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  • 1.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Maximum results with minimum resources2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 247, article id 24-NUCLArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Jakobsson, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    Lardelli, Michael
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Snowden, Simon
    Management School, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Söderbergh, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Global Energy Systems.
    The Peak of the Oil Age: Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 20082010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1398-1414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of future global oil production presented in the IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO 2008) is divided in to 6 fractions; four relate to crude oil, one to non-conventional oil, and the final fraction is natural-gas-liquids (NGL). Using the production parameter, depletion-rate-of-recoverable- resources, we have analyzed the four crude oil fractions and found that the 75 Mb/d of crude oil production forecast for year 2030 appears significantly overstated, and is more likely to be in the region of 55 Mb/d. Moreover, an alysis of the other fractions strongly suggests lower than expected production levels. In total, our analysis points to a world oil supply in 2030 of 75Mb/d, some 26 Mb/d lower than the IEA predicts. The connection between economic growth and energy use is fundamental in the IEA’s present modeling approach. Since our forecast sees little chance of a significant increase in global oil production, our findings suggest that the ‘‘policy makers, investors and end users’’ to whom WEO 2008 is addressed should rethink their future plans for economic growth. The fact that global oil production has very probably passed its maximum implies that we have reached the Peak of the Oil Age.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Kubler, Lutz
    Geol Survey Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 27635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alno carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alno cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  • 4.
    Andreasson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Energy Security of Informal Settlements: A case study of Metro Manila Karl2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the energy security of households in informal settlements

    through an energy security analysis. This is done as a part of the review process of

    energy security analysis while giving recommendations towards reducing, replacing

    and restricting. This data is gathered through quantitative survey of energy

    consumption patterns of informal settlers in Metro Manila with 168 respondents. The

    study concludes that a push for modern cooking fuels and legal options of electricity

    suppliers is beneficial for energy security. This transition could to be encouraged by

    lowering the cost for entry as well as the price per purchase to make these options

    more affordable and attractive.

  • 5.
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Dispersal and environmental impact of contaminants in organic rich, fibrous sediments of industrial origin in the Baltic Sea2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of the Baltic Sea is negatively affected by hazardous substances such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which include legacy pollutants that were banned decades ago, but still circulate in the ecosystem. Elevated levels of legacy pollutants, identified by HELCOM as key hazardous substances, have been found in accumulations of fibrous sediments, so-called fiberbanks and fiber-rich sediments, which derive from old pulp mills along the Swedish north coast. The fiberbanks are deposited in shallow water and bathymetrical models show evidence of their erosion, potentially caused by propeller wash, submarine landslides and gas ebullition. This thesis addresses the potential dispersal of key substances from three fiberbank sites located in a non-tidal Swedish estuary, in which metals and POPs are present in concentrations that may pose a risk for benthic organisms. Metals and POPs are partitioned to organic material and, as expected, show the highest partitioning coefficients (KD) in fiberbanks that have higher TOC levels compared to adjacent areas with fiber-rich sediments (natural clay sediments mixed up with fibers) or relatively unaffected postglacial clays. However, many analytes were found to be present in quantifiable concentrations in pore water, which indicates diffusion of substances from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. To assess the dispersive influence of an abrupt erosional event on dispersion, metals were measured in undisturbed bottom water and in bottom water disturbed by artificial re-suspension of fibrous sediments. The bioavailable, dissolved fraction of metals decreased in bottom water after re-suspension, probably due to the particle concentration effect. In contrast, the total concentrations of metals and number of quantifiable metals increased with particle concentration caused by re-suspension. At one station, the total concentration of chromium (Cr) was elevated to a level where it may lower the ecological status of the water body during periods of substantial erosion (e.g. spring floods or submarine landslides). Analyses of disturbed bottom water revealed, however, that minerogenic particles were preferentially re-suspended compared to organic. This suggests that physical erosion and re-suspension of fiberbank sediments might have a larger effect on dispersal of metals than on POPs.

    List of papers
    1. Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin
    (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Fiberbank, fiber-rich sediments, metals, bottom water, pore water, dispersal, sorption
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349805 (URN)
    Projects
    TREASURE
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 362-1493/2013The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), 411-1578/2013
    Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02
    2. Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic Sea
    Show others...
    (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Keywords
    Chlorinated pollutants, organic carbon, fibrous sediment, pore water, pulp and paper emissions.
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-349824 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 214-2014-63
    Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2018-05-02
  • 6.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial originIn: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Apler, Anna
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Distribution and dispersal of metals in contaminated fibrous sediments of industrial origin2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 215, p. 470-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial emissions can impact aquatic environments and unregulated discharges from pulp and paper factories have resulted in deposits of cellulose fiber along the Swedish coast. These deposits are contaminated by metals, but due to their unique fibrous character the extent of sorption and dispersal of the metals is unclear. Fibrous sediments were sampled at two sites in the Ångermanälven river estuary, Sweden. The partitioning of metals between the sediment, pore water and bottom water was investigated and the degree of bioavailability was evaluated. The levels of metals in the sediment were high in fibrous or offshore samples, depending on the metal, whereas the levels of dissolved metals in pore water were low or below the limit of quantification. Partition coefficients (KD) showed that sorption to the sediment was stronger at one of the fibrous sites, possibly related to the type and size of organic matter. Undisturbed bottom water samples contained low levels of both dissolved and particle bound metals, but when comparing measured metal concentrations to threshold values of ecological status and ecotoxicological assessment criteria, both sediments and bottom water may be detrimental to living organisms. In-situ re-suspension experiments showed that the concentrations of particle bound metals increased whereas the dissolved concentrations decreased. The analyzed metals are probably retained by the solid phases of the fibrous sediment or adsorbed to particles in the water, reducing their bioavailability.

  • 8. Berry, Pam
    et al.
    Fabok, Veronika
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Bredin, Yennie
    Garcia-Llorente, Marina
    Kovacs, Eszter
    Gaemana, Nicoleta
    Stanciu, Adina
    Termansen, Mette
    Jääskeläinen, Tiina
    Haslett, John R.
    Harrison, Paula A.
    Why conserve biodiversity? A multi-national exploration of stakeholders views on the arguments for biodiversity conservation2018In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 27, p. 1741-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management? The case of “pike factories” and wetland restoration in Sweden.In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Effects of management, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, p. 103-112-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

  • 12.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 13.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    “A Thousand flowers are flowering just now” – towards integration of ecosystem services concept into decision making2018In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 30, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the integration of the ecosystem services (ES) concept in decision making.

    We use the three dimensions of learning to investigate the use of the ES concept.

    ES concept seems to meet several positive expectations put forward in science and policy.

    A main contribution from the concept may potentially be its function as a “boundary object”.

    Implementing ES into practice is a complex process and a multifaceted task.

  • 14.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Orlikowska, Ewa
    Jean-Michel, Roberge
    Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata
    Contribution of social science to large scale biodiversity conservation: a review of research about the Natura 2000 network2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 199, p. 110-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful conservation needs to be informed by social science because it is closely linked to socio-economic processes and human behaviour. Limited knowledge about ecosystems' interactions with these processes currently undermines conservation efforts. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of social science concerning the world's largest multinationally-coordinated conservation infrastructure: the European Ecological Network - ‘Natura 2000’. Based on a review of 149 publications, we analyse and discuss the main findings and outline key social-science research gaps with regard to the Natura 2000 network. The review shows that human dimension of the Natura 2000 network is complex and varies among EU Member States. In general, low level and quality of public participation in implementation of the Natura 2000 network and its management, negative public perceptions of the network, lack of flexibility of responsible authorities and insufficient consideration of the local context pose the greatest challenges to the network's functioning. Important but hitherto little studied research topics include: evaluation of participation; effects of education on potential to raise public awareness; effects of potential financing mechanisms for compensating private land-owners; economic studies on cost-effectiveness; and benefits from conservation and ecosystem services. These knowledge gaps will need to be filled for the Natura 2000 network to reach its goals.

  • 15.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Recreational fishing for sea trout – Resource for whom and to what value?2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 204, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fishing is an important activity that delivers substantial social and economic values. Proper management of recreational fisheries relies on information about resource use and associated values by different fishers, but such information is rare, particularly for open access fisheries. In this study a survey of 471 fishers on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, assessed catches, proportion of catch-and-release (C&R), and economic value (expenditures and willingness to pay, WTP) of sea trout fishing in 2015-2016. Data was analysed in relation to gear used (fly and spin angling, nets and mixed fishery) and fisher connection to fishing site (permanent and temporary residents, Swedish and international tourists). There were marginal differences in daily catch rates, but significant differences in effort and annual catches between different fishers, with resident fishers having the highest catches. Anglers had 86% C&R rates, and fly fishers (> 95%) differed significantly from other anglers. Anglers, particularly fly fishers and fishing tourists, had much higher expenditures per year, fish caught and fish kept compared to net fishers. WTP before refraining from fishing, for doubling of fish supply and for potential fishing license was also highest among anglers. Our findings are discussed in terms of distinguishing characteristics for different types of recreational fishers. Fishing efforts, economic values and the need for further studies are also outlined in the context of fisheries and tourism management.

  • 16.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management? The case of “pike factories” and wetland restoration in Sweden.In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management?: The case of "pike factories' and wetland restoration in Sweden2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 5-6, p. 950-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging civil society in conservation activities is an important complementary strategy to counteract ongoing biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem services. Since 2011, the Swedish Anglers Association (SAA) has cooperated with landowners to restore wetlands nationwide. We investigated factors that enabled or hindered civil society-led wetland restoration in Sweden through interviews and surveys with the SAA's project leaders and landowners. Principal internal and external factors contributing to the project's implementation included: flexibility and adaptive management of its leadership; support from authorities and policies; the good reputation of the SAA team; and landowners' willingness to cooperate. The latter was linked to their feelings of environmental responsibility, the low investment required by them, and expectations of some benefits. We discuss the need to enable adaptive management in environmental management projects, adjust existing policies to their needs, and re-think funding strategies to consider the long-term nature of such projects.

  • 18.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Bialowieza Forest: Political stands2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6376, p. 646-646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Gemini Bldg,Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, S-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lund Univ, Dept Architecture & Built Environm, Environm Psychol, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Sandström, Per
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resources Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Shades of grey challenge practical application of the Cultural Ecosystem Services concept2017In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 23, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite rapid advances in development of the ecosystem services (ES) concept, challenges remain for its use in decision making. Cultural ES (CES) have proven particularly difficult to pin down and resultant “shades of grey” impede their consideration by decision-makers. This study undertakes a literature review of CES to highlight the shades of grey, briefly illustrates findings by reference to the Swedish mountain landscape, then addresses potential implications for practical decision making. The concept of CES is complex and difficult to operationalize. The root of confusion appears to be a lack of rigour in identifying CES, hindering identification of proper methods for determining: the ecosystem elements that underpin CES; the beneficiaries of CES and how they value benefits delivered; and how CES may vary in space and time. We conclude by proposing a framework of questions, which we relate to the ES cascade model, that is intended to help researchers and decision-makers to reflect when considering CES. Answers to the questions should enable decision-makers to prioritise policy development or implementation in relation to the differing needs of potentially competing beneficiaries and what needs to be done or not done to the ecosystem, where, when and by whom.

  • 20.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Agrawal, Ganesh K.
    Gutiérrez, José M.
    Hassanali, Ahmed
    Huq, Saleemul
    Koller, Silvia H.
    Marjit, Sugata
    Mshinda, Hassan M.
    Masjuki, Hj Hassan
    Solomons, Noel W.
    Van Staden, Johannes
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Steps to overcome the North-South divide in research relevant to climate-change policy and practice2017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A global North-South divide in research, and its negative consequences, has been highlighted in various scientific disciplines. Northern domination of science relevant to climate change policy and practice, and limited research led by Southern researchers in Southern countries, may hinder further development and implementation of global climate change agreements and nationally appropriate actions. Despite efforts to address the North-South divide, progress has been slow. In this Perspective, we illustrate the extent of the divide, review underlying issues and analyse their consequences for climate change policy development and implementation. We propose a set of practical steps in both Northern and Southern countries that a wide range of actors should take at global, regional and national scales to span the North-South divide, with examples of some actions already being implemented.

  • 21.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Adaptation to climate change as social-ecological trap: a case study of fishing and aquaculture in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1527-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways in which people respond to climate change are frequently analyzed and explained with the term "adaptation." Conventionally, adaptation is understood as adjustments in behavior either to mitigate harm or to exploit opportunities emerging from climate change. The idea features prominently in scientific analyses as well as in policy programs. Despite its growing popularity over the years, the concept has also received critique. Social scientists in particular take issue with the implicit assumptions about human behavior and "fitness advantages" (or optimal behavior) that come with the term. Clearly, not all human and animal behavioral responses are "optimal" or display "fitness advantages." To the contrary, sub-optimal and maladaptive behavior is rather widespread. Explaining the possibility of maladaptive or sub-optimal behavior led scholars to introduce the idea of "traps." Trap situations refer to a mismatch between behavior and the social and/or ecological conditions in which this behavior takes place. This paper reviews the analytical value of traps for the study of human responses to climate change. It first lays out the theoretical assumptions underpinning the concept. A case study of the Tam Giang Lagoon, in central Vietnam, is used to evaluate how well the trap concept captures the sub-optimality and variety of human responses to climate change.

  • 22. Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jonell, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Guerry, Anne
    Lambin, Eric F
    Morgan, Alexis J
    Pennington, Derric
    Smith, Nathan
    Franch, Jane Atkins
    Polasky, Stephen
    Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains2015In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1355, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  • 23.
    Chen, Yingchao
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Feng, Lianyong
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Jianliang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Emergy-based energy return on investment method for evaluating energy exploitation2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 128, p. 540-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To consider the environmental impacts of energy resource exploitation and better estimate the energy return of investment (EROI), this paper establishes a new emergy-based method (EmEROI) that can capture the essence of energy resource exploitation. The EmEROI method treats environmental impacts and labor as particular forms of energy, and all forms of energy can be quantified by solar transformity, which is expressed in emjoules as a common unit. The Daqing oilfield is used as an example, and the corresponding EmEROI value is calculated via the proposed method. The results are then compared with standard EROI estimates. Our EmEROI result is much lower than the standard EROI result and presents a more pronounced declining trend. Our results also indicated that the EmEROI estimates conform well to actual conditions and are not as affected by industrial energy intensity levels as the standard EROI. Thus, EmEROI has the potential for use as an integral aspect of energy resource exploitation project evaluations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Apler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Vogel, Lisa
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU).
    Persistent organic pollutants in wood fiber contaminated sediments from the Baltic SeaIn: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Global energy transitions: Renewable energy technology and non-renewable resources2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global energy system is dominated by the use of fossil fuels. This system suffers from several problems, such as different environmental issues, while the long-term energy security is sometimes questioned. As an alternative to this situation, a transition to a global energy system based on renewable energy technologies, to a large extent solar and wind energy, is commonly proposed. Constructing the technology needed for such a transition requires resources and how fast this could happen is somewhat disputed. This thesis explores methods to assess the potential constraints for realizing such a transition by looking at potential technology growth rates and outlooks of production of the required natural resources.

    The thesis is based on three papers presenting case studies that look at growth rates of wind energy as well as future production outlooks of lithium and phosphate rock. Using different types of growth patterns reaching proposed installed capacities of wind power, annual commissioning requirements are investigated, taking account for the limited life expectancy oftechnology. Potential outlooks of mineral production are explored using resource constrained curve-fitting models on global lithium production. A more disaggregated model looking at individual countries are used on phosphate rock production to investigate new perspectives on production outlooks.

    It is concluded that the growth rates of individual energy technologies affect the resource requirements and prospective constraints on energy transitions. Resource constrained modelling of resource production can provide spans of potential outlooks for future production of resources required for anenergy transition. A higher disaggregation of the modelling can provide new perspectives of potential constraints on future production. These aspects should be further investigated when proposing alternative future energy systems.

    List of papers
    1. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    2014 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 73, p. 767-776Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns.

    Keywords
    Growth curves, Natural resources, Renewable energy, Wind energy, Sustainability, Energy systems
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in the Science of Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225554 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.003 (DOI)000341474100072 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Lithium availability and future production outlooks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium availability and future production outlooks
    2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 110, no 10, p. 252-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports.

    Keywords
    Peak lithium, Electric vehicles, Lithium production, Lithium supply, Resource-constrained modelling, Lithium battery cars
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Physics with specialization in Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199784 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.005 (DOI)000321601900024 ()
    Projects
    Stand
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Phosphate rock production and depletion: Regional disaggregated modeling and global implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphate rock production and depletion: Regional disaggregated modeling and global implications
    2014 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 93, p. 178-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Numerous recent studies discuss phosphate rock extraction, and some even propose that a peak in production could be reached in coming decades. This would have great consequences as phosphate rock based fertilizers are irreplaceable in modern agriculture. Studies suggesting an impending peak commonly use curve fitting models where mathematical functions are fitted to historical world production data, while studies using other methods reach completely different results. Also, a sudden increase in global reserve estimates is commonly used to dismiss these warnings, and has somewhat altered the debate. The recent multiplication of estimated reserves is mostly based on an increase of the Moroccan reserve estimate, leading to Morocco currently making up most of the global reserves. This study models global phosphate rock production using a disaggregated curve fitting model based on the production in individual major producing countries, providing a somewhat different view than most studies, and show that the global trade of phosphate rock could be completely dependent on Morocco in the future. There are several different factors that can potentially limit global production and these factors should be considered for the individual producing countries. Society’s total dependence on phosphate rock should be further investigated despite claims of large resource occurrences.

    Keywords
    Phosphorus, Phosphate rock, Peak minerals, Resource depletion, Fertilizer, Curve fitting modeling
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238213 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.10.011 (DOI)000347594000017 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 26.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Natural resources and sustainable energy: Growth rates and resource flows for low-carbon systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of low-carbon energy technologies is important for counteracting anthropogenic climate change and achieving universal energy access. This thesis explores potential growth rates of technologies necessary to reach a more sustainable global energy system, the material and energy flows required to commission these technologies, and potential future availability of the required resources.

    These issues are investigated in five papers. Potential future growth rates of wind energy and solar photovoltaics, and the associated material requirements are explored, taking the expected service life of these technologies into account. Methodology for assessing net energy return and natural resource use for wind energy systems are analyzed. Potential future availability of lithium and phosphate rock are also investigated.

    Estimates of energy and materials required for technologies such as wind energy and photovoltaics vary, and depend on the assumptions made and methods used. Still, it is clear that commissioning of low-carbon technologies on the scale required to reach and sustain a low-carbon energy system in coming decades requires significant quantities of both bulk materials and scarcer resources. For some technologies, such as thin film solar cells and electric vehicles with lithium-ion batteries, availability of materials could become an issue for potential growth rates. Future phosphate rock production could become highly dependent on few countries, and potential political, social and environmental aspects of this should be investigated in more detail.

    Material and energy flows should be considered when analyzing growth rates of low-carbon technologies. Their estimated service life can indicate sustainable growth rates of technologies, as well as when materials are available for end-of-life recycling. Resource constrained growth curve models can be used to explore future production of natural resources. A higher disaggregation of these models can enable more detailed analysis of potential constraints. This thesis contributes to the discussion on how to create a more sustainable global energy system, but the methods to assess current and future energy and material flows, and availability of natural resources, should be further developed in the future.

    List of papers
    1. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy
    2014 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 73, p. 767-776Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns.

    Keywords
    Growth curves, Natural resources, Renewable energy, Wind energy, Sustainability, Energy systems
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in the Science of Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225554 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.003 (DOI)000341474100072 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Keywords
    solar energy, photovoltaics, critical materials, energy metals, renewable energy, recycling
    National Category
    Energy Systems Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301946 (URN)
    External cooperation:
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2018-05-08
    3. A review of life cycle assessments on wind energy systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of life cycle assessments on wind energy systems
    2012 (English)In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 729-742Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Several life cycle assessments (LCA) of wind energy published in recent years are reviewed to identify methodological differences and underlying assumptions.

    Methods

    A full comparative analysis of 12 studies were undertaken (10 peer-reviewed papers, 1 conference paper, 1 industry report) regarding six fundamental factors (methods used, energy use accounting, quantification of energy production, energy performance and primary energy,  natural resources, and recycling). Each factor is discussed in detail to highlight strengths and shortcomings of various approaches.

    Results

    Several potential issues are found concerning the way LCA methods are used for assessing energy performance and environmental impact of wind energy, as well as dealing with natural resource use and depletion. The potential to evaluate natural resource use and depletion impacts from wind energy appears to be poorly exploited or elaborated on in the reviewed studies. Estimations of energy performance and environmental impacts are critically analyzed and found to differ significantly.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    A continued discussion and development of LCA methodology for wind energy and other energy resources are encouraged. Efforts should be made to standardize methods and calculations. Inconsistent use of terminology and concepts among the analyzed studies are found and should be remedied. Different methods are generally used and the results are presented in diverse ways, making it hard to compare studies with each other, but also with other renewable energy sources.

    Keywords
    life cycle assessment, wind energy, wind power, natural resource use, primary energy conversion, energy accounting
    National Category
    Energy Systems Environmental Management Civil Engineering Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Environmental Sciences Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Physics with specialization in Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168922 (URN)10.1007/s11367-012-0397-8 (DOI)000304879800008 ()
    Projects
    StandUp for Energy
    Available from: 2012-02-20 Created: 2012-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Lithium availability and future production outlooks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithium availability and future production outlooks
    2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 110, no 10, p. 252-266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports.

    Keywords
    Peak lithium, Electric vehicles, Lithium production, Lithium supply, Resource-constrained modelling, Lithium battery cars
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering
    Research subject
    Physics with specialization in Global Energy Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199784 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.04.005 (DOI)000321601900024 ()
    Projects
    Stand
    Available from: 2013-05-14 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Phosphate rock production and depletion: Regional disaggregated modeling and global implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphate rock production and depletion: Regional disaggregated modeling and global implications
    2014 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 93, p. 178-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Numerous recent studies discuss phosphate rock extraction, and some even propose that a peak in production could be reached in coming decades. This would have great consequences as phosphate rock based fertilizers are irreplaceable in modern agriculture. Studies suggesting an impending peak commonly use curve fitting models where mathematical functions are fitted to historical world production data, while studies using other methods reach completely different results. Also, a sudden increase in global reserve estimates is commonly used to dismiss these warnings, and has somewhat altered the debate. The recent multiplication of estimated reserves is mostly based on an increase of the Moroccan reserve estimate, leading to Morocco currently making up most of the global reserves. This study models global phosphate rock production using a disaggregated curve fitting model based on the production in individual major producing countries, providing a somewhat different view than most studies, and show that the global trade of phosphate rock could be completely dependent on Morocco in the future. There are several different factors that can potentially limit global production and these factors should be considered for the individual producing countries. Society’s total dependence on phosphate rock should be further investigated despite claims of large resource occurrences.

    Keywords
    Phosphorus, Phosphate rock, Peak minerals, Resource depletion, Fertilizer, Curve fitting modeling
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238213 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2014.10.011 (DOI)000347594000017 ()
    Funder
    StandUp
    Available from: 2014-12-10 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Davidsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Grandell, Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Wachtmeister, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 73, p. 767-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns.

  • 28.
    Davidsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaicsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Davidsson, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Material requirements and availability for multi-terawatt deployment of photovoltaics2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, p. 574-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates growth rates and material flows required to reach and sustain multi-terawatt installed capacity of photovoltaics (PV). The dynamics of material flows over time are captured, taking account for the life expectancy of PV technology. Requirements of solar grade silicon and silver for crystalline silicon (c-Si) technology, as well as indium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and cadmium for currently commercial thin film (TF) technology are explored, accounting for different technology choices and potential improvements in material intensities. Future availability of these materials from primary resources, as well as secondary resources from end-of-life recycling, is also analyzed. Rapid deployment of c-Si technologies would require a major expansion of solar grade silicon production, and significant quantities of silver. Availability of materials such as indium and tellurium could become problematic for major implementation of TF technology, unless production can be scaled up significantly, or material intensities radically decreased. Availability of secondary resources from end-of-life recycling have little impact on material availability during the growth phase, but could be important for sustaining a low-carbon energy system over longer time perspectives. Material availability could cause problems for rapid PV growth, but does not necessarily limit total PV deployment, especially if material intensities are decreased.

  • 30. Dong, Xiucheng
    et al.
    Guo, Jie
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Pi, Guanglin
    Sustainability Assessment of the Natural Gas Industry in China Using Principal Component Analysis2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 6102-6118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under pressure toward carbon emission reduction and air protection, China has accelerated energy restructuring by greatly improving the supply and consumption of natural gas in recent years. However, several issues with the sustainable development of the natural gas industry in China still need in-depth discussion. Therefore, based on the fundamental ideas of sustainable development, industrial development theories and features of the natural gas industry, a sustainable development theory is proposed in this thesis. The theory consists of five parts: resource, market, enterprise, technology and policy. The five parts, which unite for mutual connection and promotion, push the gas industry's development forward together. Furthermore, based on the theoretical structure, the Natural Gas Industry Sustainability Index in China is established and evaluated via the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. Finally, a conclusion is reached: that the sustainability of the natural gas industry in China kept rising from 2008 to 2013, mainly benefiting from increasing supply and demand, the enhancement of enterprise profits, technological innovation, policy support and the optimization and reformation of the gas market.

  • 31.
    Guo, Keqiang
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Aleklett, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Production Patterns of Eagle Ford Shale Gas: Decline Curve Analysis Using 1084 Wells2016In: SUSTAINABILITY, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes and quantifies characteristic production behavior using historical data from 1084 shale gas wells in the Eagle Ford shale play from 2010 to 2014. Decline curve analysis, using Hyperbolic and Stretched Exponential models, are used to derive average decline rates and other characteristic parameters for shale gas wells. Both Hyperbolic and Stretched Exponential models fit well to aggregated and individual well production data. The hyperbolic model is found to perform slightly better than the Stretched Exponential model in this study. In the Eagle Ford shale play, about 77% of wells reach the peak production of 1644-4932 mil cubic feet per day; the production decline rate of the first year is around 70%, and over the first two years it is around 80%; shale gas wells were estimated to yield estimated ultimate recoverable total resources of 1.41-2.03 billion cubic feet ( 20 years as life span), which is in line with other studies.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Orebro Cty Adm Board, Environm & Nat Resources, SE-70186 Orebro, Sweden.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sch Forest Management, Box 43, SE-73921 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden; Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Ecol, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, SE-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
    When development and amphibians meet – a case study of a translocation of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in Sweden2016In: Herpetological Conservation and Biology, ISSN 2151-0733, E-ISSN 1931-7603, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 552-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The Great Crested Newt (Triturus cristatus) is considered threatened throughout Europe; consequently, the species and its breeding habitat are protected in many countries. Translocation of a population is a conservation tool used when habitat occupied by a species is scheduled to be destroyed by human development. The outcome of these translocations is rarely monitored. This study describes and discusses a translocation of T. cristatus in south-central Sweden (Orebro), which occurred because of planned destruction of breeding habitat associated with development of a shopping and industrial area. We provide quantitative data concerning numbers of relocated amphibians and subsequent monitoring in both the pond being destroyed, which is serving as the source of newts to be translocated, and the pond that received the translocated newts. The translocation exemplifies how difficult it is to determine size and conservation value of a population without thorough initial investigations. A large part of the translocated population seemed to disappear at the receiving area, which initially indicated that the translocation was ineffective. Nevertheless, longer term monitoring indicated that a population was established and reproduced in the new habitat. We argue that translocation should never be a first choice to make human development possible but one should always strive for preservation of an existing habitat. However, if a translocation is unavoidable, an appriopriate assessment of the affected population should be performed and a detailed analysis of habitats in the potential receiving areas should be carried out to select an area best fitted for the species in question.

  • 33.
    Hallqvist, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Högtempererat borrhålslager för fjärrvärme2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The district heating load is seasonally dependent, with a low load during periods of high ambient temperature. Thermal energy storage (TES) has the potential to shift heating loads from winter to summer, thus reducing cost and environmental impact of District Heat production. In this study, a concept of high temperature borehole thermal energy storage (HT-BTES) together with a pellet heating plant for temperature boost, is presented and evaluated by its technical limitations, its ability to supply heat, its function within the district heating system, as well as its environmental impact and economic viability in Gothenburg, Sweden, a city with access to high quantities of waste heat.

    The concept has proven potentially environmentally friendly and potentially profitable if its design is balanced to achieve a good enough supply temperature from the HT-BTES. The size of the heat storage, the distance between boreholes and low borehole thermal resistance are key parameters to achieve high temperature. Profitability increases if a location with lower temperature demand, as well as risk of future shortage of supply, can be met. Feasibility also increases if existing pellet heating plant and district heating connection can be used and if lower rate of return on investment can be accepted. Access to HT-BTES in the district heating network enables greater flexibility and availability of production of District Heating, thereby facilitating readjustments to different strategies and policies. However, concerns for the durability of feasible borehole heat exchangers (BHE) exist in high temperature application.

  • 34.
    Han, Shangfeng
    et al.
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Zhang, Baosheng
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Sun, Xiaoyang
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Han, Song
    China Univ Petr, Sch Business Adm, Beijing .
    Höök, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    China's Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP). The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  • 35.
    Hanh, Tong Thi Hai
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Can income diversification resolve social-ecological traps in small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in the global south?: A case study of response diversity in the Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fishers and aquaculturists in the global south often face reinforcing feedbacks between resource degradation and livelihood impoverishment, a situation conceptualized as a social-ecological trap. It is argued that these traps can be overcome through income diversification, i.e., livelihoods that are maintained from variable income sources. Our aim was to further scrutinize that claim using the concept of response diversity. To do so, we applied the concept and analyzed income diversification in the Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam. Based on our analysis, we argue that high diversity in income activities does not necessarily lead to an escape from socia