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  • 1.
    Aava, Kim
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Game Save: Game Save Incorporation in Game Design through a MDA Analysis2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about save systems and will analyze save functions in various games. Save systems in games are usually blamed for harming the suspension of disbelief as it is an act taking place outside the game and should only be used for its intended purpose: letting the players store their game data, and progress whenever they need.

    The game save function developed as rapid leaps of technology were made, with the beginning era of home consoles and home computers allowing players to spend more time playing, creating a demand for longer play sessions in games which lead to a need of methods for storing game data.

    The analysis of save systems is carried out in this paper by using MDA Framework (Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics), a tool used for documenting game design. This framework can be used to analyze a game from a designer‟s or player‟s perspective. By reversing the framework ADM (Aesthetics, Dynamics and Mechanics) one can analyze the user experience, which is how the player perceives the game‟s aesthetics to be, depending on the dynamics and mechanics.

    This analysis aims to provide knowledge of how consistency in game design and the save system can be used to create a cohesive game world that facillitates the player's experience and immersion.

  • 2.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Att påverka aktiepriset2009In: Gotlandsakademikertycker om … / [ed] Adri De Ridder, 2009, 9-15 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Strong CEOs and Ownership StructureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine compensation to Swedish executives over the period 1999 to 2008 and whether domestic and foreign equity ownership influence levels.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use the strength of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), defined as the ratio between total compensation to the CEO and total compensation to Group management, as our primary variable of interest. Cross-sectional regression analysis is used to examine if the domiciles of stockholders as well as firm specific factors can predict compensation.

    Findings

    We find a positive relationship between compensation levels to the CEO and foreign institutional investors. Higher foreign institutional holdings reduce the strength of the CEO. Our findings do not support the claim that compensation to CEO is related to firm behaviour or market related valuation measures.

    Practical implications

    This paper finds that holdings by foreign investors are negatively related to the strength of the CEO.

  • 4.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Valuation of Swedish IPO Companies: Who Receives the Money Left on the Table?2011In: 2nd Annual Nordic Financial Accounting, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study underpricing and equity holdings following initial public offerings (IPOs) in Sweden over the sample period 2000 through 2010. By exploiting a unique data set, with information of the ultimate holdings by institutional as well as individual investors in these firms, we make several original contributions to the existing literature related to IPOs as our data are sharper and more detailed than what have been used in prior studies. We document, as most prior studies of IPOs, that they on average are underpriced (i.e., associated with a positive initial return). IPOs with low (high) initial return have higher (lower) equity holdings by retail investors. We find that institutional investors are, to greater extent than individual investors, able to identify firms with a high initial return (i.e. receives the money left on the table). Hence, our data support the generally accepted view that institutional investors are better equipped to process information. We also confirm that the relationship between underpricing (the initial return) and offer price is U-shaped, as first reported by Fernando, Krishnamurty and Spindt (2004). Our multivariate analysis shows that individual investors have preferences for low priced IPOs whereas domestic (foreign) institutional investors have preferences for low (high) priced IPOs. Our analysis of domicile of institutional investors indicates that foreign institutional investors have preferences for holdings in IPOs characterized by a high initial return and large capitalization values. Analysis of overseas institutional holdings indicates existence of information asymmetries related to distance.

     

  • 5.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Executive Compensation Contracts and Ownership Structure2010In: / [ed] Prof. Lars Oxelheim, 2010, 1-19 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study executive compensation packages and ownership structures for a sample of firms listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange over the period 1999 to 2008. The basic question we raise is whether strong CEOs can set their own salaries and bonuses given the composition of group management and institutional ownership. With the use of exclusive ultimate ownership records we can identify the relationship between ownership and executive compensation. Collectively, we find a positive relationship between strong CEOs and compensation. Moreover, compensation is related to the composition of ownership and breadth of ownership. Firms with high foreign institutional ownership are associated with higher compensation to the CEO.  These results affect the possibility of an all European compensation strategy.

  • 6.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    de Ridder, Adri
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Råsbrant, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Information Asymmetries among European Investors: Evidence from Swedish IPOs2011In: 13th Annual SNEE (Swedish Network for European Economic Research) Conference, May 17-20, 2011 . Session F1: European Corporate Finance / [ed] Prof. Lars Oxelheim, 2011, 1-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study underpricing and equity holdings following initial public offerings (IPOs) in Sweden over the sample period 2000 through 2009. We document, as most prior studies of IPOs, that they on average are underpriced (i.e., associated with a positive initial return). IPOs with a low (high) initial return have higher (lower) equity holdings by retail investors. Our analysis of domicile of institutional investors indicates that foreign institutional investors have preferences for holdings in IPOs characterized by a high initial return and large capitalization values. Analysis of overseas institutional holdings indicates existence of information asymmetries related to distance.

  • 7.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Kalström, Robert
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Stock splits and changes in ownership structures: evidence from Sweden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stock splits are supposed to be financial cosmetics. However, this study shows that such corporate events have impact on ownership structure. This study exploits unique data from Swedish Central Security Registration regarding ownership and analyzes the ownership structures in stock splitting firms. Our data consists of exclu-sive semi-annually reported ownership structures of companies listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange. We categorize stock owners as domestic institutional investors, foreign investors and domestic individual investors. The information on ultimate ownership composition in listed companies is rare and more or less exquisite for Sweden.Our results confirm positive abnormal returns surrounding the announcement of stock splits and stock dividends. Moreover, we find evidence on changes in owner-ship structure as well as number of shareholders. The results show evidence on decreasing ownership concentration due to the stock split, which implies a more dispersed ownership structure.

  • 8.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Skoghage, Göran
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Introduktionskurs, underprissättning och institutionellt ägande: samband mellan prissättning och ägande vid en börsintroduktion2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Who would not like a profit of more then 95 % in a day? Investors in Sweden had thatopportunity, if they had bought a certain stock on the primary market and sold it on the firsttradable day at the Stock Exchange. Most of that profit fell into the hands of institutionalinvestors. The reason for this extraordinary profit was the underpricing of that specific stockduring its initial public offering (IPO).Our report aims to analyze the relationship between offer price, underpricing and theownership structure of stocks. Our investigation is based on all IPO’s on the Stockholm stockexchange during the years between 2000 and 2005. Through our analysis we have found factssaying that companies can determine their ownership structure by setting their introductionprice high or low. A high offer price will have more institutional investors than if the price islow. On the other hand the high offer price will also create a greater underpricing which leadsto a higher initial return and greater transformation of wealth between old and new shareholders.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Services for regional Development: Ideas on Stakeholder Based Quality Management in a Region2011In: Proceedings : 14th QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca,Ricardo Mateo,Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, 36-54 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regional Development is a permanent activity of change including long range visions and goals. This work includes both continuous and breakthrough change. Quality management practises are used for organisational improvement and could be seen as one way of supporting effective change management. Provided we can view a region as an organisation we could also view it as a process. Dealing with the region as a system of processes might make it possible to use quality management practices to support more effective regional development. Based on an analysis of the presentation of the current state and the visionary state it should be possible to analyse proposed change strategies from a process perspective.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. Specific research questions in this study are:

    For a region how can the present state, the visionary state and the chosen change strategies, be described with Quality Management values and methodologies with focus on the process view

    How do the regional university mission, vision and goals align with defined regional objectives?

    Methodology

    A literature survey for how Quality Management has been used for regional development is carried out to create a structure for the data collection. The region of Gotland is chosen as an example for a region. The reason for this is that Gotland is a small region consisting of an island providing clear boundaries. There is only one university, which makes it easier to study the links between university and region. Available regional visions are studied as well as main presentation of regional performance with focus on the region of Gotland. The main organizational stakeholders are identified and studied. Data is gathered from web sites and from interviews. The categorisation of information is based on a process perspective using process based system models adapted to the initial literature survey. The current change process is also portrayed. In order to see how the local university performance and plans align with the regional plans the Gotland University web-site is studied for relevant documents.

    Main results

    Regional performance can seemingly be described using process based system models. The stakeholder approach can in a meaningful way be used to describe main regional requirements.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, University of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, 22-35 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Implementing Lean: Discussing Standardization Versus Customization with Focus on National Cultural Dimensions2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, 4-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean or Toyota Production System (TPS) has more or less successfully been implemented in the Western world’s businesses and organizations for the past 20 years. Several authors have discussed what it is that creates a successful implementation, and several studies have been presented where strategies for implementations have been studied. Culture’s impact and possible mitigation for Western companies have been studied and described by for example Womak & Jones. Proponents of the concept of Lean argue that culture is not a constraint for implementation of Lean. Lean Management is called a philosophy but it is often used as a change strategy in the sense that it is implemented with the view of improving performance. A change strategy could be seen as a product that might have to be customized with the view of improving the effectiveness of the implementation. On the other hand abandoning a standardized approach comes with the risk of severely altering the change strategy, possibly to its detriment. Implementing Lean will have an effect on the company culture. Does it make any sense customizing the implementation to culture if the issue is changing the culture? The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the balance between a customized implementation and a standardized implementation. Which are the main arguments for standardization and customization and how could these be reconciled? A literature study of Lean implementation has been carried out and compared with Lean principles and theories from change management with focus on change drivers and change barriers. Main drivers of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions are compared with Lean principles to identify possible drivers and barriers in different cultures. The theory synthesis on drivers and barriers is subjected to a first test in a case study on Lean implementation according to a standardized approach. The implementation is made in a small Swedish factory belonging to a worldwide industrial company. Results from the literature review and the case study indicate that both customization and standardization are needed.

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Adding requirements on customers to current quality models toimprove quality: development of a customer ‐ vendor interaction2010In: 13th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2010 / [ed] Jens J. Dahlgaard, Linköping University, Sweden, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most descriptions of business development and models for Corporate Governance, contacts between supplier and customer are for the most part focused on the supplier’s responsibility to identify and document customer requirements in order to enable the organization to meet customer requirements (stated and unstated). In the actual contact between customer and supplier it has been observed in several cases that there are aspects of the interaction not described in traditional theoretical quality models. What seems to be missing is a more explicit requirement for customers and for customers' actions. The logic is that a qualified customer performing based on supplier instructions will result in a better performing product. The apparent lack of theoretical models describing this aspect indicates that this is an interesting area for research and development.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a seemingly "forgotten" area within quality management, which is the lack of requirements put on customers in quality models.  The first objective is to review existing quality models to explore the extent of requirement on customers included. The second objective is to propose additions to current models that include requirements placed on customers.

    A limited review of the award criteria and the most common models for quality and improvement techniques shows that there is no explicit and documented way to set requirements for customers. Our interpretation is that EFQM is the model closest to our description of “demands on customer” due to their clauses connected to “partnership”.

    The ISO/DIS 26000 is moving the requirements further against the customer for the social responsibility than the quality standards are doing.

    Further research could focus on how requirements on customer will affect the performance of the entire supply chain both from a quality and social point of view.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Integrated Management Systems: advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Jacques Martin, Toulon University, 2010, 1-12 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 14. af Klintberg, Bengt
    et al.
    Palmenfelt, Ulf
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Vår tids folkkultur2007Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Afram, Rabi
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Puzzle Design in Adventure Games2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the level of difficulty of puzzles in the adventure games and the implications thereof. The thesis contains an in-depth background, and a brief history about the genre. It brings up the main problem of the genre and looks into both the cause and effect that follows. To support this process, an analysis has been made of design documents and a survey was issued on the subject of adventure game puzzles.

  • 16.
    Agrell, Carina
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hundertwassers arkitektur: att vara eller inte vara2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats studerar Friedensreich Hundertwassers (1928-2000) organiska/vegetativaarkitektur, begränsad till utvalda signifikativa arkitekturelement på fyra olika bildnivåer, frånöversiktsbild till en avgränsad del av ett mindre utrymme. Den byggnad som avses är kvarteretDie Grüne Zitadelle i Magdeburg, Tyskland. Uppsatsen är tudelad i den meningen att den utgårifrån nämnd arkitektur och analyseras/syntetiseras enligt Erwin Panofskys ikonologiska metod. Urdenna första analys framvaskas relevanta dikotomier, en metod som i sin ursprungliga form ärHeinrich Wölfflins komparativa. Dock jämförs inte Hundertwassers verk genom epokskiljandestilfaktorer, utan genom jämförande med en konstnär som enligt tidigare forskning anses varanärliggande Hundertwasser. Denne arkitekt är Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926), verket för analysen ärCasa Milá i Barcelona i Spanien. Syftet med uppsatsen är att genom dikotomierna experimentelltjämföra arkitekterna och deras verk, och forskningsinriktningen ligger i att urröna omdikotomierna kan blottlägga insikter om skillnader och/eller likheter som annars kunde varit svåraatt identifiera. Resultatet visar att arkitekterna tolkat filosofin på delvis lika och delvis olika sätt.Sammanfattande har Hundertwasser ett betydligt mer individualiserat formspråk avseende designifikativa arkitekturelementen. Oavsett om den dubbla metoden tillför nya kunskaper eller inte,torde dikotomierna kunna fungera som stöd för arkitekturanalyser och som hjälp vidkonstreflektion.

  • 17.
    Agrell, Carina
    Gotland University, Department of Art History.
    Vad är det för skillnad på en pinne?: Ikonologisk analys av rondellkonstverket "Vridning" av Anders Lönn2007Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen beskriver konstverket ”Vridning” av Kalmarkonstnären Anders Lönn. På den pre-ikonografiskanivån beskrivs verket i avseende på vad som är möjligt att konkret uppfatta med ögat, både gällande material och form på den plats där det står. På samma nivå beskrivs också vad som finns i konstverkets omedelbara närhet geografiskt, samt Kalmars lokalisering i förhållande till konstverket och regionen. Verket är placerat i den så kallade Karlsrorondellen strax söder om Kalmar. Rondellen är en punkt där tre huvudvägar och en lokal väg sammanstrålar. Konstverket reser sig 17 meter över marken och har verkat provokativt på vissa individer. ”Vridning” är välkänt i Kalmar och går i folkmun under beteckningen ”pinnen”. Materialet är trä och även marken i rondellen runt konstverket ingår i konstverkets idé.

    På den ikonografiska nivån går analysen djupare och avser att besvara frågor som: Vad i Kalmar eller andra platser kan ha inspirerat konstnären. I generell mening; vad i traktens natur och kultur kan verka inspirerande för vilken som helst konstnär. Vår perception orsakar att vi drar till oss idéer i vår omgivning som sedan blandas och omtolkas. För en konstnär manifesteras resultatet av denna process genom olika konstverk. Uppsatsens ambition för denna nivå är således att knyta konstverket till konstnärens medvetna och omedvetna inspirationskällor i den lokala/regionala kulturen, vilken har stora delar gemensam med den nationella. Rubriken Material & Dimensioner relaterar till trämaterialet och de dimensioner som är förknippade med lokala/regionala/nationella byggnadsverk och skepp. Rubriken Form& Idé relaterar till formen i universell mening, d v s vilka andra konstverk runt om i världen som inspirerat både tidigare och senare konstnärer. Detta knyts till idén om hur formen påverkar betraktaren att uppfatta en rörelse i konstverket.

    Den ikonologiska nivån ligger än djupare i den tidigare. Med hjälp av abstraktioner som beskriver individuella, mellanmänskliga och kollektiva skeenden och föreställningar avseendeklass, genus, kommunikation, möten, kopplade till material, form, idé och plats föreslås olika objekt som inspirationskällor. Förförståelsen jämförs med texter om t ex konstruktivism, den betydelsebärande skillnaden, gruppdynamik osv. Rubriken Material & Form relaterar tillmaterialet som klassbärare och varaktighet, formen som genusbetydande och avantgardistiska referenser. Rubriken Plats & Idé behandlar vägarnas och vägskälens betydelse för människors möten och kommunikation, liksom hur en plats kan bära individers identitet och meningsföreställningar.

    Diskussionen landar i att ett konstverk som visar upp sig offentligt, utan att människor aktivtbehöver välja om de vill ta del av det inte, uppenbarligen kan verka mer provocerande än institutionell konst. Det kan också sammanbinda en lokalbefolkning, utgöra en del av dess identitet. En handfull skulle kanske fortfarande lättat andas ut om det plockades ned, men de flesta skulle nog ändå sörja ett förlorat sjö- och landmärke som tillhör kollektivet.

  • 18.
    Agrell, Carina
    Gotland University, Department of Art History.
    Formträdgården – befriad från politisk skuld och kognitiv skam: Ikonologisk analys av rehabträdgården i Alnarp2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats studerar rehabiliteringsträdgården i Alnarp via Erwin Panofskysikonologiska metod. Rehabiliteringsträdgården är skapad utifrån undersökningar av människorsföreställningar om natur- och kulturupplevelser som de anser positiva för hälsa och välbefinnande.Trädgården är uppdelad i åtta olika kategorier som är kopplade till graden av informell respektiveformell design, det finns också mellan dem gränsland som har en mer flytande stil. Uppsatsen harbegränsats till att avhandla två av de åtta kategorierna, skogsträdgården som är mer naturlik, ochentréträdgården som är formell. Syftet med uppsatsen är koppla samman de båda delträdgårdarnamed stilhistoriska förebilder inom trädgårdskonsten genom att valet av former och materialjämförs med varandra och med historiska trädgårdar, liksom att jämföra de båda delträdgårdarnamed andra konstnärliga manifestationer, t ex måleri och arkitektur. Slutligen är syftet att i denikonologiska intuitiva syntesen undersöka trädgårdarnas idémässiga ursprung. Resultatet visar attträdgårdarna har tydliga referenser till sina respektive genrer, den italienska formträdgården ochden engelska landskapsparken. Skillnaderna finns även representerade i andra konstnärligaverksamheter. Den syntetiska intuitionen som vilar på författarens kunskaper och erfarenheter,länkar de olika trädgårdsidealen till politiska ideologier och kognitiva strukturer.

  • 19.
    Ahlgren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Nielsen, Kristin
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Verksamhetsstyrning: en fallstudie av en revisionsbyrås anpassning och förväntningar vid avskaffandet av revisionsplikten2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how a company adapts its operating control when the environmental circumstances are changing. This is a case study with a qualitative approach which is based on interviews. The main purpose is to examine how an accounting firm adjusts its operating control in order to meet the abolishment of the statutory auditing. Another purpose is to describe how the abolishment of the statutory auditing will influence or have influenced the choice of measures in the balanced scorecard. The question this study aims to examine is: How do audit firms adapt its operating control in order to meet changes in the environment? This question lead to a second question which the study also aims to examine and is How is the abolishment of the statutory auditing influencing the accounting firms goals, measures and focus in the balanced scorecard? The conclusion of this study shows that the abolishment of the statutory auditing has had an influence on the balanced scorecard. The interviews have manifested that both the customer and the development/leadership perspective have been adapted in order to meet the abolishment of the statutory auditing. Nevertheless the study also indicates that the balanced scorecard contains central key performance indicators which are essential in the management control of an accounting firm.

  • 20.
    Ahlgren, Hans
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    En anpassning till ett kyligare klimat?: en studie av orsaker till den förändrade synen på fornfynd i Riksantikvarieämbetets föreskrifter och allmänna råd avseende verkställigheten av 2 kap. 10–13 §§ lagen (1988:950) om kulturminnen m.m. år 20072009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2007 the Swedish National Heritage Board released directions for how the contractarchaeology in Sweden should carry out their work. These directions stressed that a differentapproach to the archaeological finds should be used – that would lead to a higher degree ofselection than before. The purpose of this essay is to find the reason why this change indirections occurred, and this is done by a study of the history of the rescue archaeology inSweden. The other purpose of this essay is to examine if the excavation strategies inarchaeological excavation reports from different times, correlates with the general guidingprinciples for the contract archaeology in Sweden of that time.There are several reasons why the change in directions occurred, but it seems as the mainreasons are practical. The handling of archaeological finds is relatively expensive andarchaeological researches of today generally don’t need to take care of all the finds for theinterpretation. Consequently there is no reason to save everything. The study of theexcavation reports show that there is correlation between the excavation techniques used, andthe general guiding principles for the contract archaeology of that time.

  • 21.
    Ahlman, Robert
    Gotland University, Department of History.
    Moderna tider: modernitet i Visbys bouppteckningar och press 1880-19102001Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a difficult task to define the little word “modernity”. One may argue quite a lot about what modernity is as well as when modernity breaks trough. The burgess class was the group who initiated modernity in most cases. Since these people mainly dwelled in the cities it was in the cities were modernity started. The creation of an industry demanded new methods of working. Discipline, rationality and a new conscience of time followed as consequences of the industry. Modernity reached small towns and countryside slowly and the old structures were hard to break down. There are of course different aspects of modernity as the modernity of material life, the modernity of ideas and the modernity of culture. The modernity of material life tends to reach people before that of ideas or culture. In the small city of Visby existed many parts of modernity in the material life between 1880-1910. Telephones reached the city very early just like sewing machines or bicycles. Electricity lighted streets and homes just a few years after the turn of the century. Modern things seem to have reached the shopkeepers first, even before the upper class. The paper “Gotlands Allehanda” held a liberal view towards new ideas or writers and seems to have supported the enlightenment of the commons. The modern drama gained slowly ground among the many comedies on the local stage. But through the papers can we find many articles that indicate that Visby was a bit backward in many ways. Hogs were still housed in the streets and there were problems with clean water as well as public sanitary. So in many ways Visby before 1910 was modern on the surface and the old structures gave way only with difficulty.

  • 22. Ahlquist, Pia
    et al.
    Olssson, LarsAndreeff, AlexanderGotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Besuchsort Fröjel Infocenter: eine Einführung in die Gemeinde Fröjel : Hafen und Handelsplatz aus der Wikingerzeit2005Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Ahmad, Haseeb
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Offshore Wind Park Connection to an HVDC Platform, without using an AC Collector Platform2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the comparison between two different alternating current topologies of an offshore wind farms connection to an offshore high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter platform. The offshore high voltage direct current converter platform converts alternating current into direct current. Two different topologies will be investigated.

    In the first topology, the offshore wind farms are connected to an HVDC converter platform through offshore AC collector platform. An offshore AC collector platform is used to collect energy from the wind farm and step up the voltages for transmission to HVDC convertor platform. The offshore AC collector platforms contribute significantly in the total cost and technical complexity of the HVDC connection.

    In the second topology, the offshore AC collector platform is removed from the circuit and the offshore wind farms are connected directly to offshore HVDC converter platform.

    In this thesis, short circuit analysis and loss analysis of an offshore wind farm cluster connected to an offshore HVDC converter platform is conducted for the two topologies described above.

    Two wind turbine generator types i.e. doubly fed induction generator and full conversion generator is compared for two different topologies. The effect of changing the distance between wind farms and offshore HVDC converter platform on short circuit currents in the absence of AC collector platform is presented for the second configuration. Two internal voltage levels i.e. 33 kV and 66kV of wind farms are compared for short circuit currents in the absence of AC collector platform. DIgSILENT software is used to perform short circuit calculations.

    The thesis is done in collaboration with “Offshore Wind Connections” department ABB, Sweden. The idea is still under development however this study will serve as good starting point to figure out the cost efficient AC topology of an offshore wind park HVDC connection.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Bassam
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Förbättring av kvalitet och samarbete i tågtrafiken: ett förbättringsprojekt till tågtrafikens intressenter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Passengers get dissatisfied because of poor communication and bad co-operation between railway companies. The alternative solutions to the passengers at the traffic disruptions are not the best, which causes traveler dissatisfaction. The risk is that passengers choose other ways of transport.

    Each transport organizer is responsible for the passengers. The form of the operating agreements between transport authorities and rail companies creates a structure for the responsibilities of the different components. This is also part of the problem leading to unhappy customers.

    I have studied this problem through interviews and surveys at DSB Småland where I work asa traffic controller. Jönköping County relates to the DSB Småland with a contract. I have hadthe opportunity to interview dispatchers in Jönköping County and to take part of customer complaints. But the big picture is not only about DSB Småland and Jönköping County. Consequently I have chosen to also include opinions from the DB-Regional traffic.

    Dedicated people from the different organizations have helped me to collect the information needed. Documentation of the selected organization the DSB Småland and my personal experience has helped me to formulate some conclusions:

    • Individual responsibility and mutual responsibility across organizational boundaries is important and it does not exist today. That may result in each organization working to save itself without looking at the big picture. Greater individual responsibility and collective responsibility across organizational boundaries will lead to focus on the passengers and it can result in saving resources.
    • Collaboration between organizations, which does not exist today, is needed. Without organized cooperation, the risk will be that each organization can be held to the agreement with the county traffic without any further interest towards the traveler. The more cooperation between the organizations, the more satisfied customers.
    • Communication between the organizations on the problems encountered needs to be improved. Poor communication between organizations leads to waste of environmental resources and other assets, and leads to dissatisfied customers. Better communication gives all organizations the possibility of increasing the number of passengers, to save resources and leads to increased sustainability in train traffic.

    It takes exchange of experiences between railway companies to achieve better quality of train services, more sustainable rail services to all, stronger collaboration and deep and straightforward communication.

  • 25.
    Ali, Sajid
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Zhugri, Merijon
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hedging Oil Prices: a case study on Gotlandsbolaget2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase of volatility in financial markets and leading to financial risk and corporate failures, organizations are showing keen interest in managing financial risk, one of the most commonly used technique to minimize financial risk is hedging. Hedging of oil prices has also become a common practice especially in shipping. Financial risk managers are busy in saving the industries from expected risk and volatility in oil prices through hedging. Therefore we have decided to look into shipping industry and specifically to study the hedging oil prices with respect to a case study on Gotlandsbolaget.Our case study will also focus on the relationship between oil and ticket price ratios in Gotlandsbolaget, TT Line and Adria Ferries Ltd. In order to collect empirical data we have done interviews with the companies and worked closely with Destination Gotland and Nordea bank.The results of the study show that Gotlandsbolaget hedge oil prices to protect themselves from volatility of oil prices. Regression analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between ticket prices and oil prices in the companies operating in Sweden while a relatively weaker relationship exists for the Adria Ferries Ltd. This study will help the shipping companies, who are either new in hedging or want to minimize and avert the risk and volatility in oil prices through hedging.

  • 26.
    Ali, Yasir
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    The delicate balance of Internet banking and bricks and mortar offices: a study on bank services offered in Visby2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet banking has an impact on banking performance as well as customer’s daily life. Customers are getting more used to use Internet banking services because the Internet is so popular and common available, it is more convenient and comfortable for customers to use banking services on the Internet. Hereby Internet banking also helps to improve banking service and increasing banks profitability by reducing costs. It also increases the overall value of the banks services by providing convenience, reliable, faster, cheaper services. The purpose of study is to find out which services customer prefers to execute the Internet bank and which services customers prefer to execute through branch office and based on this, what combination of services are desirable for banks customers in Visby. Finding shows that young and educated people are more frequently users of Internet banking for balance inquiry and for viewing the transaction history of his/her account. For some services customers prefer to visit branch office when opining a new account, deposit money, insurances service and loan activities. Banks encourage their customers to use online services but there is need that there are some activities that customer must go to the branch office.

  • 27.
    Allberg, Anders
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Huset under och i graven: en studie av fenomenet med huskonstruktioner under gravhögar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this bachelor thesis is to find an answer for the placement of Migration and Vendel period graves on preexisting house constructions in Sweden. The reason behind these graves being built on their respective places will be analyzed, discussed and compared with similar finds in Scandinavia, where a wide contact net had been established during this time. Different kinds of social and religious meanings and functions with the grave mounds will also be taken into consideration during the discussion and analysis. The actual findings in the graves will be not be a part of this thesis, as the aim is to focus more on the grave itself as a cultural and social symbol for the people, and the values it had, during the time period it was built.

  • 28.
    Alsing, Camilla
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Bergman, Åsa
    Gotland University, Department of Business Administration.
    Storytelling som marknadsföringsverktyg: en studie om användandet av storytelling inom hotellbranchen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is called the experience society where customers’ experiences and dreams are in focus. Companies are finding ways to differentiate themselves in the market and customers are demanding more than just good service. A new marketing strategy has emerged called storytelling. Storytelling is about telling a story about the organization to create an interest in, for example, the history of a hotel. It is important to find a way to get the guests to talk about your hotel and an effect of storytelling could be word-of-mouth.

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the word storytelling, how it is used in the hospitality industry as well as how it affects the hotels. The method used is qualitative and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The respondents chosen are three gotlandic hotels, a storyteller and the marketing manager at Gotland’s Tourist association.

    The conclusion of the study, through the interviews combined with used theories, shows that storytelling is an effective strategy to use when hotels want to strengthen their brand. When profile, image and identity of a business are harmonized, the brand will be strong if the story is true. Positive aspects mentioned by the respondent hotels when using storytelling as a marketing tool was the curiosity it creates in the brand, word-of-mouth and customer flow. It is also important that the story is true and credible and that everyone working for the hotel has the knowledge of the story and shares the same values.

  • 29.
    Altskog, Frida
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Keramisk List: produktutveckling för Askersunds Kakelmakeri2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report presents a thesis by Frida Altskog performed in collaboration with Askersunds Kakelmakeri. The project’s goal has been to produce a ceramic ledge after the company’s specifications. The company’s desire and production facilities have been in focus.  This report includes a collection of facts and gives an overview of the ceramic material, production of ceramic products and how production of hand-made tiles and clinker is made. A analysis of target group and market have been a guide line through the projects ideas and realizations.  The final product is a ceramic ledge that can combine with three different patterns. Classic, modern and oriental. It can be combined and adjustable on different surfaces. The form of the ledge is effective to produce and it can be made in Askersund kakelmakeris pottery.

  • 30.
    Alvarez Martinez, Oscar
    Gotland University, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Branding Spain: analyzing the organizations behind the image of Spain in Sweden2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization abates barriers and makes the world similar, but also leads countries to perform like companies seeking and competing for global capitals. In this competition the „nation brand‟ becomes a critical tool to stand out and attract any sort of foreign investments. In this research, the factors which affect the nation brand, presented in the Anholt´s hexagon model, will be tested through the combination of theory on nation branding and empirical data. The study analyzes how different organizations affect and promote the commercial image of Spain in Sweden. Up to seven entities susceptible to affect the brand Spain were analyzed; the ICEX, the economic and commercial office of Spain in Stockholm, the embassy of Spain in Stockholm, Invest in Spain, the Elcano Royal institute, the Hispanic-Swedish chamber of commerce in Madrid and the Swedish trade council in Madrid. The study also presents an outline of the current context of the brand Spain and its projection in Sweden, as well as an overview on the trade relationship between both countries. The individual commitment of most of the organizations investigated, under the guidance of the Ministry of foreign affairs and the Ministry of industry, tourism, and trade of Spain, appears as one of the main findings. Despite the limited scope of this investigation, the relative novelty of this field of study leaves room for further research in different directions, questioning those who claim that globalization threats local diversity.

  • 31.
    Amlé, Anton
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Kärlens Gåta: en studie av gropkeramiska gravkärl på Gotland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will discuss the occurrence of ceramic vessels in the graves of the Pitted ware culture on the island of Gotland, Sweden. I will focus on four sites and compare these sites, with hopes of finding some similarities or interesting differences. The sites are Ajvide in Eksta parish, Visby in Visby parish, Västerbjers in Gothem parish and Fridtorp in Västerhejde parish. The idea is to look at the grave goods, with focus on the ceramic vessels, or at least, the bottoms of the vessels, where one can clearly see that it's been deposited in the grave. I will try to analyze the vessels (shape and in some cases height), look where in the grave they've been placed, how many graves contain vessels, who's been given these vessels and if the vessels have filled a certain purpose once they've been deposited in the graves.

  • 32.
    Anchér, Anna
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Modern, Intim, Beskrivande2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Anderberg, A. A.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Källersjö, M.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l.2000In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, Vol. 49, no 2, 183-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from morphology and molecular sequence data from three chloroplast genes, rbcL, ndhF, and atpB, have shown that the genus Maesa constitutes an evolutionary lineage separate from the other three primuloid families, Theophrastaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Primulaceae. The new family Maesaceae is here formally recognised, its taxonomic status being changed from a subfamily of Myrsinaceae. The new family comprises a single genus, Maesa Forssk., with some 100 species of trees or shrubs; it is diagnosed by characters such as flower pedicels with two bracteoles, a semi-inferior ovary, and indehiscent fruits with many seeds. A key to the major groups of primuloid taxa is presented.

  • 34.
    Andersen, Tobias Peulicke
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Midnight: The 3d creation process2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I am going to go through the process of creating the 3d graphics for the game Midnight produced at Gotland university spring 2010. Midnight is a real time strategy game who utilizes the rock, paper, scissor principal in the balancing of the teams. My main focus will be the pipeline of the workflow that was used during production of the graphics. What worked and what didn´t and how to make it more efficient.

    In the method part of this report, I am going to explain how the pipeline looked and worked. The process that was used started with the production of concept art, turnarounds were produced and it was then modeled and textured. When it was complete, rigging and animation were commenced, and the artifacts were then put into the game.

    The pipeline worked rather good later in the production, but was inefficient in the beginning because of other projects and courses colliding with this one. There were some problems with the structuring of the different teams. Everybody wanted to be a part of everything. This led to inefficiency. It could be resolved with stricter and better structure of the teams in the group.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Anna
    Gotland University, School of Game Design, Technology and Learning Processes.
    Pedagogiska strategier för att bemöta barns olikheter: en kvalitativ studie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med mitt arbete har varit att undersöka pedagogers strategier att bemöta barns olik­heter. Hur går de tillväga för att göra den pedagogiska verksamheten meningsfull för alla barn? Jag vill genom undersökningen också skaffa mig redskap för mitt kommande yrkesliv genom att ta del av verksamma pedagogers erfarenheter. Genom studien kan jag också knyta ihop teorin från min utbildning med verksamheten på fältet.

    I läroplanen står att förskolan har i uppdrag att bemöta och ta tillvara alla barns individu­ella behov samt att de skall göra verksamheten meningsfull för alla barn. Jag har ställt mig följande frågor.  Vad har pedagoger för strategier för att bemöta varje enskilt barn, på dess individuella nivå? Hur anpassar pedagoger gruppverksamhet, exempelvis samlingar eller annan planerad verksamhet till alla barns individuella behov?

    Jag har som metod använt mig av kvalitativa intervjuer. Jag har varit på två olika förskolor där jag intervjuat tre pedagoger på respektive förskola.

    Resultatet av min undersökning pekar på att bemötandet är av stor betydelse för barns utveckling och lärande. Det är pedagogens barnsyn som är avgörande för hur de förhåller sig i mötet med barn och till barns lärande. Det är nödvändigt att pedagoger är medvetna om sin egen barnsyn (för bemötandet hänger ihop med förmågan till samspel). Har pedagoger förmågan att bemöta och samspela med barnen, så kan de även anpassa och organisera den pedagogiska verksamheten efter barnens behov och intressen. Bland det viktigaste är, att pedagoger är medvetna om att i lärandet finns det två personer. Pedagogen och barnet, och pedagogen är lika viktig som den som ska lära.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Elin
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Anonymous artefacts and revealing runes: Scandinavian runic artefacts from a gender perspective2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine a group of runic artefacts dated to the Viking Age (800-1050 AD) from a gender perspective. The analysed material consists of 59 runic artefacts from Scandinavia, which differ in regards to base material, context and content. In the analysis, the material is separated, described and classified into different manageable groups of texts and artefacts. Several case studies are presented in the paper, based on information gathered from the inscriptions as well as the archaeological material. The main issue is whether it is possible to attribute runic artefacts to a specific gender by means of a combination of archaeological and philological methods.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Specialiserad eller allmänkunskap?: en experimentell studie av benhantverk under Mesolitikum2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study the possibility of the existence of a specialist in bone tools manufacturing during the Mesolithic. The thesis describes the climate during the Mesolithic, argues for an experimental approach, and describes social organization in hunter-gatherer-groups and the processes behind cultural transmission. It also gives some examples of excavation sites in Scandinavia. An experiment simulating a teaching situation is made, in addition to the theoretical information, with the intent to explore how advanced the crafting of bone really is. The physical result is then studied and documented. The outcome is then interpreted and discussed in connection with the theoretical knowledge and observations during the experiment. The end result points to the non-existence of specialists in bone crafting during the Mesolithic. Some reflection on the discussed subjects concludes the thesis.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Ajvide: begravningsentreprenad och sälklubbning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to see what the Ajvide location and its surroundings mighthave been used as. The author is going to compare a couple of sites, Stora Förvar, Snausarve, Bjerges and Ajvide, and see if these sites might have some connection to each other. Thesesites are going to be studied and see what they might have been used as, maybe a burialground or a settlement.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Ida
    Gotland University, Institutionen för speldesign, teknik och lärande.
    "Du får barn som älskar det ni gör": den tematiska undervisningens konsekvenser för elevers lärande — en kvalitativ undersökning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar varför några utvalda pedagoger arbetar tematiskt samt deras förhållningssätt till den tematiska undervisningen. I uppsatsen ställer jag frågor om vad de intervjuade pedagogerna anser att en tematisk undervisning kan ha för konsekvenser på elevers inlärning. Undersökningen omfattar även om pedagogerna tror att läsutvecklingen kan gynnas genom tematisk undervisning. Definitionen av vad tematisk undervisning är har hämtats ur litteratur om ämnet och utgörs av att ämnen integreras, en erfarenhetsbaserad undervisning och att inte ha en läromedelsstyrd undervisning.Jag använt mig av kvalitativa samtalsintervjuer som metod för min undersökning. I det huvudsakliga resultatet syns att de medverkande pedagogerna anser att tematisk undervisning kan vara gynnsamt för elevers inlärning. De slutsatser som jag då kan dra är att tematisk undervisning är gynnsamt på grund av att olika ämnen integreras inom temat och då bildar en helhet för eleven. Den är också gynnsam på grund av den erfarenhetspedagogiska riktningen den tematiska undervisningen ofta antar.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Inger
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    I Hyalta gastars sällskap: om konstvetenskapens diskriminering av kvinnliga målare ur den arbetande klassen på 1700- och 1800-talen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen läggs ett intersektionellt perspektiv på konsthistorien. Det sker genom en belysning av det sydsvenska bonadsmåleriets undanskymda plats i allmänhet och de kvinnliga bonadsmålarnas osynliga roll i synnerhet.

    Uppsatsen består av fyra kapitel. I det första studerar jag den svenska konsthistorieskrivningen i tre historiografiska undersökningar: först en narrativ, sedan en kvantitativ och sist en komparativ diskussion av några historiografiska verk. Min huvudsakliga slutsats är att klassanalys lyser med sin frånvaro, ordet klass och framför allt arbetarklass nämns förhållandevis sällan. Genusstrukturer analyseras i varierande grad och på olika sätt medan etnicitet mest omnämns som en kanoniserad uteslutning.

    I det andra kapitlet introduceras först den sydsvenska bonadstraditionen. Därpå presenteras Bengta Persdotter i Hyhult som ett exempel ur den kvinnliga skaran målare. I samband med det görs en möjlig attribuering av en bonad till henne. En historiografisk undersökning av folkkonstbegreppet påvisar hur det skapats av forskare för att särskilja folket från den kulturella eliten. Först betecknade folkkonst det förindustriella bondesamhällets konstnärliga föremål och den lyftes fram i en strävan att profilera en nationell identitet under senare 1800-tal. Under tidigt 1900-tal kom forskarnas attityder att bli nedlåtande. Teorier om ”gesunkenes Kulturgut” och stilretardation myntades för att leva kvar mot seklets slut. Ett begrepp som fortfarande används är ”horror vacui” vilket jag analyserar kritiskt och ger ersättningsförslaget ytmässig bildförtätning. En annan utveckling av begreppet är att det efterhand vidgats till att omfatta konsumtionssamhällets vardagsyttringar i en väldigt bred förståelse. Det får till följd att värderingen relativiseras. Undersökningen visar därtill att folkkonsten försummats av konstvetenskapen. Exempel på forskningens växlande värdering av sydsvenskt bonadsmåleri redogörs.

    I det tredje kapitlet diskuterar jag först resultatet från första kapitlet i relation till olika texter om konsten i termer av hur kultur och institutioner förhåller sig till främst klass men också kön och etnicitet. Några resultat från rapporter på fältet belyser situationen och tydliggör behovet av att inkludera de sociala kategorierna klass, kön och etnicitet i analyser av ojämlika maktförhållanden i konstvärlden.

    I det fjärde kapitlet jämför jag några bilder på bönder och adelsmän med avsändare från de olika klasserna adel, borgarklass och allmoge för att föra en diskussion om betydelsen av avsändarperspektiv och identifikation.

    I min diskussion drar jag några slutsatser om den diskursiva tystnaden kring framförallt klass. I uppsatsen dras linjer mellan olika skeenden i historien och våra dagar för att åskådliggöra samband mellan odlade attityder och dominerande norm i det fält som utgörs av konsten och konstvetenskapen.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Varning för stereotyper: en studie med syfte att urskilja och diskutera identitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through this thesis I aimed to further investigate how we can adapt our western and modern views of masculinity and femininity in an ancient population, here on the Pitted Ware population from Ajvide on Gotland. A questionnaire survey was used to compile the modern view of masculinity and femininity. This modern view was then compared with patterns which had become visible through statistical processing of the burial gifts found on Ajvide. The thesis is mainly focused around the concept of gender, but age and status have also been discussed. Through several performed correspondence analysis, it became clear that the current view of male and female differed from the one that became visible in the archaeological record. Grave gifts that in the survey, for example, was estimated to be typically feminine turnes out to be more common in mens' graves. This means that the use of burial gifts as a method, for example in gender assessment or as an indicator of identity is inadequate. The study of the interaction between material culture and gender and gender roles require further development.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Mundo mortus ses, sed Deo vivas?: en osteologisk studie med avsikt att bedöma klostret i Ny Varbergs karaktär2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to determine whether the monastery in Ny Varberg has been used as a hospital during its active years. The second aim has been to investigate weather the buried individuals at the monastery at Ny Varberg exclusively are deceased monks. Only individuals from the monastery's active years has been included in this study. A total of 16 inhumated individuals was analysed. Both men, women and children was shown to be present, as well as wide spread of children and adults. Diseases as osteomyelitis, osteoarthritis, sinustitis a possible presence cribra orbitalia as well as other diseases was found. The diseases found at Ny Varberg speaks for a normal distribution of skeletal alterations that we as humans, obtain during life and its endurances. The fact that I, among the buried individuals Ny Varberg, could confirm the presence of women and children implicates that monks hasn't been the only group of individuals buried here. A variation in the muscle patterns among men speaks for a possible occurance of two different groups of men, possible monks and laymen. Regarding the use of the monastery as a hospital, several things points us in a different direction. Signs of disease, mainly leprosy, tuberculosis and other contagious diseases, would be expected if the monastery was used as a hospital during it's active years. These diseases haven't been found. The monastery's orientation in the city and the presence of a S:t Jörgen-chapel located close by, contributes to the interpretation regarding the use of the monastery. The conclusion that the monastery probably hasn't been used as a hospital during it's active years has been drawn. The distributions regarding age, sex and nature of the pathologies, tells us that the monastery probably was used as a monastery. This doesn't exclude the fact that they may have taken mercy upon certain cases, provided care for the monastery's benefactors or have let their laymen and families rest on their burial grounds. It is in my opinion that further studying remains before we in the fullest can pronounce the use and the character of the monastery in Ny Varberg. Further study will be profitably in the study of the individuals buried at the monastery i Ny Varberg.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    De sjukaste överlever: en osteologisk undersökning av nio gravlagda individer från karmeliterklostret i Ny Varberg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Osteological analysis was carried out on skeletons from nine graves from a medieval cemetery in Ny Varberg, Varberg, Halland. The graves originate from a monastery and a church, dating back to the fourteenth and fifteenth century. The main aim with this thesis has been to study health through the presence of pathologies and skeletal changes. Further aim was to compare the results from the present study with theresults from Torsten Sandbergs analysis of the same material from 1964. This comparison later showed coincidence. In this study the sex estimations showed the presence of six men and three women. The age distribution among the nine individuals was homogeneous, whit the majority being middle- aged individuals. They exhibit a stature that can be expected for this time period, however, one man stands out with his180-183 cm. The incidence of dental caries, calculus and ante mortal tooth loss has been frequent. Diseases and changes that are occurring in the course of my work are: meningitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis, periostitis, osteoarthritis, osteoma, Schmorl’snodes, spondylolysis and hypercementosis, among others. A discussion concerning health and the impact of pain is also included in this thesis. Health among the individuals has been varying; some of them probably have not been affected significantly by their disease, while other diseases have had major negative impacts onthe individuals’ mobility and quality of life, and given rise to significant pain.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Kim
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Hur ska vi komma vidare?: frågor rörande neolitiseringen i Sydskandinavien2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the question of neolithisation of Southern Scandinavia. The main goal is to give an overview of three theories regarding how agriculture and livestock breeding was introduced to the Southern Scandinavia. These are as follows: the immigration theory, the socio-economic theory and the historical explanation theory. Furthermore it is investigated which theory has the most probably support in material culture. There are obvious difficulties in interpreting the archaeological material. Some solutions which could resolve these problems are presented by the author. And finally suggestions are made where future resources in research should be aimed, to get the discussion regarding the neolithisation of Southern Scandinavia, to move forward.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Malin
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Hälsan i behåll?: en studie av sjukdomsbilden i det vikingatida Fröjel, Gotland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    13 individuals from the Viking Age trading place in Fröjel, Gotland, were examined for this thesis. The aim was to gain a deeper knowledge about the individuals, and the main focus was to study their health. Three men, eight women and two children were examined. The age of the two children was estimated to around birth, and was no longer relevant for this thesis. The age distribution showed that two individuals were young (10-24 years), seven individuals were adults (18-44 years) and two individuals were middle-aged or older (35-79 years). The estimated height of the individuals was a little bit greater than the average for this time period. Various pathologies were observed during the analysis, for example osteoarthritis, Schmorl’s nodes and osteomyelitis. Dental diseases such as caries, calculus and periapical changes were also present. Nine of the eleven adults were tested for osteoporosis, all with good results. Traces of activity were seen in some of the individuals. Fractures were observed and X-rayed, and some of them showed traces of infections. One individual, the man in grave 03504, showed trauma related to violence. Over all, the results from the material from Fröjel were expected, and similar changes can be observed in material from the same era, as Birka and Fjälkinge, and from the early medieval towns Lund and Skara.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Martin Gustav Ingemar
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Muddring i Ireån: indirekta effekter på bottenfaunan nedströms2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to investigate the effects that dredging may have on benthic fauna. The dredging took place in the stream Ireån on northern Gotland during the early summer 2010. My area of research was taking place in a scenic area downstream in Ireån close to the Baltic Sea. I chose this area due to the dredging that started just upstream of this area and continued further upstream. Thus it is not the direct impact of the dredging that is the focus for this paper but the side-effect the dredging may have on the area downstream. In this research I used the M42-method and BQI- index in order to evaluate the results. The effects on the dredging were weaker than expected, with only minor changes occurring within the benthic fauna (BQI-value before dredging: 3.35, BQI-value after dredging: 3.51).

  • 47.
    Andersson, Mary
    Gotland University, Department of Human Geography and Ethnology.
    Aktivt åldrande: att styrketräna som pensionär2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is about pensioners who are working out at a gym. My starting point is the research program "Culture of ageing” and the theory that pensioners in the post- and late modern society conquer new potential areas. I am studying the meeting between pensioners and the gym. How the pensioners conquer the gym, relate to their training and what makes them stay after the first introduction. The essay also touches on how the gym profiles themselves in their marketing and adapt at the equipment and training environment to meet pensioners' needs.

    The essay also touches on how previous research, social norms and pensioner organizations, have influence on decisions and choices about the gym work out of pensioners. Individual discretion against creation of norms and perceptions of a good old age.

    Aging actively is a standard but this standard is in an ongoing negotiation of an ever faster-accelerating process.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Sara
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Död och begraven: en analys av de avrättades behandling på galgbacken2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the treatment of people at execution places and it is focusing on Gotland and the execution place called Galgberget. The material in the paper comes from Galgberget and a gallow in Denmark called Slots Bjergby. Together with this the laws of Gotland during the medieval and later periods are discussed and also how the archaeological material (especially the buttons) found on the excavation site can help to understand the people buried on the gallow site. The result of the analysis shows that the laws and the material found on the excavation site often tells different things. The punishments are often softer then what the law says. The material is also suggesting that it was possible to gain a better place on the execution site and that the many execution places in Visby were used for different kinds of punishments.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Sophie
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Döden till mötes: kriterier för att lokalisera avrättningsplatser på Gotland2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate which criteria that can be used to locate execution sites on the island of Gotland, Sweden. The execution sites, which are used to test the criteria against, range in date from early medieval period to 1876 when the last public execution in Sweden took place. Why these criteria can be used will be discussed along with attempts to explain why they have been used frequently or not so frequent. The results show that the execution sites are most commonly located in clear view, near roads, on heights and on unfertile soil. Other criteria that appears less frequent, but that still can be used in the process of locating execution sites, are graves, crossroads and boarders.

  • 50.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Gotland University, Department of History.
    Stenhuggaren på Korpåsberget: vilken bild förmedlas av stenhuggarens liv och arbete på Korpåsberget?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My essay aims to explore, "What image is conveyed by the stone mason's life and work on Korpåsberget". In my essay I have been working with respondent interviews to examine the purpose. I've been trying to get interviewees to talk freely, but have also had a number of indicative questions for support. 

    In order to process and understand the interviews, I also have a part in the essay aiming to provide background information to the stone industry in Bohuslän, an area along the westcoast in Sweden, and foremost in the area of Bovallstrand.

    The text discusses the stone industry's development in the area, its development and the time until the stone industry at large was closed. As for the stone industry in Bovallstrand I have chosen to focus on the largest quarry in society, namely the Korpåsberget. The background text also briefly covers stonecutter’s lives and work. As a methodological viewpoint, I used literature on qualitative interviews. 

    Then I will discuss a report on the content of each interview. I at the end of the work, I then go through interview responses and analyze them in relation to my questions and purpose. Based on the essay, other questions were raised which I have also responded to. The interviews have shown that the interviewees' attitude, commitment or lack of such, and their relationship to their father affects the interviews.

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