profile, but also that previous studies may not have controlled for exposure in a reliable way. When exposure was held constant, the risk distribution was different from all other studies. The three different exposure measures correlated strongly between themselves, and each would seem to be adequate for a basic control. However, although general traffic density was most strongly correlated with culpable bus accidents, the induced exposure parameter added some explained variance. Single accidents had a very different risk distribution as compared to other culpable accidents when exposure had been held constant. A number of unexpected effects were also noted, mainly that single accidents were associated most strongly with general traffic density.

  • 27.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory effects in self-reports of crashes2012In: Driver Behaviour and Training, Volume V / [ed] L. Dorn, 2012, Vol. V, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Re-education of young driving offenders: Effects on recorded offences and self-reported collisions2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ways of educating offending drivers are being introduced, notably e-learning. This type of education has rarely been tested for its safety effects before. An e-learning course for offending young drivers was therefore evaluated as to its effects upon offence and self-reported collision rates. Significant reductions in number of offences and penalty points were found for an e-learning group, while this was not the case for drivers who had been fined only, or had taken a more traditional solely class-room based educational scheme. The e-learners also reported a larger reduction in collision involvement than a random control group, although a regression to the mean effect could not be ruled out. The results seem to indicate a positive effect of the e-learning course for young driving offenders. This conclusion, however, is to be interpreted in relation to the weak association between penalty points and collisions, and the low validity of self-reported collision involvement data. The present results lend further support to the use of e-learning driver improvement courses, although the most important type of data, recorded collisions, is still missing.

  • 29.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Short-term effects of training in economical driving; passenger comfort and driver acceleration behavior2006In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Vol. 36, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social desirability effects in driver behavior inventories2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The use of lie scales to control for common method variance in driver behavior inventories has been very limited. Given that such questionnaires often use self-reported safety variables as criteria, and have social implications, the risk of artefactual associations is high. Method: A questionnaire containing scales from several well known driver inventories that have been claimed to predict traffic accident involvement was distributed three times to a group of young drivers in a driver education program, as well as a random group twice. The Driver Impression Management scale (DIM) was used to control for socially desirable responding. Results: For all behavior scales, the correlation with the DIM scale was substantial. If a scale correlated with self-reported crashes, the amount of predictive power was more than halved when social desirability was controlled for. Results were similar for both samples and all waves. The predictive power of the behavior scales was not increased when values were averaged over questionnaire waves, as should have been the case if the measurement and predictive power were valid. Results were similar for self-reported penalty points. The present results indicate that even the most well-known and accepted psychometric scales used in driver research are susceptible to social desirability bias. Discussion: As social desirability is only one of a number of common method variance mechanisms that can create artefactual associations, and the great popularity of the self-report methodology, the problem for traffic research is grave. Impact on industry: Organizations that fund traffic safety research need to re-evaluate their policies regarding what methods are acceptable. The use of self-reported independent and dependent variables can lead to directly misleading results, with negative effects on traffic safety.

  • 31.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Some methodological deficiencies in studies on traffic accident predictors2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, p. 473-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Speed choice versus celeration behavior as traffic accident predictor.2006In: Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 37, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability and correlates of driver acceleration behaviour2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training. First International Conference on Driver Behaviour and Training. Stratford-upon-Avon 11-12 November, 2003., 2003, p. 45-54Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 34.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prediction of Traffic Accident Involvement from Driving Behavior2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the studies was to predict individual traffic accident involvement by the quantification of driving style in terms of speed changes, using bus drivers as subjects. An accident database was constructed from the archives of the bus company whose drivers were used as subjects. The dependent variable was also discussed regarding whether responsibility for crashes should be included, and what time period to use for optimal prediction. A new theory was constructed about how accidents are caused by driver behavior, more specifically the control movements of the driver, i.e. all actions taken which influence the relative motion of the vehicle in a level plane when v>0. This theory states that all traffic safety related behavior can be measured as celerations (change of speed of the vehicle in any direction of a level plane) and summed. This theoretical total sum is a measure of a person's liability to cause accidents over the same time period within a homogenous traffic environment and a similarly homogenous driving population. Empirically, the theory predicts a positive correlation between mean driver celeration behavior and accident record. The theory was tested in three empirical studies. The first tested equipment and methods, the second studied the question whether driver celeration behavior is stable over time. Celeration behavior turned out to be rather variable between days, and repeated measurements were therefore needed to stabilize the measure. In the third study, a much larger amount of data brought out correlations of sizes sufficient to lend some credibility to the theory. However, the predictive power did not extend beyond two years of time. The reported results would seem to imply that the celeration variable can predict accident involvement (at least for bus drivers), and is practical to use, as it is easily and objectively measured and semi-stable over time.

    List of papers
    1. Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and accidents - an analysis
    2008 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 9, p. 383-403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93939 (URN)10.1080/14639220701596722 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study
    2000 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93940 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2009-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents
    2004 In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93941 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver celeration behavior and the prediction of traffic accidents
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether driver celeration (overall mean speed change) behavior can predict traffic accident involvement. Also, to test whether acceleration, deceleration or the combined celeration measure was the better predictor. Bus driver celeration behavior was measured repeatedly in real traffic, driving en route, and correlated with accidents for which the drivers were deemed at least partly responsible. Correlations around. 20 were found in several samples between celeration behavior and culpable accidents for a 2-year period. The results show that although celeration behavior is only semi-stable over time, it predicts with some accuracy individual accident involvement over 2 years. The predictive power of acceleration and deceleration was slightly lower than the combined measure, in accordance with theory. The correlations found were strong enough to warrant the use of celeration behavior as a predictive variable for transportation companies in their safety work.

    Keywords
    bus driver, traffic accident, crash, acceleration, celeration, driver behavior
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93942 (URN)000240701400006 ()16984787 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2006-01-30 Created: 2006-01-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 35.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of acceleration force to traffic accident frequency: A pilot study2000In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 3, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation of non-culpable traffic incidents to bus drivers' celeration behavior2008In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The driver celeration behavior theory predicts that celerations are associated with incidents for which the driver has some responsibility in causing, but not other incidents. Method: The hypothesis was tested in 25 samples of repeated measurements of bus drivers' celeration behavior against their incidents for two years. Results: The results confirmed the prediction; in 18 samples, the correlation for culpable incidents only was higher than for all incidents, despite the higher means of the latter. Non-culpable incidents had correlations close to zero with celeration. Discussion: It was pointed out that most individual crash prediction studies have not made this differentiation, and thus probably yielded underestimates of the associations sought, although the effect is not strong, due to non-culpable accident involvements being few (less than a third of the total). The methods for correct identification of culpable incident involvements were discussed.

  • 37.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The stability of driver acceleration behavior, and a replication of its relation to bus accidents2004In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter av ökad storlek på lastbilar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term effects of training in economical driving: Fuel consumption, accidents, driver acceleration behavior and technical feedback2007In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 333-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of training in fuel-efficient driving for bus drivers in a city environment were evaluated. Three dependent variables, hypothetically associated with such training, were used; fuel and accident data from the bus company, and driver acceleration behavior from five buses, over time periods of several years. Effects of temperature and number of passengers on fuel consumption were held constant. Fuelling and acceleration data yielded fairly similar results. It was found that, although the effects on these variables during training were very strong (as found in a previous study), these did not transfer well into the drivers' working situation. Overall, the effect was about two percent fuel consumption reduction as a mean over 12 months after training. No effect was found for accidents, although a two percent reduction would not have been detectable. In a second phase of the study, 28 buses were equipped with Econen feedback equipment, which give an indication on how much fuel is used concurrently, resulting in a further reduction of consumption of about two percent.

  • 41.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments.2012In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, L
    Kline, T
    The effect of social desirability on self reported and recorded road traffic accidents2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of lie scales has a fairly long history in psychometrics, with the intention of identifying and correcting for socially desirable answers. This represents one type of common method variance (bias introduced when both predictors and predicted variables are gathered from the same source), which may lead to spurious associations in self-reports. Within traffic safety research, where self-report methods are used abundantly, it is uncommon to control for social desirability artifacts, or reporting associations between lie scales, crashes and driver behaviour scales. In the present study, it was shown that self-reports of traffic accidents were negatively associated with a lie scale for driving, while recorded ones were not, as could be expected if the scale was valid and a self-report bias existed. We conclude that whenever self-reported crashes are used as an outcome variable and predicted by other self-report measures, a lie scale should be included and used for correcting the associations. However, the only existing lie scale for traffic safety is not likely to catch all socially desirable responding, because traffic safety may not be desirable for all demographic groups. New lie scales should be developed specifically for driver behaviour questionnaires, to counter potential bias and artifactual results. Alternatively, the use of a single source of data should be discontinued.

  • 43.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Absence behaviour as traffic crash predictor in bus drivers2009In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.

    Method

    Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.

    Results

    One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.

    Discussion

    The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.

    Impact on industry

    The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.

  • 44.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Bus driver accident record: the return of accident proneness.2009In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Human Factors, Cranfield University.
    Culpable versus non-culpable traffic accidents; what is wrong with this picture?2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is often implicitly or explicitly assumed in traffic accident research that drivers with accidents designated as non-culpable are a random sample from the population. However, this assumption is dependent upon differences in the criterion used for culpability. If drivers are erroneously categorized by assuming randomness, results could be grossly misleading. Method: The assumption of randomness leads to two predictions: first, no correlation should exist between culpable and non-culpable crashes; and second, the accident groups should differ on the variables known to be associated with accidents, such as amount of driving experience. These predictions were tested in two samples of bus drivers. Results: It was found that in a sample with a harsh criterion (70% culpable accidents) for crash responsibility, the drivers with non-culpable accidents had the features expected, namely, they were more experienced for example, while in a sample with a lenient criterion (50 % culpable), this was not so. Discussion: It was concluded that similar studies to the present one would need to be undertaken to establish exactly what percentage of drivers in a given population should be assigned culpable accidents, and construct a criterion that yields this ratio. Otherwise, the theoretical assumptions of randomness and non-responsibility will probably be violated to some degree. Impact on Industry: Many estimates of risk of crash involvement may have been wrong. Given the potential for erroneous criteria, a number of studies may make invalid assumptions from their data.

  • 46.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dorn, Lisa
    Cranfield University.
    Kline, Theresa
    University of Calgary.
    The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as predictor of road traffic accidents2011In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 12, p. 66-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A reporting guide for studies on individual differences in traffic safety2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 381-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Studies on individual differences in traffic safety report differently on their methodologies, and use different statistics, and these are therefore difficult to compare and meta-analyze. Method: Based upon a previous, extensive review and meta-analysis of the traffic safety literature, several recommendations are made about what features of the methodology of studies on individual differences (including evaluations) in safety need to be reported to facilitate interpretation and meta-analysis. Similarly, some basic types of statistical values are recommended. Impact on Industry: The accumulation of knowledge about individual differences in traffic safety would be facilitated if scientific authors and journals adhered to these guidelines.

  • 48.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aggregation of driver celeration behavior data: Effects on stability and accident prediction2007In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 487-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions about effects of aggregating driver celeration data were tested in a set of data where bus drivers' behavior had been measured repeatedly over three years in a city environment. For drivers with many measurements, this data was correlated with the drivers' accident record at various levels of aggregation over measurements. A single measurement (one sample) was seldom a significant predictor, but for each drive added to a mean, the variation explained in accident record was increased by about 1%. Also, correlations between measurements increased when these were aggregated, and the association with number of passengers (a proxy for traffic density) decreased somewhat, all as predicted. These results show that although driver celeration behavior is only semi-stable across time and environments, aggregating measurements increases both stability and predictive power versus accidents considerably. The celeration variable is therefore promising as a tool for identifying dangerous drivers, if these can be measured repeatedly, or, even better, continuously.

  • 49.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-speed accidents with buses in public transport in the city of Uppsala during the years 1986–2000 are coded in 17 variables concerning mainly physical properties of the accident. The taxonomy uses classifications from existing schemes, but some are altered and some new are added to capture common features of reports of bus accidents in this population. It is found that side contacts and singles are the most common accidents, and that more than a quarter of all accident involvements occurs at bus stops. Inter-rater reliability calculations for the categories show that all except one have reliabilities above 80%. The level of internal validity, calculated as agreement of frequencies between time periods, is acceptable, despite many possible sources of change and bias. It is argued that the validity of this database far exceeds that of the, for research purposes normally used, non-company self-reports, state- and police-archives, due to more extensive reporting and corroborating evidence. The practical usefulness of these results and accident taxonomies in general is discussed.

  • 50.
    af Wåhlberg, Anders E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density cirrcumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Method: Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). Results: After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. Conclusions: The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

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