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  • 1. Andersson, Helle W.
    et al.
    Sommerfelt, Kristian
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Ahlsten, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.
    Maternal child-rearing attitudes, IQ and socioeconomic status as related to cognitive abilities of five-year-old children.1996In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of maternal child-rearing attitudes, as measured by the Child Rearing Practices Report, on 5-yr.-old children's Verbal IQ and Performance IQ were investigated in a Scandinavian samp;le of 108 boys and 126 girls. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Restrictiveness, as defined by scores on the Report, showed negative relations to the cognitive measures. However, the significant negative relation between Restrictiveness and Verbal IQ, obtained for both sexes, disappeared when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled The maternal child-rearing attitude of Nurturance, as defined by scores on the Report, was significantly related to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ for boys only. Significant relationships between scores on Nurturance and cognitive abilities of boys remained when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled.

  • 2. Andersson, Helle W.
    et al.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Sommerfelt, K
    Gender and its contribution to the prediction of cognitive abilities at 5 years.1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender-related differences in the prediction of five year-olds' cognitive abilities from measures of distal environment, proximal environment and infant test scores were examined in a random sample of 93 boys and 90 girls. Distal environmental data included maternal IQ, maternal and paternal education. Proximal environmental data included two variables derived from the Home Screening Questionnaire: the Home Questions and the Toy Checklist. The Bayley MDI was administered at age 13 months, whereas WPPSI-R was used as cognitive outcome measure at age 5 years. The relationship between paternal education and child IQ, and between proximal environmental variables and child IQ was significantly stronger for boys than for girls. The associations between proximal environment and IQ in boys, were accounted for by the distal environmental variables. Bayley MDI correlated significantly higher with girls' IQ compared to boys' IQ. Findings are discussed in terms of parental gender-differentiated socialization processes.

  • 3.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Theorell, Töres
    Anderberg, Ulla Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Dance/movement therapy in fibromyalgia patients: Changes in self-figure drawings and their relation to verbal self-rating scales2006In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates if verbally oriented scales are as effective as the visual instruments of self-figure drawing and video interpretation in detecting treatment responses after 6 months of dance/movement therapy in fibromyalgia patients.

    The self-figure drawing and video interpretation technique captured treatment effects that were not seen on verbal scales. In the self-figure drawings, significant differences were seen in the variables “amount of body details” and “amount of paper use in percent” between the treatment group and controls after dance/movement therapy. The treatment group showed a significant increase in the “amount of body details” and “amount of paper use in percent” compared to controls. Specific parts of the verbally oriented ratings in CPRS, “bodily discomfort” and “compulsive act,” were positively correlated to “number of different colours.” The variable “pain and ache” in the CPRS indicated a negative correlation to the “amount of paper use in percent,” i.e. the more pain, the less paper used.

    The use of different assessment techniques may affect the treatment outcome and verbal instrumentation may not be the most appropriate in this patient group. Difficulties perceiving information through verbal/cognitive modalities as well as alexithymia are factors that are discussed.

  • 4.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Theorell, Töres
    Anderberg, Ulla Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dance/movement therapy and changes in stress-related hormones: a study of fibromyalgia patients with video-interpretation2003In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Frans, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernandez, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neurofunctional correlates of post-traumatic stress disorder: A PET case study1999In: NeuroImage / [ed] Rosen, Seitz, Volkmann, Academic Press, 1999, p. 632-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Pissiota, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Bergström, Mats
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symptom provocation in specific phobia affects the substance P neurokinin-1 receptor systems2007In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1002-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Animal studies demonstrate that stress and negative affect enhance the release of the neuropeptide substance P (SP), which binds to the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. This positron emission tomography (PET) study evaluated how the activity in the SP-NK1 receptor system in the amygdala was affected by fear provocation in subjects with specific phobia. Methods: Sixteen adult women with DSM-IV-defined specific phobia for either snakes or spiders but not both viewed pictures of feared and non-feared animals while being PET-scanned for 60 min with the highly specific NK1 receptor antagonist [11C]GR205171 as the labeled PET tracer. Results: The uptake of the labeled NK1 receptor antagonist was significantly reduced in the right amygdala during phobic stimulation. In the left amygdala no significant differences were found between phobic and non-phobic conditions. There was a negative correlation in the right, but not left, amygdala between subjective anxiety ratings and NK1 tracer binding. Conclusions: Fear provocation affects the SP-NK1 receptor system in the right amygdala. This reflects reduced NK1 receptor availability during fear and could mirror an increased release of endogenous substance P.

  • 7.
    Pissiota, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernandez, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neurofunctional correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder: a PET symptom provocation study2002In: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, ISSN 0940-1334, E-ISSN 1433-8491, Vol. 252, no 2, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMARY: Patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show altered cognitive and affective processing and symptomatic responding following exposure to trauma reminders. Previous symptom provocation studies using brain imaging have involved Vietnam veterans. In this study neural correlates were investigated in patients with PTSD resulting from trauma in more recent war zones. (15)Oxygen water and positron emission tomography were used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with war- and combat-related chronic PTSD during exposure to combat and neutral sounds. Self-reports and heart rate confirmed symptomatic responding during traumatic stimulation. The war-related condition, as compared to the neutral, increased rCBF in the right sensorimotor areas (Brodmann areas 4/6), extending into the primary sensory cortex (areas 1/2/3), and the cerebellar vermis. RCBF also increased in the right amygdala and in the periaqueductal gray matter adjacent to the pons. During provocation rCBF was lowered in the right retrosplenial cortex (areas 26/29/30 extending into area 23). Symptom provocation in PTSD promote sensorimotor, amygdaloid and midbrain activation. We conclude that perceptually induced symptom activation in PTSD is associated with an emotionally determined motor preparation and propose that subcortically initiated rather than cortically controlled memory mechanisms determine this pattern.

  • 8.
    Sonnander, K
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Gustavson, K-H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
    Reduced optimality as an indicatór of developmental status at 18 months and school achievement at 8 years1987In: Neuropediatrics, ISSN 0174-304X, E-ISSN 1439-1899, Vol. 18, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Habilitation and Disability. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Biological and social aspects of intellectual disability2005In: Resistance, Reflection and Change / [ed] Gustavsson, Anders, Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 193-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Sonnander, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Emanuelsson, Ingemar
    Department of Education, Göteborg University.
    Kebbon, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Pupils with mild mental retardation in regular Swedish schools: prevalence, objective characteristics, and subjective evaluations1993In: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 97, no 6, p. 692-701Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Stålenheim, E. Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Psychopathy and biological markers in a forensic psychiatric population1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of psychopathy and examine the co-morbidity pattern in a forensic psychiatric population in Sweden. In addition, possible biological markers were evaluated. The research subjects were 61 non-psychotic men, admitted for forensic psychiatric investigations in Uppsala during 1992 - 1994.

    Psychopathy, as assessed with the Psychopathy-Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was common, and 25 % of the subjects had a high degree of psychopathy. Strong co-morbidity was found between psychopathy and Axis I and Axis II DSM-III-R disorders, particularly abuse/dependence disorders and borderline personality disorders. Psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, as measured with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), were significantly correlated with Hare's psychopathy traits. The KSP personality traits were stable over time and between situations, as shown by follow-up after two years.

    Low platelet MAO activity was found in subjects with disorders characterized by a high degree of psychopathy, defined by means of the KSP. However, there was no relationship with criminal behavior.

    Although clinically euthyroid, the research subjects had elevated serum levels of triiodothyronine compared to those in healthy men. Higher levels of triiodothyronine were found in subjects with conditions characterized by abuse and asocial and violent behavior.

    Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were higher in subjects who had been given a diagnosis of type II alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder and/or antisocial behavioral traits of the PCL-R. Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed a relationship between free testosterone and the psychopathy-related scales of the KSP also when age and signs of hepatic damage were taken into account.

  • 12.
    Wikehult, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Lannerstam, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Fugl-Meyer, Axel R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Gerdin, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Use of healthcare a long time after severe burn injury: relation to perceived health and personality characteristics2005In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, Vol. 27, no 15, p. 863-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate which factors are associated with the use of healthcare a long time after severe burn injury.

    Method. After a review process based on clinical reasoning, 69 former burn patients out of a consecutive group treated at the Uppsala Burn Unit from 1980 – 1995 were visited in their homes and their use of care and support was assessed in a semi-structured interview. Post-burn health was assessed with the Burn-Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) and personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP).

    Results.  The participants were injured on average eight years previously. Thirty-four had current contact with healthcare due to their burn injury and had significantly lower scores on three BSHS-B-domains: Simple Abilities, Work and Hand function, and significantly higher scores for the SSP-domain Neuroticism and the SSP-scales Stress Susceptibility, Lack of Assertiveness, and lower scores for Social Desirability. There was no relation to age, gender, time since injury, length of stay, or to the surface area burned.

    Conclusions. A routine screening of personality traits as a supplement to long-term follow-ups may help in identifying the patient's need for care.

  • 13. Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Westling, Bengt E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Appied relaxation vs cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder1995In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 145-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the efficacy of a coping-technique, applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in the treatment of panic disorder. Thirty-eight outpatients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with no (n = 30) or mild (n = 8) avoidance were assessed with independent assessor ratings, self-report scales and self-observation of panic attacks before and after treatment, and at a 1-yr follow-up. The patients were treated individually for 12 weekly sessions. The results showed that both treatments yielded very large improvements, which were maintained, or furthered at follow-up. There was no difference between AR and CBT on any measure. The proportion of panic-free patients were 65 and 74% at post-treatment, and 82 and 89% at follow-up, for AR and CBT, respectively. There were no relapses at follow-up, on the contrary 55% of the patients who still had panic attacks at post-treatment were panic-free at follow-up. Besides affecting panic attacks the treatments also yielded marked and lasting changes on generalized anxiety, depression and cognitive misinterpretations. The conclusion that can be drawn is that both AR and CBT are effective treatments for panic disorder without avoidance.

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