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  • 1.
    Abdel Aziz Saad, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Islamism och antirasism: En jämförelse av Sayyid Qutbs rassyn på 1940- och 60-talen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Ahlsén, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    BEATA MARIA/DEA VULTS!: En studie i bruket av Maria som symbol för heligt krig från korstågen till belägringen av Wien.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Beata Maria/Dea Vults is a thesis for the degree of master (one year) in theology.

     

    The thesis explores the role of the Virgin Mary as a martial saint in catholic combat with Islam and muslims between the years 1119 AD to 1648 AD with a focus on symbolism. The paper is focusing on symbolism in war banners, patron saints and semiotic symbols on arms and armour.

    There are three different events or phenomenons in the study, separated in time as well as space.

     

    Firstly the war banner used at the battle of Las Navas (1212 AD) during the reconquista of Spain. The banner of Mary with child is the prime subjekt as well as the myths appearing in the aftermath of the battle, and the ceremony that was devised from it.

     

    The second phenomenon is the knights templars use of Mary as patron saint, and the ceremony that followed this relationship. There is also discussion of the belts worn that were related to Mary, the use of wich is attested in documents from the trials of the templars between 1307 and 1312 AD.

    Lastly the paper focuses on the armours of the polish winged husars of 1648 AD and the seige of Vienna. The thesis explores the relationship between the symbols of the armour of the husars and the religious views of King John III Sobieski of Poland.

     

    The main question of the study is:

     

    • What were the meaning of the symbols of Mary as she was carried as a ritualistic symbol for war?

     

    The subsequent questions are:

     

    • How do you trace a progression in the useage of Mary as a symbol from the templars all the way to the use of Mary as a symbol for the winged husars?

     

    • Which types of worship of Mary as a symbol were used primarliy in wars with muslims?

     

    The paper is researched by qualitative methods including text analysis as well as semiotic symbolism reading. There are two theories used in the analysis. Smarts dimensions and Andersons and Hulls Warrior elites, with Smarts dimensions as the dominant theory.

  • 3.
    Ahlsén, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Erik de Magog och Johan av fotfolket: Haute couture och religiös propaganda i stål och sten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines four suits of armour that belonged to two Swedish kings, one protestant and one catholic, during the renaissance. The study tries to determine if it is possible to extract the religious identity of these kings based upon the decorations or other connotations of the suits of armour. Since the two kings, Erik the XIV:th and John the III, where half brothers and they succeeded each other, the suits of armour are closley matched in time and style.

     

    The study also examines the grave effigy of one of the kings, John the III of Sweden, to examine if there is a connection between crossed legs on effigys and the perception of religion during the period.

     

    The study is conducted through a archeological and historiological method and uses a combination theory of Smarts seven dimensions and the pictoral turn.

     

    The main question of the study is:

    -          What does it take to track religious bias through armour?

    The subsequent questions are:

    -          Is it possible to find the religious identity in the suits of armour?

    -          Was the Gothicism movement a religious movement?

    -          The effigy of John the III was sculpted in a style popular in the eleventh century, created in the 16:th century and placed in the 18:th century. What conclusions can be drawn from this while also tracking the discourse of effigys in the same time expance.

     

    The study concludes that if the identity of the owner of a suit of armour is known, the symbols that adorne the suit can be interpreted fairly well. It also conludes that the gothic movement in Sweden where an extremely aggressive catholic movement. Finally it concludes that the creation and placement of the tomb in Uppsala cathedral closely follows the different discourses about the meaning of crossed legs on effigys in Europe and that the makers most likely gave the position a devout religious connotation.

  • 4.
    Ahnlund, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    En lysande fyrbåk i hednaverlden: Om förändringar i synen på de religiösa praktikerna, grupperna och subjekten i Helgelseförbundets missionsbrev från Kina 1891-1950.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the middle of the 19th century onwards the number of protestant missionaries in China increased tremendously. The evangelical revival movement played an important role in this development with pioneers like J. Hudson Taylor and his China Inland Mission (CIM) on the frontlines. The Swedish Holiness Union (SHU) decided to join CIM in the northern parts of China were the union established its missionary field in 1890. This essay aims to explore changes in how other religious practices, groups and subjects are constructed within SHU missionary letters from China published 1891-1950. The source material consists of missionary letters published in the Unions own periodical Trons Segrar 1891, 1928 and 1950. By basing the analysis on Laclau’s and Mouffe’s discourse theory the study will explore how different discursive formations change, affirm or undermine each other and how different religious practices, groups and subjects are constructed and characterized within a discursive framework.

  • 5.
    Ahnstedt, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Antika riter: En komparativ studie av romerska och tidiga kristna riter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the similarities between early Christian- and Roman rites, and examines if these similarities are fruits of influences taken from roman rites. Christianity outlived roman religion but perhaps, through syncretism, some aspects or elements survived as part of the Christian faith. This study focuses on religious roman rituals, how the Christians implemented or rejected it, and what the motivation behind the rejection was, if expressed.Ritual group meals and the concept of sacrifice is the two most similar rituals traits in these religions. The group-affirming and ideal-creating function of the meal rituals are similar in both religions, and the concept of sacrifice exists in both as central elements of the religion. However, the Christian rejection of animal sacrifice and the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem created a new understanding of the concept. The offer-ritual centered on remembering the only sacrifice that was needed, the perfect sacrifice, the one of Jesus Christ.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, Studies in Faith and Ideologies, Ethics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions. Human Rights.
    Att skriva uppsats i mänskliga rättigheter (andra rev. utgåvan)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Kvinnan i Islamiska staten: En studie av IS:s propagandatidsskrift Dabiqs sektion To/From Our Sisters.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic state is on the rise with a self-proclaimed caliphate. Research has shown that thousands of people travel to join the organization. Even though Swedish news coverage constantly reports about women being victims of the Islamic state, fifteen to twenty young Swedish women travelled to the caliphate in year 2014 alone. This study analyzes the Islamic state’s propaganda magazine Dabiq’s women section, “To/From Our Sisters”, and constitutes the material basis for this research. The research aims to answer what kind of roles women are ascribed in Dabiq, and which role, if any, women is ascribed in the Islamic state’s militant Jihadism.

    To achieve this, framing as content analysis of Dabiq’s articles directed toward women will be conducted. The material is analyzed with a social constructivist theory. The analysis shows that women are ascribed a number of roles in the articles. The roles are the strong woman; the wife; women as a possession; the woman as the Muslim ideal; mother and the woman as a passive participator of jihad. The study also show that the part woman play in jihad is not as an active participant of battle, but as a mother who produce sons to the Islamic state who can be sent out in war. Along with being a satisfying wife who is loyal toward her husband no matter what happens to him.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Svenska buddhismbilden: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av buddhism i läroböcker för Religionskunskap 12015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Western scholars have long sought to grasp the essence of and explain Buddhism. Western representation of Buddhism has been in a manner that reflects their concerns and interests. In addition to this it is also known that Buddhism in Sweden is seen in a favorable way. This study tries to locate where this positive attitude toward Buddhism stems from and if it is represented in this manner in Swedish textbooks. Therefore three textbooks of upper secondary class of religion are to be examined, not only to see if there is a positive attitude towards it, but to see in what manner Buddhism is depicted in Swedish schools on the whole. To achieve this, a content analysis that contains two different methods are conducted to approach the matter. The analysis shows that the chapters which regard Buddhism is depicted in an all together favorable way, with a focus on the life of the Buddha and his discipline, the doctrine. The authors try to de-emphasize aspects of the mythical and narrative dimension which can be conceived as strange in the west. Theravada is portrayed as “pure” Buddhism. Furthermore monks are mentioned in a more comprising way in comparison to nuns. To conclude Buddhism is depicted in a manner that reflects western values and interests.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    En utvecklande lära: En undersökning av kursplaner i religionskunskap för gymnasieskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay was to investigate how the syllabuses of religious education have changed from 1970–2011. To do this the following questions were answered: How have the syllabuses of religious education changed from 1970–2011? What has been removed and what has been added? How have the training course objectives changed? How has the content of the syllabuses changed? The method used in this essay is content analysis. The results of this essay show that the content of the syllabuses has not changed, although it is now described in further detail. The modern syllabuses are far more detailed then the oldest syllabus. One conclusion was that Christianity was the only expressly named religion.

  • 10.
    Babovic, Almir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Var det bogomilerna och den bosniska kyrkan som stod bakom skapandet av de monumentala medeltida gravstenarna-Stećci och vad dessa stenar har för betydelse i världens kulturhistoria?: En undersökning om Stećci-stenarnas tillkomst och betydelse2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Bergh, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Hizbullah's Construction of National Identity: "We are in principle not like Others"2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how national identity is discursively constructed by Hizbullah at a time of national crisis, and to shed light on its potential effects on the social world. The critical discourse analysis focuses on how difference and otherness are constructed on Hizbullah’s television channel Al-Manar. It illuminates Hizbullah’s discursive construal of a national in-group and an ‘enemy’ out-group, and identifies the main discourses that Hizbullah draws upon. The backdrop is the violent events in the Lebanese town of Arsal, erupting in early August 2014 and soon amounting to a national crisis. How Hizbullah, one of the main political actors in Lebanon and the region, constructs the world discursively does arguably have impact on the social world. The analysis identifies an order of discourse that on the one hand is permeated by pluralism and inclusion and on the other hand influenced by an exclusionary discourse connecting the out-group to terrorism. The author suggests that the Western discourse of ‘war on terrorism’ has been recontextualised by Hizbullah, and argues that there are reasons to pay close attention to the potentially harmful socially constructive effects of this discourse. Nevertheless, a cross-confessional national unity is simultaneously highlighted in Hizbullah’s discourse.

  • 12.
    Bergh, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Syriska Muslimska Brödraskapet, En genusresa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood has since the start of the Syrian uprising in March 2011 moved from a low-key position in exile to become one of the main actors in the political opposition. There appears to be a consensus among researchers today on the democratic commitment of the Syrian Brotherhood. However, ambiguity remains regarding its commitment towards gender equality, women’s rights and participation. This essay focuses on the gender discourse of the Syrian Brotherhood’s leadership, according to its policy-documents, from 2004 – 2013. By applying a critical discourse analysis, a movement from a more Islamist, exclusionary discourse in 2004 towards a more inclusive, feminist inspired discourse in 2013 becomes apparent. Nonetheless, traditional gender roles linger and more Islamist and pan-Arab, pan-Islamic discourses are not distant features. The movement of the gender discourse towards greater inclusion confirms claims made by democratic theorists on inclusion and moderation.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    De andra – Judendom och islam i svenska läromedel: En komparativ innehållsanalys hur judendom och islam framställs i tre läromedel för ämnet religionskunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan 1979–2015.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis aims to examinate, with a comparative method, how the religions of Judaism and Islam are portrayed within three Swedish textbooks from 1979, 1998 and 2015 for use in upper secondary school. The three curriculums for upper secondary school from 1970, 1994 and 2011, will be used as to determined how appropriate the contents are in the textbooks. The three textbooks have all been used at different times and places in the Swedish upper secondary school’s subject of Religionskunskap (Religious education). This paper has three research questions: (1) How does the textbooks depict Judaism and Islam, (2) how are the believers and practitioners displayed in the contents and (3) to what extent does the textbooks correlate to the curriculums. The analysis showed that there are great differences between each textbook and how detailed the depictions are about the religions. Some of the depictions were negative stereotypes which did not fit the guidelines within the responding curriculum.

  • 14.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    De dödas bok: Den fornegyptiska dödsboken i översättning och kommentar2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    De okända pyramiderna2010In: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 2, p. 42-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Egyptens pyramider: Evighetens arkitektur i forntid och nutid2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Egyptens pyramider: Evighetens arkitektur i forntid och nutid (ny reviderad upplaga)2011 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Gudinna i förvandling: Bild och performativitet i det gamla Egypten2011In: Nathan Söderblom-sällskapets årsbok, ISSN 0347-2302, Vol. 67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Iconic reading - Iconic emphasis2009In: Ausgestattet mit den Schriften des Thot: Festschrift für Irmtraut Munro zu ihrem 65. Geburtstag / [ed] Burkhard Backes, Marcus Müller-Roth und Simone Stöhr, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag , 2009, p. 28-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    "It is I, Your Son; I am Horus": Ritual and Spatial Progression in the Pyramid of Pepy I2016In: The Pyramids: Between Life and Death / [ed] I. Hein, N. Billing & E. Meyer-Dietrich, Uppsala: Uppsala universitetstryck , 2016, 1, p. 249-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    ”Jag som flyger har flugit iväg, ni människor! Jag har flugit iväg från er!” – Rum, ritual och förvandling i den egyptiska pyramidenIn: Religion och Bibel, ISSN 0347-2302, ISSN 0347-2302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Konrad, K.: Architektur und Theologie. Pharaonsiche Tempelterminologie unter Berücksichtigung königideologischer Aspekte2009In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, ISSN 0006-1913, E-ISSN 1875-659X, Vol. 66, no 5-6, p. 431-436Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Monumentalizing the Beyond: Reading the Pyramid before and after the Pyramid Texts2011In: Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, ISSN 0340-2215, Vol. 40, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Mose egyptiern - En man i minnet2000In: Acta Masonica Scandinavica, ISSN 1399-1582, Vol. 3, p. 172-183Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Porten till det okända: Bergssymbolik i det forntida Egypten2014In: Vägar till insikt och utsikt: Berg i religiösa traditioner / [ed] Eva Hellman & Lena Roos, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma , 2014, 1, p. 39-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Re-assessing the Past: Context and Tradition of the Book of the Dead, Chapter 1812006In: Totenbuch-Forschungen: Gesammelte Beiträge des 2. Internationalen Totenbuch-Symposiums 2005 / [ed] B. Backes, I. Munro & S. Stöhr, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag , 2006, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Recklinghausen, D. von & M. A. Stadler, KultOrte. Mythen, Wissenschaft und Alltag in den Tempeln Ägyptens2013In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol. 70, p. 405-407Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Storvulet eller förfinat?2010In: The Story of Storage I: Kompendium / [ed] L. Björk, J. Krēsliņš & M. Lindström, Stockholm: Statens ljud- och bildarkiv , 2010, p. 8-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Text and Tomb: Some spatial properties of Nut in the Pyramid Texts2003In: Egyptology at the dawn of the twenty-first century: proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000. Vol. 2, History, religion / [ed] Zahi Hawass ; in collaboration with Lyla Pinch Brock, Cairo & New York: The American University in Cairo Press , 2003, p. 129-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The Corridor Chamber: Investigation and interpretation of an architectural element in the Old Kingdom pyramids2007In: Proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Egyptologists / [ed] J.-Cl. Goyon, C. Cardin, Leuven: Peeters , 2007, p. 183-194Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The Dialogue of Geb and Nut in Relation to the Royal Sarcophagus in the Pyramid of King Pepy I2016In: Liber amicorum-speculum siderum :: nut astrophoros : papers presented to Alicia Maravelia, Oxford: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd , 2016, Vol. 17, p. 3-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The Performative Structure: Ritualizing the pyramid of Pepy I2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the ancient Egyptian pyramid complex as a ritualized structure. In accordance with an indigenous cultural pattern, the category of an eternal architecture had been created at the beginning of the Old Kingdom (ca. 2700 B.C.), the evolution of which there-after bears witness to a constant visualization of the contemporary changes in the discourse of mortuary religion. The mythic and ritual properties of this architectural genre become increas-ingly articulated in the second half of the period, when its various elements are configured in accordance with a more accentuated iconic pattern, a change combined with the inauguration and development of comprehensive programs of decoration in terms of images and texts. 

    The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part examines the concept of monu-mentalization as a strategy in a process of ritualization, and the performative/operative faculty inherent in sacred architecture, iconic script and images. It presents the role of the Old King-dom mortuary temple as a ritualized abode on the basis of the surviving programs of decora-tion, finally to create a bridge to the second part by delineating the role and organization of the Pyramid Texts found inscribed on the walls of the royal tomb at the end of the same period. 

    The second part provides an analysis of the textual corpus inscribed in the pyramid tomb of king Pepy I (early 6th Dynasty, ca. 2300 B.C.). It demonstrates that the texts were distribut-ed at distinct space-bound thematic and ritual levels in order to perpetuate a cultic activity from which the beneficiary and lord of the tomb could be transformed by means of a move-ment through the different chambers and corridors towards the exit. In this respect, the corpus of texts distributed in his tomb provided a monumentalized performative structure that effec-tuated his perennial rebirth. 

  • 33.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The Performative Structure: Ritualizing the Pyramid of Pepy I2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Billing investigates the ancient Egyptian pyramid complex as a performative structure, ritualized through the operative faculty inherent in monumental architecture, text, and image. The main body of research is given over to an analysis of the Pyramid Texts found in the pyramid of king Pepy I of the Sixth Dynasty (ca 2300 BCE). It is demonstrated that the texts were distributed on distinct space-bound thematic and ritual levels in order to perpetuate a cultic activity from which the lord of the tomb could be transformed by moving through the different chambers and corridors towards the exit. Just as the decoration program of the mortuary temple once delineated the ritual and ideological structure of the royal mortuary cult, the corpus of texts distributed in the pyramid provided a monumentalized performative structure that effectuated the perennial rebirth for its owner.

  • 34.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The pyramid as a journey.: Cultic encounters between father and son in the pyramid of Pepy I2017In: Proceedings of the XI international congress of egyptologists, Oxford: Archaeopress, 2017, Vol. 19, p. 35-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    The Secret One: An analysis of a core motif in the Books of the Netherworld2006In: Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur, ISSN 0340-2215, Vol. 34, p. 51-71Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    ‘This your departure is as Osiris’s substitute’: An investigation of the symbolism and ritual role of the vestibule in the pyramid of Pepy IIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Thompson, S.E. & P. Der Manuelian (eds.): Egypt and Beyond. Essays presented to Leonard H. Lesko upon his retirement from the Wilbour Chair of Egyptology at Brown University, June 20052011In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, ISSN 0006-1913, E-ISSN 1875-659X, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 66-71Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Writing an Image: The Formulation of the Tree Goddess Motif in the Book of the Dead, Chapter 592004In: Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur 32, ISSN 0340-2215, Vol. 32, p. 35-50Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Billing, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    You are not alone: The conceptual background of Nut as the eternal abode in text and iconography2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Billing, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Rowland, Joanne
    Archaeological Investigations at Kom al Ahmar, Minuf2009In: Egyptian Archaeology. The Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration Society, ISSN 0962-2837, Vol. 34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Billing, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Rowland, Joanne
    Recently discovered blocks in the central Delta village of Kom el-Ahmar, Minuf2012In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, University of the Aegean, Rhodes, 22-29 May 2008 / [ed] Kousoulis P., Lazaridis N., Leuven: Peeters , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Billing, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Rowland, Joanne
    The EES Delata Survey: Minufiyeh 20052006In: Egyptian Archaeology. Bulletin of the Egypt Exploration Society, ISSN 0962-2837, Vol. 20, p. 3-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Borgland, Jens Wilhelm
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Undetermined Matters: On the Use of Lay Witnesses in Buddhist Monastic Procedural Law2018In: Buddhism, Law and Society, ISSN 2475-9260, 2475-9279, Vol. 2, p. 1-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates one aspect of Buddhist monastic procedural law set forth in the aniyata (“undetermined”) section of the Prātimokṣa/Vibhaṅgas of the extant monastic law codes (vinaya). Here we find rules concerning how to handle cases in which a monk is accused by a trustworthy female lay follower (upāsikā) of having stayed alone in a secluded place with a woman. These rules have hitherto received comparatively little study, most of which has focused on the (Theravāda) Pāli vinaya. By examining the aniyata rules and their canonical commentaries in all six extant vinayas, I show that the treatment of these rules in the Pāli vinaya is not representative of Buddhist monastic law in general, and that the commonly held notion that any punitive legal action taken against a monk at the very least requires that he acknowledge the act, if not the offense with which he stands accused, is in need of revision. This paper further shows that there are significant differences between the Tibetan and Chinese translations of the Vibhaṅga of the Mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya (MSV), and so contributes to recent investigations into multiple MSV traditions. It also discusses some differences and similarities between the different vinayas, especially common elements between the Sarvāstivāda, Mūlasarvāstivāda and Mahāsāṃghika vinayas

  • 44.
    Brandt, Jimmy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Does the Dude Abide by the Tao?: A comparative study of Dudeism and the Tao Te Ching.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dudeism was inspired by a film released in 1998 named The Big Lebowski, which recounts the adventures of a character called the Dude, the namesake of the religion. The Dude is an example of the (mostly) ideal practitioner of Dudeism, which Dudeists mean has existed throughout the ages, expressed differently by different systems of belief and behaviour while retaining an essential Dudeistic spirit.

       A superficial overlook of this system of belief and behaviour finds many similarities to early Taoism, a parallel which Dudeism itself encourages, particularly in regards to the Tao Te Ching. It is also clear that many of Dudeism’s central concepts are inspired or borrowed from said work.

       This essay explores the relationship between Dudeism and Taoism through comparison, focusing on the teachings of Tao Te Ching in relation to Dudeist thought and practice. It seeks to establish Dudeism’s religious history as a religion firmly rooted in both a modern motion picture and ancient Eastern thought. The essay concludes that Dudeism has adapted the teachings of the Tao Te Ching for a modern, Western audience through the language and imagery of The Big Lebowski, adding its own twists to ancient concepts. 

  • 45.
    Brunsgaard Clausen, Kirsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Moder Jord i kyrkorummet?: En undersökning av kopplingarna mellan det kristna och det fornnordiska i Vester Egede kyrkans dopfunt som objekt och vad angår motivval, tolkning och dopritual.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A church in rural Vester Egede from the earliest Christian period in Denmark e.g. the early 1100, a baptismal font is found showing a woman breastfeeding two animals. She is said to be a typical early roman Luxuria, in mild appearance. However, what makes her unique is that she appears standing on the top of her head, her womb serving as font. The main question is how come that a baptismal font like this is to be found in a church, leading to the sub question, if this font really has a Christian origin or could it be rooted in Norse, pre-Christian tradition, alternatively is the font an expression of a syncretism between the two colliding cultures. Studying font in search of an answer I have addressed it from four perspectives: 1) could the very use of baptismal fonts be pre-Christian, 2) to what extend could the motif and 3) its interpretation be rooted in Norse tradition and finally 4) could the young church in Denmark have taken over a previous water ritual and turned it into the Christian baptism of children. The use of font, the motif, it´s interpretation and the ritual function has been investigated from two perspectives: e.g. from the Christian and the Norse religious angels. Methods used are the historical and iconographical method. The hermeneutic method is underlying as a fundament.

    According to water rituals the Norse tradition had a very established water ritual for new born children that mostly or exclusively built on civil rights principals, with no outspoken religious contents. How the water ritual practically was performed is not known. Only vague traces suggest the use of a baptismal font in Norse tradition in Denmark. On the motif, the Luxuria, breastfeeding two snakes, it is well documented on the continent and its origin is recognized as the antique Terra Mater. The motif woman-snake is indeed found in Scandinavia, but at the same time no evidence is found of a Mother Earth breastfeeding snakes. There are vague signs that the motif might belong to an earlier layer of earthbound religion predating the Asir-religion. Besides the breastfeeding the Luxuria´s womb is serving as font. Using a Mortal Sinner´s womb for washing off the Original Sin does not give any substantial meaning in symbolic language. However there is a tradition in Denmark for using the epithet fovea or uterus for the baptismal font. On this specific baptismal font the only way to explain the use of the Luxuria´s womb as font is through considering a compilation of two separate traditions. Although the motif in a symbolic understanding of the all-nurturing and all-lifegiving Mother Earth provides a totally comprehendible meaning, it cannot be pleaded that the font is derived from Norse tradition.

  • 46.
    Christoffersson, Rolf Uno Algot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Med tre röster och tusende bilder. Om den samiska trumman.2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ceremonial drum, with its drumhead filled with pictures and tightened over an oval or oviformed wooden frame or bowl, was the most important tool of the noaidi, the Sami shaman. By outsiders however, were they missionaries during the 17th century or researchers during 20th, the Sami drum has often been demonised as ‘devilish’ or belitted as ‘primitive’, and labelled ‘troll-drum’. Repudiating these opinions, the purpose of this dissertation is twofold: to give a critical assessment of what written sources and earlier research say about the Sami drums, and to analyse the functions and meanings of the drum in traditional Sami society as musical instrument, work of art, record of religion, and tool of divination.

    The introduction and the first chapter present the historical context of religious confrontation during the 17th and 18th centuries, and the theoretical perspective of the investigation. The point of departure is to regard the drum not only as an object and a cultural artefact, but as a active participant in the communication between human beings and the world. In chapter 2, an overview of written information and scholarly discussions is given, from the earliest description of a Sami drum in a manuscript from the second half of the 12th century to the hypotheses about the drum pictures presented by researchers during the second half of the 20th century.

    The third chapter deals with the construction of the drum, presents the different drum categories as well as the drumstick and the pointer, and summarizes the scanty information on the older sources about the ritual initiation of the drum, while chapter 4 discusses the drum in an ethnomusicologial perspective. In contrast to much earlier research, it argues in favour of the idea that the drums functioned as musical instruments, not only as sound tools.

    The drum is analysed as an example of Sami iconography in chapter 5, which takes up themes like naturalism vs. abstraction, drum pictures and rock art, and drum pictures as art. Against the background of a discussion of the drum pictures, new interpretations of eight drums and five picture themes are suggested. Chapter 6 takes up the drums function as a tool of divination, accounts for tests on experimental drums, and discusses the origin and forms

    of Sami drum divination.

    Chapter 7, finally, gives a summary of the findings and concludes by relating them to the role of the drum as a symbol of infinite value for Sami identity.

  • 47.
    Cöllen, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Der rätselhafte Gott: Heimdallr im Licht altnordischer Vorstellungen von Ahnen und Ordnung2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims at a deeper understanding of the character of the Old West Norse god Heimdallr and of his function in the mythological traditions. The need for a new study of this god is indicated by the fact that the more than a century old description of him in the secondary literature as “the enigmatic god” is still standing. In contrast to much of the earlier research, the previous study attempts to examine the god primarily through the society in which the traditions pertaining to him were handed down. The category guiding the comparisons of the study is Heimdallr’s relatively early documented quality as an ancestor. The study shows that Heimdallr in pre-Christian time probably represented a more clearly definable and eminent figure than is often believed. In the traditions pertaining to him are, among other things, ideas on descent and order reflected.

  • 48.
    Cöllen, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Der Ursprung des Feuers in nordgermanischer Mythologie: Studien zu Húsdrápa 22007In: Arkiv för nordisk filologi, ISSN 0066-7668, Vol. 122, p. 59-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the complicated second strophe of the ON. poem . It stresses the fact that Snorri Sturluson is not only our source to the strophe but also himself an interpretor of it. This brings me back to an earlier suggestion that the -- from Snorri on -- supposed location Singasteinn could actually be an object, a possibility that leads me to propose a new linguistic interpretation. Finally, the sontent is put into a larger comparative myth complex which would suit the actors of the strophe, and also help us to a fuller understanding of its meaning.

  • 49.
    Dey, Juthika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Religionkonflikter inom skolans värld: En studie om skildringen av antisemitism respektive islamofobi i svenska läroböcker i religionskunskap mellan åren 1968 och 20142016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden today is a quite multicultural country with people from all over the world. A large part of the population is descended from the Middle East, from where culture and religion can be foreign to us Swedes. Due to lack of knowledge regarding these religions stereotypical images can easily arise which can lead to fear or even hatred for the alien religion or the people belonging to the foreign religion.

       This paper aims to investigate how Swedish school books of the subject religion depict the phenomena of Islam phobia and anti-Semitism in their work over the past 40 years. This paper also intends to examine the similarities and differences in the depiction. My main question of this paper is "How is anti-Semitism and Islam phobia depicted in the school books?" Method used for this study is a content analysis. Content analysis is a form of text analysis that is used to describe characteristics of the messages embedded in texts.

        The terms anti-Semitism and Islam phobia origin portrayed both as consequences of historical reference that led to negative attitude against the specific religion and this, in turn, can lead to racism and discrimination.

  • 50.
    Echazu, Esteban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, History of Religions.
    Nyateism vs teism-debatten: En analys av Dinesh D'Souza's argumentation2013Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years the western world has seen an increasing interest in the topic of atheism, with bestselling books by writers like Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris and Christopher Hitchens. The critic of religions that these writers have brought to the table have not gone unmet, with writers like Dinesh D'Souza rushing to the defence of Chrisianity.

    Taking on the arguments of New York Times bestselling author Dinesh D'Souza in the current debate on the existece of God and the usefullness of religion, I here examine the claim by D'Souza that atheism, in fact, is responsible for the worst mass murders of history. In taking D'Souza's arguments and analyzing them on its own philosophical merits, with methods like the process of elimination and information evaluation (i.e source criticism), I will here show just exactly how persuasive these arguments prove to be. In the following pages we will not only discuss the role of atheism in 20th centuary totalitarianism, but also answer questions like ”Was Hitler an atheist or a theist?”, ”Is atheism responsible for the worst crimes of history?” and ”Are people who believe in God in fact more moral the those who do not?”

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