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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics. Karolinska Institutet, Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics.
    What is the right profile for getting a job?: A stated choice experiment of the recruitment process2017In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 803-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the recruitment behaviour of Swedish employers using data from a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, the employers are first asked to describe an employee who recently and voluntarily left the firm and then to choose between two hypothetical applicants to invite to a job interview or to hire as a replacement for their previous employee. The two applicants differ with respect to characteristics such as gender, age, education, work experience, ethnicity, religious beliefs, family situation, weight, and health, but otherwise have similar characteristics as the previous employee. Our results show that employers prefer not to recruit applicants who are old, non-European, Muslim, Jewish, obese, have several children, or have a history of sickness absence. We also calculate the reduction in wage costs needed to make employers indifferent between applicants with and without these characteristics, and find that wage costs would have to be reduced by up to 50 % for applicants with some characteristics.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    What is the Right Profile for Getting a Job? A Stated Choice Experiment of the Recruitment Process2016In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Evidensbaserad vård även för de allra äldsta, tack!2015In: Svensk Geriatrik, no 1, p. 16-20Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies2014In: British Medical Journal, ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 349, p. g6015-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men.

    DESIGN: Cohort studies.

    SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15 541 women died and 17 252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10 112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker).

    CONCLUSIONS: High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended.

  • 5.
    Nystrand, Camilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Jonsson, U.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Indicated preventive interventions for depression in Children and Adolescents: A meta-analysis2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, p. 371-371Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Pihl, Charlotte
    Natl Board Hlth & Welf Socialstyrelsen, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zethraeus, Niklas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth LIME, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    How Robust are Economic Evaluations of Parenting Programs for Managing Conduct Disorder?: A Systematic Literature Review2017In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, ISSN 1091-4358, E-ISSN 1099-176X, Vol. 20, no S1, p. S31-S32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Verhoef, T. I.
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Appl Hlth Res, London, England; Univ Utrecht, Div Pharmacoepidemiol & Clin Pharmacol, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Redekop, W. K.
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Med Technol Assessment, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics. Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kamali, F.
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Cellular Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Wadelius, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Burnside, G.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Translat Med, Block A,Waterhouse Bldg,1-5 Brownlow St, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Maitland-van der Zee, A-H.
    Univ Utrecht, Div Pharmacoepidemiol & Clin Pharmacol, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hughes, D. A.
    Bangor Univ, Ctr Hlth Econ & Med Evaluat, Bangor, North Wales, Wales.
    Pirmohamed, M.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Translat Med, Block A,Waterhouse Bldg,1-5 Brownlow St, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in the United Kingdom and Sweden2016In: The Pharmacogenomics Journal, ISSN 1470-269X, E-ISSN 1473-1150, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 478-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Data from EU-PACT, a randomized controlled trial in newly diagnosed AF patients, were used to model the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing versus standard treatment over a lifetime horizon. Incremental lifetime costs were £26 and 382 Swedish kronor (SEK) and incremental QALYs were 0.0039 and 0.0015 in the United Kingdom and Sweden, respectively. The corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were £6 702 and 253 848 SEK per QALY gained. The ICER was below the willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained in 93% of the simulations in the United Kingdom and below 500 000 SEK in 67% of the simulations in Sweden. Our data suggest that pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin is a cost-effective strategy to improve outcomes of patients with AF treated with warfarin in the United Kingdom and in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Viberg, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Segerdahl, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Incidental Findings: The Time Is not yet Ripe for a Policy for Biobanks2015In: Ethics, Law and Governance of Biobanking: National, European and International Approaches / [ed] Mascalzoni, Deborah, Springer, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Viberg, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Segerdahl, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Incidental findings: the time is not yet ripe for a policy for biobanks2014In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 437-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incidental findings (IFs) are acknowledged to be among the most important ethical issues to consider in biobank research. Genome-wide association studies and disease-specific genetic research might reveal information about individual participants that are not related to the research purpose, but may be relevant to those participants' future health. In this article, we provide a synopsis of arguments for and against the disclosure of IFs in biobank research. We argue that arguments that do not distinguish between communications about pathogenic conditions and complex genetic risk for diseases fail, as preferences and decisions may be far more complex in the latter case. The principle of beneficence, for example, often supports the communication of incidentally discovered diseases, but if communication of risk is different, the beneficence of such communication is not equally evident. By conflating the latter form of communication with the former, the application of ethical principles to IFs in biobank research sometimes becomes too easy and frictionless. Current empirical surveys of people's desire to be informed about IFs do not provide sufficient guidance because they rely on the same notion of risk communication as a form of communication about actual health and disease. Differently designed empirical research and more reflection on biobank research and genetic risk information is required before ethical principles can be applied to support the adoption of a reasonable and comprehensive policy for handling IFs.

  • 10.
    Viberg, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Segerdahl, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hösterey Ugander, Ulrika
    Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet..
    Making sense of genetic risk: A qualitative focus-group study of healthy participants in genomic research2018In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 422-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    It is well known that research participants want to receive genetic risk information that is about high risks, serious diseases and potential preventive measures. The aim of this study was to explore, by qualitative means, something less well known: how do healthy research participants themselves make sense of genetic risk information?

    Method

    A phenomenographic approach was chosen to explore research participants’ understanding and assessment of genetic risk. We conducted four focus-group (N = 16) interviews with participants in a research programme designed to identify biomarkers for cardiopulmonary disease.

    Results

    Among the research participants, we found four ways of understanding genetic risk: as a binary concept, as an explanation, as revealing who I am (knowledge of oneself) and as affecting life ahead.

    Conclusion

    Research participants tend to understand genetic risk as a binary concept. This does not necessarily imply a misunderstanding of, or an irrational approach to, genetic risk. Rather, it may have a heuristic function in decision-making.

    Practical implications

    Risk communication may be enhanced by tailoring the communication to the participants’ own lay conceptions. For example, researchers and counselors should address risk in binary terms, maybe looking out for how individual participants search for threshold figures.

  • 11.
    Viberg, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Segerdahl, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics.
    Hansson, Mats G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Freedom of Choice about Incidental Findings can frustrate participants’ true preferences2016In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 203-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethicists, regulators and researchers have struggled with the question of whether incidental findings in genomics studies should be disclosed to participants. In the ethical debate, a general consensus is that disclosed information should benefit participants. However, there is no agreement that genetic information will benefit participants, rather it may cause problems such as anxiety. One could get past this disagreement about disclosure of incidental findings by letting participants express their preferences in the consent form. We argue that this freedom of choice is problematic.

    In transferring the decision to participants, it is assumed that participants will understand what they decide about and that they will express what they truly want. However, psychological findings about people's reaction to probabilities and risk have been shown to involve both cognitive and emotional challenges. People change their attitude to risk depending on what is at stake. Their mood affects judgments and choices, and they over- and underestimate probabilities depending on whether they are low or high. Moreover, different framing of the options can steer people to a specific choice.

    Although it seems attractive to let participants express their preferences to incidental findings in the consent form, it is uncertain if this choice enables people to express what they truly prefer. In order to better understand the participants' preferences, we argue that future empirical work needs to confront the participant with the complexity of the uncertainty and the trade-offs that are connected with the uncertain predictive value of genetic risk information.

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