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  • 1.
    Birgner, Carolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Pharmaceutical Pharmacology.
    Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna M. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Bergström, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Pharmaceutical Pharmacology.
    Altered extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA in the rat nucleus accumbens shell in response to sub-chronic nandrolone administration and a subsequent amphetamine challenge2007In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 412, no 2, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associated with acts of violence and polydrug use, abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is an increasing problem in society. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether sub-chronic treatment with the AAS nandrolone decanoate affects dopamine release and dopamine metabolism in the rat nucleus accumbens shell, before and after an amphetamine challenge. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received daily i.m. injections of nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 days. On day 15, the animals were anaesthetized and a microdialysis probe was implanted into the nucleus accumbens shell. Extracellular fluid was collected 1 h before and 3 h after a single amphetamine injection (5 mg/kg). The samples were then analyzed regarding the content of dopamine, and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two weeks of nandrolone decanoate administration caused a significant decrease of the basal DOPAC and HVA levels, which remained low during the first hour following the amphetamine challenge. Dopamine levels did not differ significantly between groups, neither after the nandrolone pre-treatment nor the amphetamine challenge. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that AAS alter the metabolism of dopamine in a brain region involved in the development of drug dependence.

  • 2.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Characterization of Substance P (SP) Aminoterminal SP (1-7) Binding in Brain Regions and Spinal Cord of the Male Rat: Studies on the Interaction with Opioid Related Pathways2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Binding sites for substance P(1-7), SP(1-7) have been identified and characterized for the first time in crude membrane fraction from rat CNS using tritiated ([3H]) SP(1-7) as tracer. These putative receptors were investigated in relation to their affinity for tachykinins, opioid peptides and sigma receptor ligands. [3H]-SP(1-7) specifically binds to high affinity binding sites identified as receptor targets for the heptapeptide SP (1-7). Two distinct binding sites were observed in the spinal cord. One site is recognized by high affinity for SP(1-7) with a Kd of 0.5 nM, whereas the other site showed low affinity for the heptapeptide (Kd=12 nM). In the brain, the binding of SP(1-7) fitted a single site binding model with a Kd of 4.4 nM and a Ki of 4.2 nM. Further, using the spinal cord membranes the binding of [3H]-SP (1-7) was weakly displaced by SP and other N-terminal fragments thereof and no or negligible affinity was observed for ligands of the NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 tachykinin receptors, C-terminal SP(5-11), Tyr-w-MIF-1 or the mu-opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naloxonazine. On the other hand it was significantly displaced by endomorphin-2, DAMGO, and Try-MIF-1 and exhibit some affinity for MIF-1, ß-casomorphin and endomorphin-1. However, only endomorphin-2, DAMGO and Tyr-MIF-1 showed affinity in the close range of the native peptide SP(1-7). The affinity of endomorphin-2 for the spinal cord site was 10 times lower than that of SP(1-7) but more than 100 times higher than the affinity recorded for endomorphin-1. Tyr-MIF-1 but not Tyr-w-MIF-1 showed similar affinity as endomorphin-2 for SP(1-7) site. All peptides exhibiting high affinity at the SP(1-7) site, have a phenylalanine or a leucine residue in their C-terminal structure.

    Further, synthetic analogues of SP(1-7) were tested for their affinity for the SP(1-7) receptor in the rat spinal cord. An important finding here was that the receptor-ligand-interaction was favoured by the C-terminal region of SP(1-7). Residues at positions 5-7 appeared crucial for binding to the specific SP(1-7) site. The presence of the amidated Phe7 residue was extremely critical for binding to the SP(1-7) site.The analogue Gln5-Gln6-Phe7-NH2 was almost equipotent with the parent peptide in the SP (1-7) receptor binding assay.

    Furthermore, the SP(1-7)-amide potently and dose dependently reduced several signs of the reaction to morphine withdrawal and was significantly attenuated by the addition of the sigma agonist SK-10047.

    In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis has contributed the characterization of the properties of highly selective binding sites for SP(1-7) in the rat spinal cord and VTA. These sites appear to be distinct from the µ-opioid receptor or any of the known neurokinin receptors. The study further indicates that the SP(1-7)-amide mimics the effect of the nativ heptapeptide and that the mechanisms for its action involve a sigma receptor site.

    List of papers
    1. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 differently interact with specific binding sites for substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) in the rat spinal cord
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 differently interact with specific binding sites for substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) in the rat spinal cord
    Show others...
    2006 In: Peptides, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 753-759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97821 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Endomorphins interact with the substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) binding in the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endomorphins interact with the substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) binding in the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1820-1824Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently identified a specific binding site for the tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) fragment SP1-7 in the rat spinal cord. This site appeared very specific for SP1-7 as the binding affinity of this compound highly exceeded those of other SP fragments. We also observed that endomorphin-2 (EM-2) exhibited high potency in displacing SP1-7 from this site. In the present work using a [H-3]-labeled derivative of the heptapeptide we have identified and characterized [H-3]-SP1-7 binding in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA). Similarly to the [H-3]-SP1-7 binding in the spinal cord the affinity of unlabeled SP1-7 to the specific site in VTA was significantly higher than those of other SP fragments. Further, the tachykinin receptor NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 ligands showed no or negligible binding to the identified site. However, the mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists DAMGO, EM-1 and EM-2 did, and significant difference was observed in the binding affinity between the two endomorphins. As recorded from displacement curves the affinity of EM-2 for the SP1-7 site was 4-5 times weaker than that for SP1-7 but about 5 times higher than that of EM-1. The opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naloxonazine showed weak or negligible binding. it was concluded that the specific site identified for SP1-7 binding in the rat VTA is distinct from the MOP receptor although it exhibits high affinity for EM-2.

    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97822 (URN)10.1016/j.peptides.2008.05.014 (DOI)000260284100024 ()
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Small peptides mimicking substance P (1-7) and encompassing a C-terminal amide functionality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small peptides mimicking substance P (1-7) and encompassing a C-terminal amide functionality
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Neuropeptides, ISSN 0143-4179, E-ISSN 1532-2785, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the biological effects demonstrated after administration of substance P (SP) in vivo can indirectly be attributed to the fragmentation of the undecapeptide to its N-terminal bioactive fragment SP1–7. This heptapeptide (H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-OH) is a major bioactive metabolite from SP that frequently exerts similar biological effects as the parent peptide but also, in several cases, completely opposite actions. Specific binding sites for the heptapeptide SP1–7 that are separate from the SP preferred NK receptors have been identified. In this study we demonstrate that (a) the C-terminal part of the SP metabolite SP1–7 is most important for binding as deduced from an Ala scan and that a replacement of Phe7 for Ala is deleterious, (b) truncation of the N-terminal amino acid residues of SP1–7 delivers peptides with retained binding activity, although with somewhat lower binding affinities than SP1–7 and (c) a C-terminal amide group as a replacement for the terminal carboxy group of SP1–7 and for all of the truncated ligands synthesized affords approximately 5–10-fold improvements of the binding affinities.

    Keywords
    Substance P (1–7), SP (1–7), SP1–7, Substance P, Structure–activity relationships (SAR), Ala scan, Peptidomimetics
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97823 (URN)10.1016/j.npep.2007.11.002 (DOI)000254231100003 ()18093649 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. The C-terminal amidated analogue of the Substance P (SP) fragment SP (1-7) attenuates the expression of naloxone- precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent rats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The C-terminal amidated analogue of the Substance P (SP) fragment SP (1-7) attenuates the expression of naloxone- precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent rats
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2418-2422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We previously demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of the substance P (SP) aminoterminal fragment SP(1-7) attenuates the expression of morphine withdrawal in the male rat. In this study we have used a synthetic analogue of this peptide, i.e. the SP(1-7) amide showing higher binding potency than the native heptapeptide, in a similar experimental set-up. Thus, Wistar male rats were made tolerant to morphine by daily injections of the opiate during 8 days. Following peptide administration (i.c.v.) and a subsequent naloxone challenge a variety of physical syndromes of withdrawal were recorded. We observed that the SP(1-7) amide potently and dose-dependently reduced several signs of reaction to morphine withdrawal. Interestingly, the effect of the peptide amide was significantly attenuated by the addition of the sigma agonist (+)-SKF-10047. We conclude that the SP(1-7) amide mimics the effect of the native SP fragment and that the mechanisms for its action involve a sigma receptor site.

    Keywords
    Morphine, Opiate, Substance P (SP), SP1-7 amide, Rat, Withdrawal, Sigma receptor
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-97824 (URN)10.1016/j.peptides.2009.08.009 (DOI)000272903900044 ()19686790 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Botros, Milad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Mattias
    Johansson, Tobias
    Zhou, Qin
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Frändberg, Per-Anders
    Tömböly, Csaba
    Toth, Geza
    Le Greves, Pierre
    Nyberg, Fred
    Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 differently interact with specific binding sites for substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) in the rat spinal cord2006In: Peptides, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 753-759Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Botros, Milad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Zhou, Qin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Tömblöy, Csaba
    Toth, Geza
    Le Greves, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Endomorphins interact with the substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP (1-7) binding in the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain2008In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1820-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently identified a specific binding site for the tachykinin peptide substance P (SP) fragment SP1-7 in the rat spinal cord. This site appeared very specific for SP1-7 as the binding affinity of this compound highly exceeded those of other SP fragments. We also observed that endomorphin-2 (EM-2) exhibited high potency in displacing SP1-7 from this site. In the present work using a [H-3]-labeled derivative of the heptapeptide we have identified and characterized [H-3]-SP1-7 binding in the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA). Similarly to the [H-3]-SP1-7 binding in the spinal cord the affinity of unlabeled SP1-7 to the specific site in VTA was significantly higher than those of other SP fragments. Further, the tachykinin receptor NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 ligands showed no or negligible binding to the identified site. However, the mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists DAMGO, EM-1 and EM-2 did, and significant difference was observed in the binding affinity between the two endomorphins. As recorded from displacement curves the affinity of EM-2 for the SP1-7 site was 4-5 times weaker than that for SP1-7 but about 5 times higher than that of EM-1. The opioid receptor antagonists naloxone and naloxonazine showed weak or negligible binding. it was concluded that the specific site identified for SP1-7 binding in the rat VTA is distinct from the MOP receptor although it exhibits high affinity for EM-2.

  • 5.
    Fransson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Small peptides mimicking substance P (1-7) and encompassing a C-terminal amide functionality2008In: Neuropeptides, ISSN 0143-4179, E-ISSN 1532-2785, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the biological effects demonstrated after administration of substance P (SP) in vivo can indirectly be attributed to the fragmentation of the undecapeptide to its N-terminal bioactive fragment SP1–7. This heptapeptide (H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-OH) is a major bioactive metabolite from SP that frequently exerts similar biological effects as the parent peptide but also, in several cases, completely opposite actions. Specific binding sites for the heptapeptide SP1–7 that are separate from the SP preferred NK receptors have been identified. In this study we demonstrate that (a) the C-terminal part of the SP metabolite SP1–7 is most important for binding as deduced from an Ala scan and that a replacement of Phe7 for Ala is deleterious, (b) truncation of the N-terminal amino acid residues of SP1–7 delivers peptides with retained binding activity, although with somewhat lower binding affinities than SP1–7 and (c) a C-terminal amide group as a replacement for the terminal carboxy group of SP1–7 and for all of the truncated ligands synthesized affords approximately 5–10-fold improvements of the binding affinities.

  • 6.
    Fransson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Discovery of Dipeptides with High Affinity to the Specific Binding Site for Substance P1-72010In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 2383-2389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substance P 1-7 (SP1-7, H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-OH) is the major bioactive metabolite of substance P. The interest in this heptapeptide originates from the observation that it modulates, and in certain cases opposes the effects of the parent peptide. e.g., the nociceptive effect. The p-opioid receptor agonist endomorphin-2 (EM-2, H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) has been found to also interact with the specific binding site of SP1-7 with only a 10-fold lower affinity compared to the native peptide. Considering the smaller size of EM-2 compared to the target heptapeptide, it was selected as a lead compound in the development of low-molecular-weight ligands to the SP1-7 binding site. An alanine scan and truncation study led to the unexpected discovery of the dipeptide H-Phe-Phe-NH2 (K-i = 1.5 nM), having equal affinity as the endogenous heptapeptide SP1-7. Moreover, the studies show that the C-terminal phenylalanine amide is crucial for the affinity of the dipeptide.

  • 7.
    Georgsson, Jennie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Synthesis of a new class of druglike angiotensin II C-terminal mimics with affinity for the AT2 receptor2007In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1711-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four tripeptides corresponding to the C-terminal region of angiotensin II were synthesized. One of these peptides (Ac-His-Pro-Ile) showed moderate binding affinity for the AT2 receptor. Two aromatic histidine-related scaffolds were synthesized and introduced in the tripeptides to give eight new peptidomimetic structures. Three of the new peptide-derived druglike molecules exhibited selective, nanomolar affinity for the AT2 receptor. These ligands may become lead compounds in the future development of novel classes of selective AT2 receptor agonists.

  • 8.
    Georgsson, Jennie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Plouffe, Bianca
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Angiotensin II Pseudopeptides Containing 1,3,5-Trisubstituted Benzene Scaffolds with High AT2 Receptor Affinity2005In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 48, no 21, p. 6620-6631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two 1,3,5-trisubstituted aromatic scaffolds intended to serve as γ-turn mimetics have been synthesized and incorporated in five pseudopeptide analogues of angiotensin II (Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe), replacing Val-Tyr-Ile, Val-Tyr, or Tyr-Ile. All the tested compounds exhibited nanomolar affinity for the AT2 receptor with the best compound (3) having a Ki of 1.85 nM. Four pseudopeptides were AT2 selective, while one (5) also exhibited good affinity for the AT1 receptor (Ki = 30.3 nM). This pseudopeptide exerted full agonistic activity in an AT2 receptor induced neurite outgrowth assay but displayed no agonistic effect in an AT1 receptor functional assay. Molecular modeling, using the program DISCOtech, showed that the high-affinity ligands could interact similarly with the AT2 receptor as other ligands with high affinity for this receptor. A tentative agonist model is proposed for AT2 receptor activation by angiotensin II analogues. We conclude that the 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene rings can be conveniently prepared and are suitable as γ-turn mimics.

  • 9.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Neuropeptide conversion to bioactive fragments: an important pathway in neuromodulation2003In: Current protein and peptide science, ISSN 1389-2037, E-ISSN 1875-5550, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 31-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Biosynthetic pathways for the formation of neuroactive peptides and the processes for their inactivation include several enzymatic steps. In addition to enzymatic processing and degradation, several neuropeptides have been shown to undergo enzymatic conversion to fragments with retained or modified biological activity. This has most clearly been demonstrated for e.g. opioid peptides, tachykinins, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as for peptides belonging to the renin-angiotensin system. Sometimes the released fragment shares the activity of the parent compound. However, in many cases the conversion reaction is linked to a change in the receptor activation profile, i.e. the generated fragment acts on and stimulates a receptor not recognized by the parent peptide. This review will describe the characteristics of certain neuropeptide fragments having the ability to modify the biological action of the peptide from which they are derived. Focus will be directed to the tachykinins, the opioid peptides, angiotensins as well as to CGRP, bradykinin and nociceptin. The κ opioid receptor selective opioid peptide, dynorphin, recognized for its ability to produce dysphoria, is converted to the δ opioid receptor agonist Leu-enkephalin, with euphoric properties. The tachykinins, typified by substance P (SP), is converted to the bioactive fragment SP(1-7), a heptapeptide mimicking some but opposing other effects of the parent peptide. The bioactive angiotensin II, known to bind to and stimulate the AT-1 and AT-2 receptors, is converted to angiotensin IV (i.e. angiotensin 3-8) with preference for the AT-4 sites or to angiotensin (1-7), not recognized by any of these receptors. Both angiotensin IV and angiotensin (1-7) are biologically active. For example angiotensin (1-7) retains some of the actions ascribed for angiotensin II but is shown to counteract others. Thus, it is obvious that the activity of many neuroactive peptides is modulated by bioactive fragments, which are formed by the action of a variety of peptidases. This phenomenon appears to represent an important regulatory mechanism that modulates many neuropeptide systems but is generally not acknowledged.

  • 10.
    Hedner, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Sjögren, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Frändberg, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Göransson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Dahlström, Mia
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Bohlin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Brominated cyclodipeptides from the marine sponge Geodia barretti as selective 5-HT ligands2006In: Journal of natural products (Print), ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 1421-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brominated cyclodipeptides barettin(cyclo[(6-bromo-8-entryptophan) arginine]) and 8,9-dihydrobarettin ( cyclo[(6-bromotryptophan) arginine]) isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti have previously been shown to inhibit settlement of barnacle larvae in a dose-dependent manner in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 25 mu M. To further establish the molecular target and mode of action of these compounds, we investigated their affinity to human serotonin receptors. The tryptophan residue in the barettins resembles that of endogenous serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine]. A selection of human serotonin receptors, including representatives from all subfamilies (1-7), were transfected into HEK-293 cells. Barettin selectively interacted with the serotonin receptors 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT4 at concentrations close to that of endogenous serotonin, with the corresponding K-i values being 1.93, 0.34, and 1.91 mu M, respectively. 8,9-Dihydrobarettin interacted exclusively with the 5-HT2C receptor with a K-i value of 4.63 mu M; it failed to show affinity to 5-HT2A and 5-HT4, indicating that the double bond between the tryptophan and arginine residue plays an important role in the interaction with the receptor proteins.

  • 11.
    Johannesson, Petra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nikiforovich, Gregory V
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Synnergren, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Le Greves, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Vinyl sulfide cyclized analogues of angiotensin II with high affinity and full agonist activity at the AT(1) receptor2002In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1767-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vinyl sulfide cyclized analogues of the octapeptide angiotensin II that are structurally related to the cyclic disulfide agonist c[Hcy(3,5)]Ang II have been prepared. The synthesis relies on the reaction of the mercapto group of a cysteine residue in position 3 with the formyl group of allysine incorporated in position 5 of angiotensin II. A mixture of the cis and the trans isomers was formed, and these were separated and isolated by RP-HPLC. Thus, the three-atom CH(2)[bond]S[bond]S element of the AT(1) receptor agonist c[Hcy(3,5)]Ang II has been displaced by a bioisosteric three-atom S[bond]CH[double bond]CH element. A comparative conformational analysis of the 13-membered ring systems of c[Hcy(3,5)]Ang II and the 13-membered cyclic vinyl sulfides with cis and trans configuration, respectively, suggested that all three systems adopted very similar low-energy conformations. This similarity was also reflected in the bioactivity. Both of the compounds that contained the ring systems encompassing the cis or trans vinyl sulfide elements between positions 3 and 5 exhibited K(i) values less than 2 nM and exerted full agonism at the AT(1) receptor. In contrast, vinyl sulfide cyclization involving the amino acid residues 5 and 7 rendered inactive compounds. The cyclic vinyl sulfides that have agonist activity were both shown to possess low-energy conformers compatible with the previously proposed 3D model for the bioactive conformation of Ang II.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Frändberg, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Le Grevès, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Molecular mechanisms for nanomolar concentrations of neurosteroids at NR1/NR2B receptors2008In: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, ISSN 0022-3565, E-ISSN 1521-0103, Vol. 324, no 2, p. 759-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurosteroids are endogenous steroids acting in the central nervous system. They participate in synaptic plasticity, memory and learning, Alzheimer's disease, and certain drug reward. Some mechanisms behind these effects are thought to be nongenomic, e. g., they modulate the function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. In this study, we used a Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transfected with NMDA receptor constituents NR1/NR2B, to investigate the effects of nanomolar concentrations of the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and pregnanolone sulfate (3 alpha 5 beta S) on binding of the radioligand [H-3] ifenprodil. Neither of the steroids displaced [H-3] ifenprodil, but both induced a shift in its fit from one to two binding sites. The effects of the neurosteroids were also measured as changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) after glutamate stimulation. Although the steroids did not alter the response to glutamate, they influenced the extent of ifenprodil blockade of the receptor: PS increased and 3 alpha 5 beta S decreased this effect. The coincubation of several NMDA receptor ligands in the assay indicated that PS and 3 alpha 5 beta S act via different binding sites from those for glutamate, glycine, and dithiothreitol. Combining the two steroids revealed that they do not share a common binding site. In conclusion, these results substantiate previous evidence of the allosteric modulatory effect induced by PS and 3 alpha 5 beta S on NMDA receptors at nanomolar concentrations. The neurosteroid-mediated modulation of the receptor is also reflected in an altered glutamate stimulated [Ca2+](i), in response to ifenprodil.

  • 13.
    LaForge, K. Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Khuri, Elizabeth
    Wells, Aaron
    Leal, Suzanne M.
    Ott, Jurg
    Nyberg, Fred
    Kreek, Mary Jeanne
    A (CA)n Repeat Polymorphism in Enkephalin Gene: Association with Opiate AddictionArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    LaForge, K. Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kreek, Mary Jeanne
    Primary structure of guinea pig preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNAs: multiple transcription initiation sites for preprodynorphin2004In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin are protein precursors from which are derived two classes of opioid neurotransmitter peptides. Dynorphin A((1-17)) is produced by proteolytic processing of prodynorphin, and processing of proenkephalin yields the enkephalin peptides. We report here on the isolation and sequencing of multiple clones for these two mRNAs from a cDNA library. Two cDNA clones of preprodynorphin contained the full-length sequence (2.35 kb) with the primary structure predicted from the guinea pig gene sequence. In contrast, one clone encoded the full-length sequence but also an additional 192 nt at the 5' end. This sequence has high homology to the 5' flanking region of the human preprodynorphin gene, and RNase protection assays demonstrated that in addition to a primary initiation site, transcription of this mRNA is initiated at several sites 160-190 nt 5' with respect to the primary site. This difference may alter translational efficiency or mRNA stability. The sequence of preproenkephalin cDNA clones confirmed the structure predicted from the gene sequence. One clone, however, contained sequences encoded by exons 2 and 3, and initiated within the first intron (intron A) of the gene. We used RNase protection mapping to assess the abundance in the brain and pituitary of preproenkephalin transcripts that initiate within intron A. These studies confirmed that the primary transcription start site is 28 nucleotides downstream from the TATAA site, and that intron A sequences are not present in significant amounts in these tissues.

  • 15.
    LaForge, K. Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Proudnikov, Dmitri
    Ball, Jonathan
    Leal, Suzanne M.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Kreek, Mary Jeanne
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human preproenkephalin gene in association with opiate addictionArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    LaForge, K. Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Yuferov, Vadim
    Zhou, Yan
    Ho, Ann
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kreek, Mary Jeanne
    “Binge” cocaine differentially alters preproenkephalin mRNA levels in guinea pig brain2003In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 353-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were administered i.p. injections of cocaine or saline for 2 or 7 days in a "binge" paradigm. RNA was isolated from dissected brain regions and levels of preproenkephalin mRNA and total RNA were quantified by RNase protection assays. Following 2 days of "binge" cocaine administration, no significant alterations in preproenkephalin mRNA levels were detected in six brain regions. Following 7 days of cocaine administration, however, lower levels of preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus of cocaine-treated animals and higher levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala. These findings differed from previous studies in the rat, so an additional experiment was performed with animals treated at the 7 day time point. For increased statistical power, data from the two experiments were combined and examined by two-way ANOVAs; in this combined analysis, increases in preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, decreases were found in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, with no change in thalamus, caudate putamen, or cerebellum. These observed differences between guinea pigs and rats make this species an interesting model for neurobiological studies of cocaine-induced alterations in neuropeptide gene expression in the mammalian brain.

  • 17.
    LaForge, Karl Steven
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Preproenkephalin Gene and mRNA: Studies of Structure, Function, Cocaine Responses in an Animal Model, and Genetic Association with Human Opiate Addiction2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The endogenous opioid enkephalin neuropeptides are mediators of pain perception and have been implicated in human addictions. The preproenkephalin gene and its mRNA have also provided many examples of tissue- and species-specific variations in mRNA structure produced through a variety of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Resultant differences in mRNA structure, in several cases, have impact on translation of enkephalin prepropeptide. The reports and discussion presented herein describe studies of the preproenkephalin gene and mRNA structure in the guinea pig, an animal that may have specific advantages for modeling the human endogenous opioid system. A guinea pig brain cDNA library was constructed and screened for clones of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, which were then sequenced. These studies confirmed the predicted mRNA structure that had been previously proposed based on homology with gene sequences and other methods. Multiple transcription initiation sites for each of these prepropeptide genes were also identified. Studies were conducted in the guinea pig to evaluate the effects of the administration of cocaine in a “binge” paradigm for two and seven days on preproenkephalin mRNA levels in several brain regions. “Binge” cocaine administration for seven (but not two) days resulted in differential changes in mRNA levels in different brain regions. Decreases were observed in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, and increases in the frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. These findings differ from those of previous rodent studies and suggest that this species may provide a useful alternative model for the study of the effects of cocaine on preproenkephalin gene expression in the human brain. Human genetic studies were also conducted in opioid-dependent (formerly heroin-addicted) and control subjects to test the hypothesis that the preproenkephalin gene is associated with heroin addiction. In two separate studies, we obtained evidence that this gene may be associated with the development of human heroin addiction.

    List of papers
    1. Primary structure of guinea pig preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNAs: multiple transcription initiation sites for preprodynorphin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary structure of guinea pig preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNAs: multiple transcription initiation sites for preprodynorphin
    2004 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin are protein precursors from which are derived two classes of opioid neurotransmitter peptides. Dynorphin A((1-17)) is produced by proteolytic processing of prodynorphin, and processing of proenkephalin yields the enkephalin peptides. We report here on the isolation and sequencing of multiple clones for these two mRNAs from a cDNA library. Two cDNA clones of preprodynorphin contained the full-length sequence (2.35 kb) with the primary structure predicted from the guinea pig gene sequence. In contrast, one clone encoded the full-length sequence but also an additional 192 nt at the 5' end. This sequence has high homology to the 5' flanking region of the human preprodynorphin gene, and RNase protection assays demonstrated that in addition to a primary initiation site, transcription of this mRNA is initiated at several sites 160-190 nt 5' with respect to the primary site. This difference may alter translational efficiency or mRNA stability. The sequence of preproenkephalin cDNA clones confirmed the structure predicted from the gene sequence. One clone, however, contained sequences encoded by exons 2 and 3, and initiated within the first intron (intron A) of the gene. We used RNase protection mapping to assess the abundance in the brain and pituitary of preproenkephalin transcripts that initiate within intron A. These studies confirmed that the primary transcription start site is 28 nucleotides downstream from the TATAA site, and that intron A sequences are not present in significant amounts in these tissues.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91413 (URN)10.1016/j.brainresbull.2004.01.008 (DOI)15130700 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. “Binge” cocaine differentially alters preproenkephalin mRNA levels in guinea pig brain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Binge” cocaine differentially alters preproenkephalin mRNA levels in guinea pig brain
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 353-357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were administered i.p. injections of cocaine or saline for 2 or 7 days in a "binge" paradigm. RNA was isolated from dissected brain regions and levels of preproenkephalin mRNA and total RNA were quantified by RNase protection assays. Following 2 days of "binge" cocaine administration, no significant alterations in preproenkephalin mRNA levels were detected in six brain regions. Following 7 days of cocaine administration, however, lower levels of preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus of cocaine-treated animals and higher levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala. These findings differed from previous studies in the rat, so an additional experiment was performed with animals treated at the 7 day time point. For increased statistical power, data from the two experiments were combined and examined by two-way ANOVAs; in this combined analysis, increases in preproenkephalin mRNA were observed in frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, decreases were found in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, with no change in thalamus, caudate putamen, or cerebellum. These observed differences between guinea pigs and rats make this species an interesting model for neurobiological studies of cocaine-induced alterations in neuropeptide gene expression in the mammalian brain.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91414 (URN)10.1016/S0361-9230(02)00927-9 (DOI)12507685 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. A (CA)n Repeat Polymorphism in Enkephalin Gene: Association with Opiate Addiction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A (CA)n Repeat Polymorphism in Enkephalin Gene: Association with Opiate Addiction
    Show others...
    Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91415 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human preproenkephalin gene in association with opiate addiction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human preproenkephalin gene in association with opiate addiction
    Show others...
    Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-91416 (URN)
    Available from: 2004-03-11 Created: 2004-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Lindman, Susanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Synthesis, receptor binding affinities and conformational properties of cyclic methylenedithioether analogues of angiotensin II2001In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 763-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic 12-, 13- and 14-membered ring angiotensin II analogues related to disulfides but encompassing methylenedithioether bridges have been prepared. The affinity data from these derivatives were compared to those from the disulfides. The methylenedithioether analogues displayed good binding affinities to rat liver AT1 receptors although in most cases somewhat lower than their disulfide counterparts. One of the methylenedithioethers with a 13-membered ring system demonstrated the highest binding affinity among the thioethers. Theoretical conformational analysis of model compounds of the two series were performed suggesting a similarity between the disulfide and the corresponding methylenedithioether analogues and also between the ring size homologues. This analysis also suggested that some of the model compounds were prone to adopt inverse γ-turn conformations, which was further supported by use of NMR spectroscopy of the 12-membered ring analogue in the series. The easily executed methylenedithioether cyclization should constitute a valuable complement to the common disulfide methodology for fine-tuning and for probing the bioactive conformation of peptides.

  • 19.
    Magnusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Enzymatic conversion of dynorphin A in the rat brain is affected by administration of nandrolone decanoate2007In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 851-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) seems to produce profound effects on the central nervous system, leading to aggressive behavior and increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse. The present study addresses the effect on the enzymatic transformation, here called dynorphin converting enzyme-like activity. The formation of the mu/delta opioid peptide receptor-preferring Leu-enkephalin-Arg6 from the kappa opioid peptide receptor-preferring dynorphin A was measured in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate. Significant variations in enzymatic transformation were observed in several brain regions. An altered receptor activation profile in these regions may be one contributory factor behind AAS-induced personality changes.

  • 20.
    Murugaiah, A. M. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Wallinder, Chalotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Mahalingam, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Wu, Xiongyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Wan, Yiqian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Plouffe, Bianca
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Alterman, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Selective angiotensin II AT(2) receptor agonists devoid of the imidazole ring system2007In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 15, no 22, p. 7166-7183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile parallel synthetic method to obtain three series of non-cyclic analogues of the first drug-like selective angiotensin II AT2 receptor agonist (1) has been developed. In analogy with the transformation of losartan to valsartan it was demonstrated that a non-cyclic moiety could be employed as an imidazole replacement to obtain AT2 selective compounds. In all the three series, AT2 receptor ligands with affinities in the lower nanomolar range were found. None of the analogues exhibited any affinity for the AT1 receptor. Four compounds, 17, 22, 39 and 51, were examined in a neurite outgrowth cell assay. All four compounds were found to exert a high agonistic effect as deduced from their capacity to induce neurite elongation in neuronal cells, as does angiotensin II.

  • 21.
    Nyberg, Fred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Neuropeptides in hyperthermia2007In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, Vol. 162, p. 277-293Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain damage as a result of hyperthermia or heat-stress has been the focus of attention in many areas of neuroscience in recent years. Heat-induced alterations in structural components of the central nervous system (CNS) will obviously also influence the relevant transmitter systems, which may be involved in a variety of different behaviors. Indeed, many studies have indicated that excitatory amino acids, and monoaminergic and peptidergic systems are affected during hyperthermia. This chapter will address past and current research on various neuropeptides that have been implicated in the consequences of hyperthermia and various other heat disorders. However, considering the large and even increasing number of identified neuroactive peptides, it is necessary to limit this chapter to a few peptides or peptide systems, which have received particular attention in relation to hyperthermia. Among these are the opioid peptides, the tachykinins, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and peptides belonging to the angiotensin system. Most of these neuropeptides are not only affected by hyperthermia and abnormal alterations in the body temperature but also are involved in the endogenous mechanisms of regulating body temperature. This review does not endeavor to fully cover the field but it does aim to give the reader an idea of how various neuropeptides may be involved in the control of body heat and how peptidergic systems are affected during various thermal changes, including both immediate and long-term consequences.

  • 22.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Synthesis and AT2 receptor-binding properties of angiotensin II analogues2004In: Journal of Peptide Research, ISSN 1397-002X, E-ISSN 1399-3011, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 194-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the importance of the amino acid side chains in the octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) for binding to the AT2 receptor. A Gly scan was performed where each amino acid in Ang II was substituted one-by-one with glycine. The resulting set of peptides was tested for affinity to the AT2 receptor (porcine myometrial membranes). For a comparison, the peptides were also tested for affinity to the AT1 receptor (rat liver membranes). Only the substitution of Arg2 reduced affinity to the AT2 receptor considerably (92-fold when compared with Ang II). For the other Gly-substituted analogues the affinity to the AT2 receptor was only moderately affected. To further investigate the role of the Arg2 side chain for receptor binding, we synthesized some N-terminally modified Ang II analogues. According to these studies a positive charge in the N-terminal end of angiotensin III [Ang II (2–8)] is not required for high AT2 receptor affinity but seems to be more important in Ang II. With respect to the AT1 receptor, [Gly2]Ang II and [Gly8]Ang II lacked binding affinity (Ki > 10 μm). Replacement of the Val3 or Ile5 residues with Gly produced only a slight decrease in affinity. Interestingly, substitution of Tyr4 or His6, which are known to be very important for AT1 receptor binding, resulted in only 48 and 14 times reduction in affinity, respectively.

  • 23.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    A Selective AT2 Receptor Ligand with a γ-Turn-Like Mimetic replacing the Amino Acid Residues 4-5 of Angiotensin II2004In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 859-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three angiotensin II (Ang II) analogues encompassing a benzodiazepine-based γ-turn-like scaffold have been synthesized. Evaluation of the compounds in a radioligand binding assay showed that they had no affinity to the rat liver AT1 receptor. However, one of the compounds displayed considerable affinity to the pig uterus AT2 receptor (Ki = 3.0 nM) while the other two lacked affinity to this receptor. It was hypothesized that the reason for the inactivity of one of these analogues to the AT2 receptor was that the guanidino group of the Arg2 residue and/or the N-terminal end of the pseudopeptide could not interact optimally with the receptor. To investigate this hypothesis, a conformational analysis was performed and a comparison was carried out with the monocyclic methylenedithioether analogue cyclo(S−CH2−S)[Cys3,5]Ang II which is known to bind with high affinity to the AT2 receptor (Ki = 0.62 nM). This comparison showed that, in the compounds with high AT2 receptor affinity, the guanidino group of the Arg2 residue and the N-terminal end could access common regions of space that were not accessible to the inactive compound. To examine the importance of the guanidino group for binding, the Arg side chain was removed by substituting Arg2 for Ala2 in the analogue having the high affinity. This analogue lacked affinity to AT2 receptors, which supports the role of the guanidino group in receptor binding.

  • 24.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Plouffe, Bianca
    Beaudry, Hélène
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Wolf, Gunter
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    New selective AT2 receptor ligands encompassing a γ-turn mimetic replacing the amino acid residues 4-5 of angiotensin II act as agonists2005In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 4009-4024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New benzodiazepine-based γ-turn mimetics with one or two amino acid side chains were synthesized. The γ-turn mimetics were incorporated into angiotensin II (Ang II) replacing the Val3-Tyr4-Ile5 or Tyr4-Ile5 peptide segments. All of the resulting pseudopeptides displayed high AT2/AT1 receptor selectivity and exhibited AT2 receptor affinity in the low nanomolar range. Molecular modeling was used to investigate whether the compounds binding to the AT2 receptor could position important structural elements in common areas. A previously described benzodiazepine-based γ-turn mimetic with high affinity for the AT2 receptor was also included in the modeling. It was found that the molecules, although being structurally quite different, could adopt the same binding mode/interaction pattern in agreement with the model hypothesis. The pseudopeptides selected for agonist studies were shown to act as AT2 receptor agonists being able to induce outgrowth of neurite cells, stimulate p42/p44mapk, and suppress proliferation of PC12 cells.

  • 25.
    Rossbach, Uwe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Flensburg, John
    GE Healthcare, Bio-Sciences AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Le Grevès, Pierre
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Molecular Biometry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A quantitative phospho-proteomic study on rat hippocampal synaptoneurosomes following a single 19-nortestosterone administration.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, several studies have been conducted investigating the impact of androgens on the activation of known signaling pathways in cultured primary hippocampal cells and C6 cells. We have recently reported two studies showing altered in vivo phosphorylation of key components in cellular signaling in rat hippocampal synaptoneurosomes after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids. In this paper we report a quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based screening for androgen-induced alterations of phosphoproteins in rat hippocampal synaptoneurosomes following a single 19-nortestosterone administration. We identified over 80 phosphorylated peptides with functions associated with the cytoskeleton and transmembrane signaling. DeCyder™ MS based quantitative comparison of the relative phosphopeptide abundances between the two groups of treatment was computed for the majority of the phosphopeptides.

  • 26.
    Rossbach, Uwe L. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Steensland, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Le Grevès, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nandrolone-induced hippocampal phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits and ERKs2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 357, no 4, p. 1028-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The age-related decline in gonadal steroids is associated with changes in mood and memory function. It appears that normal physiological concentrations of the steroids are required for adequate synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of high levels of androgens subsequent to misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are largely unknown. In this study, rats were given i.m. nandrolone as a single dose or daily for 14 days and the effects on synaptic components in hippocampal synaptoneurosomes were measured 24h after the last injection. Western blot analysis revealed that a single injection of AAS increased phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B and ERK1/2, while the levels of phosphorylated CaMKIIalpha were unaltered. No changes were seen in other synaptic proteins tested, i.e., BDNF, Arc, TUC-4, and beta-tubulin III. Daily administration of nandrolone for 2 weeks did not affect the content of any of the proteins tested. From this in vivo study, it is concluded that important synaptic components respond to a single high dose of nandrolone, an effect that may influence synapse function.

  • 27.
    Rossbach, Uwe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Fälth, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zhou, Qin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Andren, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    A quantitative peptidomic analysis of peptides related to the endogenous opioid and tachykinin systems in nucleus accumbens of rats following naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal2009In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 1091-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have applied a recently developed label-free mass spectrometry based peptidomic approach to identify and quantify a variety of endogenous peptides from rat nucleus accumbens following withdrawal in naloxone-precipitated, morphine-dependent rats of two separate strains. We focused on maturated, partially processed and truncated peptides derived from the peptide precursors proenkephalin, prodynorphin and preprotachykinin. The expression of several identified peptides was dependent on strain and was affected during morphine withdrawal.

  • 28.
    Wallinder, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Guimond, Marie-Odile
    Beaudry, Hélène
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Alterman, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Selective angiotensin II AT2 receptor agonists: Benzamide structure–activity relationships2008In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 6841-6849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the investigation of the structure–activity relationship of nonpeptide AT2 receptor agonists, a series of substituted benzamide analogues of the selective nonpeptide AT2 receptor agonist M024 have been synthesised. In a second series, the biphenyl scaffold was compared to the thienylphenyl scaffold and the impact of the isobutyl substituent and its position on AT1/AT2 receptor selectivity was also investigated. Both series included several compounds with high affinity and selectivity for the AT2 receptor. Three of the compounds were also proven to function as agonists at the AT2 receptor, as deduced from a neurite outgrowth assay, conducted in NG108-15 cells.

  • 29.
    Wu, Xiongyu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Wan, Yiqian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Mahalingam, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Murugaiah, A. M. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Plouffe, Bianca
    Botros, Milad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gallo-Payet, Nicole
    Alterman, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Selective angiotensin II AT(2) receptor agonists: Arylbenzylimidazole structure-activity relationships2006In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 49, no 24, p. 7160-7168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural alterations in the 2- and 5-positions of the first drug-like selective angiotensin II AT(2) receptor agonist (1) have been performed. The imidazole ring system was proven to be a strong determinant for the AT(2) selectivity, and with few exceptions all variations gave good AT(2) receptor affinities and with retained high AT(2)/AT(1) selectivities. On the contrary to the findings with AT(1) receptor agonists, the impact of structural modifications in the 5-position of the AT(2) selective compounds were less pronounced regarding activation of the AT(2) receptor. The butyloxyphenyl (56) and the propylthienyl (50) derivatives were found to exert a high agonistic effect as deduced from their capacity to induce neurite elongation in neuronal cells, as does angiotensin II.

  • 30.
    Ökvist, Anna
    et al.
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sofia
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuzmin, Alexander
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bazov, Igor
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Merino-Martinez, Roxana
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ponomarev, Igor
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.
    Mayfield, R. Dayne
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.
    Harris, R. Adron
    Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.
    Sheedy, Donna
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Garrick, Therese
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Harper, Clive
    Discipline of Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Hurd, Yasmin L.
    Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America and Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Terenius, Lars
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekström, Tomas J.
    The Section of Alcohol and Drug Dependence Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bakalkin, Georgy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Yakovleva, Tatjana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Neuroadaptations in human chronic alcoholics: dysregulation of the NF-κB system2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 9, p. e930-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50 heterodimer) and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-kappaB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant kappaB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA) mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB target DNA sites, kappaB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with kappaB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-kappaB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of kappaB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism.

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