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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Hans
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    En anpassning till ett kyligare klimat?: en studie av orsaker till den förändrade synen på fornfynd i Riksantikvarieämbetets föreskrifter och allmänna råd avseende verkställigheten av 2 kap. 10–13 §§ lagen (1988:950) om kulturminnen m.m. år 20072009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2007 the Swedish National Heritage Board released directions for how the contractarchaeology in Sweden should carry out their work. These directions stressed that a differentapproach to the archaeological finds should be used – that would lead to a higher degree ofselection than before. The purpose of this essay is to find the reason why this change indirections occurred, and this is done by a study of the history of the rescue archaeology inSweden. The other purpose of this essay is to examine if the excavation strategies inarchaeological excavation reports from different times, correlates with the general guidingprinciples for the contract archaeology in Sweden of that time.There are several reasons why the change in directions occurred, but it seems as the mainreasons are practical. The handling of archaeological finds is relatively expensive andarchaeological researches of today generally don’t need to take care of all the finds for theinterpretation. Consequently there is no reason to save everything. The study of theexcavation reports show that there is correlation between the excavation techniques used, andthe general guiding principles for the contract archaeology of that time.

  • 2.
    Hongslo Vala, Cecilie
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Osteoartrithiske og osteoporotiske forandringer i skjelett fra middelalderen: hvordan påvirket disse sykdommene menneskene i deres daglige liv og hvordan kan medisinsk ekspertise være til hjelp ved en osteologisk analyse?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This scientific paper is about the changes in the skeleton caused by the diseases osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Six males and one female from Banken 1, S:ta Gertrud  and S:t Hans in Visby were chosen for an osteological analysis. All individuals are adults and dates back to the middle ages. One male suffered from both osteoporosis and osteoarthritis and one female and three males suffered from osteoarthritis. One male might have been in the beginning faze of osteoarthritis, and one male shows no sign of any of the diseases. In addition to osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, some of the individuals suffer from other pathological conditions. Some of the bones from most of the individuals were x-rayed at Visby hospital, to see if medical technique could show some additional information to the osteological analysis. The x-rays were interpreted by doctor Staffan Jennerholm from Visby hospital, but other doctors have also participated. The x-rays confirmed results from the osteological analysis in most cases, although it showed new information in several cases. Some bones from three individuals were taken to Roland Alvarssons` Doctor Practice in Visby to measure the bone density, to check if any of the individuals had osteoporosis. The result confirmed that one male had osteoporosis, as expected from the osteological analysis.

  • 3.
    Johansson Gregner, Maria
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    De gotländska bildstenarna: en studie av deras dateringsunderlag2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gotland is an island with a rich history. One unique thing about it is the picturestones. There are, today, 565 known stones and fragments found on the island of various dating. The dating time spans from 400 ad to 1100 ad. This essay is meant to discuss the dating issue of the early picture stones dated to 400-700 ad and discuss the relevance and validity of the today’s dating. I want this essay to put some light on the picturestone dating and perhaps get some new strings in the light.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Arkeologin i regimens tjänst: Ahnenerbes verksamhet, historiebruk och vetenskap under det Tredje riket2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study how science and archeology was exploited for political means during the Third Reich this thesis investigates the scientific institute Ahnenerbe, founded in 1935. The thesis is built up as a literature study combining literature sources from the time of the eventas well as research done around Ahnenerbe after the war.

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the official and unofficial purposes of the organisation. It investigates how scholars viewed Ahnenerbe at the time, and after the war. It further examines the scientific value of the material published by the organisation, where there is a specific focus on the material covering Germanic Männerbunds.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    "Once it's gone, it's lost": perceptions of Samoas archaeological heritage2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with approaches toward the conservation of archaeological heritage among different people and different institutions in Samoa. This is compared with approaches toward ecology and preservation of the environment to find out if there are similarities and/or differences. Moreover the opinions on how the public perceive the material heritage is compared with a survey of the public itself and their ideas concerning archaeology. The investigation was carried out by conducting interviews with people working within different institutions, NGO’s and schools as well as representatives from the general population i.e. people without education in conservation and cultural heritage. Possibilities of co-conserving the cultural and ecological values are also examined, as is the relation between culture and a natural feature - the mangroves.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Jennie
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Är vi lika dem?: en kraniestudie av hominider ur ett evolutionistiskt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By examine plastic craniums from eight different hominids I wanted to find morfological characteristics that agreed with those of modern humans. The species that were selected had a plastic casting of its cranium in the laboratory at Gotland University. My focus was on species from the family Australopithecius and Homo and only working with their craniums. And this because the cranium and the theeth shows the most visible morfological characteristics between the different hominids. I also wanted,in a small part of the essay, to write about the differences in now living primates and humans skulls.

    Except from analysing the plastic castings I also studied surveys written by other scientist on the same subject. And in that chapter write as much about the whole skeleton as possible, eventhough that was not my main field, but I wanted to give the readers an overview of the species before the analysis took place.

    The most visible morfological characteristics is shown in the theeth because the diet changed during the million years that the evolution took place. It is possible to see the development in Foramen magnum too, the hole at the base of the skull were the vertebrate connects with the cranium. This hole gets more central over time showing that the species got more biped and started to walk upright on two legs just like humans do today. There are of course many more characteristics that are able to be seen that seperates us from the extinct hominids, but many of them are the same. If you look closely at the different craniums you can see how the fantastic evolution formed humans out of apes.

    It has to be mentioned that the scientist have many different theoris about the evolution, the species and who are the real ancestors to humans and I think the disagreement will continue for many years to come.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Jennie
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    I människans tjänst?: en studie om relationen mellan människa och djuroffer i gravar från yngre järnåldern2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By examine cremated remains from graves dated to late Iron Age I wanted to find out what sorts of animals were placed in the graves. But also to see if the animal sacrifices had any connection to the Old Norse religion. The osteological material that were analysed were from both cremated humans and animals and had been dated to Viking Age. The material is from burial ground 59 at Laxare, Boge parish on Gotland. In addition to the human remains, the material contains bones from horse, cattle, sheep/goat, pig, dog, cat, bear, birds and fish. The combination between the species seems to be common all over Scandinavia during the late Iron Age. Except from analysing the material from Laxare I also studied litterature written by other scientist on the subject of animals in Old Norse religion. This was made to understand as much as possible about the religion and how people looked upon animals before Christianity.

    It seemed that animals were very important in religion during the Viking Age in this area on Gotland. Some of the species that were sacrifices in the graves had big importance in peoples daily life but also in myths. The world needed humans, animals and gods to survive and everything were depending on the harmony between them. The horse was clearly a religious animal, and it shows both in the archaeological material and in the written stories from this time. Even cattle, goat and pig are other animals that describe to be important for the religion. The dog seems to be important in the archaeological material but is not mentioned very much in the written myths.

    It is rather clear that the animal sacrificed in graves from the late Iron Age in Sweden is not only for food in the afterlife but also has a very important meaning for the religion and peoples understanding about Cosmos.

  • 8.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Östra Aros: bebyggelsen i Uppsala och dess utveckling fram till 1270 i arkeologisk belysning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis rewievs present day research on the settlement of Östra Aros in central Sweden. The thesis deals with the period from late Iron age to about 1270 AD, when the Swedish archdiocese moved to the already existing early-medieval settlement of Östra Aros, thus becoming the medieval town of Uppsala. The basis of the thesis is the study of a variety of source materials, such as artefact studies, runestones, topography and the prehistoric and early medieval hinterland. The thesis centers on archaeological excavation data and dating of settlement structures, particularly focusing on the settlements establishment. Through a critical review of primarily the written record and the archaeological data, the settlements characteristics and functions are discussed, emphasising when and if the settlement could be described as a town, central- or trading place.

  • 9.
    Klintberger Wändahl, Anna
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Kiviksgraven: analys av dess historia och framtid sett utifrån bevaringsfrågor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay focuses upon the Kivik monument and its conservation difficulties, since its discovery at 1748 until modern time. The Kivik monument is found in southeast of Scania, and dated within the Bronze Age period. The perspective of the conservation on the monument has merely been on the monuments inner cist of stone and the rock carvings on the cist-slabs. When the monument was first archaeological examined at 1931, its sizeable cairn (75 m in diameter) had almost vanished and the cist was sheltered by a casing of concrete and metal roof. Between 1932 and 1933 the monument has undergone a large-scale restoration, and this criticized restoration resulted in a low antiquarian value with the responsible authority. With a low antiquarian value, the protection of ancient monuments by national laws is nearly none and the interest by responsible authority is insignificantly. This has lead to substandard preservation of the monument and its surrounding area. By comparing the Kivik monument with the monument Ales stones, who undergone equal restorations, I discovered that Ales stones is still considered an intact ancient monument with a high antiquarian value with the responsible authority and therefore in a good state of preservation. This is probably a result of that the restorations of the Kivik monument contain none authentic material as concrete and its museological construction, which Ales stones is not and therefore perceived as a genuine ancient monument.

  • 10.
    Lindström, Jenny
    Gotland University. Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Det medeltida Fårö: en empirisk studie av tre husgrunder på en medeltida ödegård2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to through empirical studies interpret the relation between three partially investigated house foundations, on an abandoned farm in Langhammars on northern Fårö. This relation focused upon two main questions; the time of use and the spatial distribution of the archaeological finds.

    Trough comparative analysis two of these houses can establish to have been contemporary, the third one is too roughly examined. A discussion about the hypothec idea of two or three contemporary farms was made with a negative result.

    In house 1 smaller processing of tools of flint has taken place near the fireplace in the larger room. A concentration of pottery was also visible near the fireplace, likely to be connected to cooking and eating. The smallest room in the northeast part of the house could have functioned as a storeroom and/or held workshop activities.

    The archaeological finds and the distribution of it, strongly indicates that house 1 mostlikely consisted of a dwelling house and house 2 functioned as a workshop; linked to activities with handicrafts. Furthermore the finds reveal the present of a smithy on the farm, maybe placed somewhere between the two houses.

  • 11.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Land and sea animal remains from Middle Neolithic Pitted Ware sites on Gotland Island in the Baltic Sea, Sweden2008In: Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, seafaring and the archaeology of maritime landscapes / [ed] Geoffrey Clark, Foss Leach and Sue O'Conner, Canberra: ANU e-press , 2008, 171-183 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Paul, Wallin
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Clark, Geoffrey
    Australian National University.
    The excavations of Pulemelei site 2002-20042007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, 41-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Myrdal, Janken
    et al.
    Sten, SabineGotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Svenska Husdjur från medeltid till våra dagar1994Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nilsson, Ola
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Hackerör på Sydsvenska höglandet: vad skiljer röjningsröseområden från celtic fields, stensträngsområden och bandparcellområden?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the pre-Roman and Roman Iron Age, a number of different fossil agrarian landscapes can be found in southern Sweden - clearance cairn areas, celtic fields, stone-wall complexes and geometrically laid-out strip fields. With two different comparative analyses, this paper tries to explain some of the differences between clearance cairn systems and the other fossil field systems

    The shape of the early Iron Age agrarian landscape varies between different provinces of southern Sweden. At Gotland, celtic field systems were laid-out before 500 BC. In Småland at the same time, areas with clearance cairns were created. How can the difference be explained? The different physical appearance of clearance cairn areas and celtic fields can be explained by the different ways to handle the ard in till and in sandy soil. In sandy soils, and other fine soils, the ard will at each turn deposit small amounts of roots, soil and debris at the edge of the field, which over the years will build up the walls of the celtic fields. But in boulder-rich soil the ard will constantly have to be lifted and tilted, which means that the material will be released before the ard reaches the edge of the field. Since crops, vegetation, houses, field system areas, etc. are identical or at least similar in both landscape types, they most likely represent the same farming system with hay-meadow – stabling – manure – intensely cultivated fields

    In most provinces in southern Sweden, the pre-roman celtic fields and clearance cairn areas were replaced by geometrically laid-out strip fields or different kinds of stone-wall complexes enclosing the fields and farms, around AD 200, but not in Småland. There, the clearance cairn areas were used and extended throughout the Iron Age. How can this regional variation be explained? A comparison between the different landscape types reveals no significant differences in tools, crops, houses, etc. that would support that the difference is explained by a shift in farming systems. A more likely hypothesis is that the difference is due to regional pre-state or early-state political structures with an ambition to control land-use. This is based on the observations that 1) within each region the physical appearance of the fossil landscape is very coherent; 2) between the different regions there are significant differences, and; 3) the different systems were introduced approximately simultaneously in the regions Gotland, Öland, Östergötland, Uppland and Västergötland. This hypothesis implies that Småland either had a separate political structure which chose to keep the old clearance cairn land-use system, or lacked a corresponding regional structure.

  • 15.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi,.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Västergarns socken 2006: Snauvalds 1:2 och Kyrkogården 1:1, RAÄ 242006Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi,.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Västergarns socken 2008: Snauvalds 1:2, RAÄ 242008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Årets undersökning har bekräftat att vi nu funnit delar av den senvikingatida/tidigmedeltida verksamhet som västergarnsvallen byggdes för att omgärda. Hur omfattande bebyggelsen på platsen varit, dess rumsliga omfattning och datering är fortfarande inte klargjort. Inte heller kan vi i nuläget avgöra vilken eller vilka verksamheter som funnits i området. Men de dateringar och fynd vi så här långt har gör dock att vi nu kan säga att verksamhet innanför vallen säkert kan daterat till 1000-tal. Den tidigare framförda uppfattningen om att Västergarnsvallen inte tycks omgärda något som står i relation till vallens omfattning och de efterhängsna benämningarna ”staden som aldrig blev och en ofullgången stad” kan nu på allvar börja diskuteras. Även om de husgrunder vi nu lokaliserat innanför vallen ännu inte regelrätt kan benämnas stad visar fynden på att Västergarn måste betraktas mer som en stadsmiljö, om än inte av Visbys omfattning, än regelrätt gotländsk landsbygd. Vallens omfattning och konceptet med två samtida mycket nära varandra liggande kyrkor har ju redan tidigare gjort stadsdiskussionen aktuell men avsaknaden av dateringar och annan medeltida bebyggelse innanför vallen har gjort att man mer eller mindre avfört tanken på en stad i Västergarn. Undersökningarna i Västergarn innanför vallen har också satt nytt ljus på Paviken och förhållandet mellan Paviken och Västergarn. Enligt tidigare uppfattning upphörde verksamheten vid Paviken vid ingången av 1000-talet och påbörjades inte förrän runt 1150 nere i Västergarn, den senare tidpunkten bygger främst på uppförandet av den romanska kyrkan och avsaknaden av fynd daterade innan 1150. De nya dateringar som nu finns visar att denna besvärliga lucka på 150 år nu inte tycks existera. Men att sedan klargöra förhållandet dem emellan kräver mer undersökningar och fram för allt forskning. Ett helhetsgrepp med Paviken, Västergarn innanför vallen och Kronholmsområdet bör på sikt anläggas för att man ska kunna bringa klarhet i områdets funktion och betydelse från vikingatid in i tidig- och högmedeltid. Västergarns hade av allt att döma ett mycket strategiskt läge inte bara som hamn- och handelsplats på den gotländska västkusten utan också som knutpunkt för vidaretransport av handelsvaror till gotlands inland. Möjligheten att lasta om gods i Västergarn för vidare transporter in i ön via de vattensystem man når från Västergarn upp i västergarnsån in i Paviken och vidare in i sjösystemen bör ha gjort Västergans läge ytterst fördelaktigt. Det är heller inte orimligt att denna vattenled till och med kan användas för att transportera gods ända ut till öns östkust med destination mynningen av gothemsån. Även här måste man i den fortsatta forskningen lyfta blicken och ta ett helhetsgrepp på det vikingatida och medeltida landskapet och dess fornlämningar och andra fyndomständigheter kring inlandets vattensystem.

  • 17.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi,.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Västergarns socken 2007: Snauvalds 1:2 och Kyrkogården 1:1, RAÄ 242007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2008 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2009Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2007 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2008Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning år 2000 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastighetenAjvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland.2000Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2002 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2003Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2005 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2006Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2004 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2006Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Norderäng, Johan
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ajvideboplatsen: rapport från arkeologisk undersökning 2006 av fornlämning nr. 171 på fastigheten Ajvide 2:1 i Eksta socken, Gotland2007Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Norderäng, Johan
    et al.
    Gotland University, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi,.
    Staecker, Jörn
    Gotland University, Avdelningen för Arkeologi och osteologi,.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Västergarns socken 2005: Kyrkogården 1:1 och Snauvalds 1:2, RAÄ 242005Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Sardén Johansson, Erika
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Att Synliggöra det Osynliga: GIS som verktyg i sökandet  efter bosättningsområden från bronsåldern på Gotland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor essay an attempt is done, to recreate a probable Bronze Age landscape on Gotland, with GIS as a tool. The landscape on Gotland is situated with many different monuments dated Bronze Age, such as cairns and stone ships. In creating of the maps, two possible shorelines contemporary with the Bronze Age have been calculated and marked on the maps. Furthermore, peat lands have been drawn upon the maps, by using the information from geological maps.

    A landscape variable have been compared between Bronze Age places and Early Iron Age houses; the soil type. On Bronze Age places gravel is the most common, while moraine marl is the most common on places with Early Iron Age houses.

    From a selection that were made, all Bronze Age places where within 3 km from the water, either the recreated shoreline or peat land. On the maps both Early Iron Age houses and Bronze Age places seemed to have a connection with water.

  • 27.
    Schyman, Joakim
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Den gotländska vikingatidabebyggelsens rumsliga placering i landskapet: en empirisk detaljstudie av Hemse socken2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Joakim Schyman, 2009. Den gotländska vikingatida bebyggelsens rumsliga placering ilandskapet - En empirisk detaljstudie av Hemse socken (The spacial distribution of the VikingAge settlements on Gotland – An emperical study of remains from Hemse Parish.)

    This essay investigates whether a relation between Viking age graves and Viking agesettlements in Hemse parish can be found. This was done by using database information onViking age findings, such as silver hoards, phosphate levels and location of graves in Hemseparish. Literature and maps were also used. Earlier research shows that the Viking agesettlements can be found by silver hoards and relatively high phosphate levels. This essay'sanalysis verifies this. The analysis also shows the possibility of a prehistoric court leet locatedin the center of Hemse parish. The Viking age graves are located close to the possible courtleet, along the ridge running through the parish. These graves are seen as a grave fieldcommonly used by all the settlements in the parish. Findings close to the settlements showthat inhabitants also buried their dead close to their settlements as a marking of territory. Thisgives us a complex picture of the connection between the habitants and their burials duringthis period.

  • 28.
    Sten, Sabine
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Bovine teeth in age assessment, from medieval cattle to Belgian Blue: methodology, possibilities and limitations2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The kill-off pattern of domestic animals in archaeological faunal assemblages is most commonly established from deciduous and permanent tooth eruption and tooth wear patterns. During the last decades, however, the method of counting cemental incremental lines has been used on wild mammals, specifically to assess the time of seasonal settlement in archaeological materials. The method is relatively new and its potential is still being explored. Thus, further studies are needed to better define the accuracy, precision, sensitivity and specificity of the age assessment method of counting incremental lines in the dental cementum of domestic animals. The literature on this method is quite limited.

    The overall aim is to develop and characterise an age assessment method based on incremental lines in dental cementum using contemporary bovine teeth and teeth from archaeological faunal assemblages. The investigations also include two other age assessment methods: tooth wear pattern and macroscopic dental measurements. The first permanent mandibular molar and lower jaws from 70 contemporary cattle of known age were made available for this study. In addition, 170 teeth from 170 animals and lower jaw molars when available from ten different Swedish archaeological sites were used. The following conclusions were drawn:

    “Are there incremental lines in the dental cementum of cattle?” In transmitted polarised light, both distinct narrow light layes and wide dark layer were present in ground sections of teeth from medieval as well as contemporary cattle.

    “Can incremental lines in the dental cementum of cattle be utilised for age assessment purposes?” The growth layers in teeth from medieval and post-Reformation cattle were more distinct than those of contemporary teeth. Thus, there appears to be a sound basis for age assessment of cattle of unknown ages based on incremental lines in dental cementum.

    “Is there a relationship between the number of incremental lines and age in contemporary cattle?” and “Which part of the tooth root is the most reliable for age assessment based number of incremental lines in the dental cementum varied between different parts of the tooth root as well as within one and the same individual. The results from contemporary cattle of known age showed a strong relationship between age and incremental lines in the cementum of the distal part of the mesial root (R2=65.5%) and the known ages of the animals. The lines were thus interpreted as incremental lines related to age.

    “Can the last formed cemental incremental line be used to identify the season in which the animal died?” There was no significant relationship between the appearance of the different parts of the incremental lines (dark or light) and the season of slaughter in contemporary cattle. This may be a consequence of the difficulty of correctly interpreting the outermost line in the ground sections.

    “Do any other factors influence the formation of incremental lines in contemporary cattle?” With the “best” model variation in age could be explained to 65.5% (R2) by the number of incremental lines. Thus, the remaining age variation (approximately 35%) could not be explained by these lines. Other factors than must thus be responsible. However, with the exception of calves born the present material did not reveal any such significant relationship. In a larger material such factors could comprise stress, living conditions, climate, etc.

    “How do other age assessment methods involving teeth compare with age assessment based on the formation of cemental incremental lines?” The results from cattle of known age indicate that the method of assessing age on the basis of cemental incremental lines is more reliable than other methods such as tooth wear or tooth measurements. However, by combining counting incremental lines and one variable assessing tooth dimension (tooth height) a slightly stronger relationship could be obtained (R2=74.5%).

    “Can the methodological results from the contemporary material be applied to an archaeological material and if so, what are the limitations and possibilities of the methods?”

    The results from age assessment of the medieval and post-Reformation cattle emphasize the importance of supplementing any age estimation of archaeological assemblages based on dental indicators with characteristics for the particular assessment model. Furthermore, conclusions based on age assessment with such models can not be drawn with any more detailed time scale than about 2 years leaving at best only 25% (R2) of factors influencing the dental indicator(s) utilized in the model unexplained. One such factor could be the number of calves given birth to. The accuracy of the age assessment required by the particular historical context in which the archaeological remains are found should thus decide what level of accuracy should be chosen.

  • 29.
    Sten, Sabine
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Vretemark, Maria
    Storgravsprojektet: osteologiska analyser av yngre järnålderns benrika brandgravar1988In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, Vol. 83, no 3, 145-156 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have carried out osteological analyses on 14 cremation graves which are extremely rich in bones. The analysed Late Iron Age graves are concentrated to the Lake Mälaren valley. The resulta show tha) a great number ol animals were sacrificed on lhe funeral pyres in honour of the dead. The animals include trained falcons and bawks. They reveal that falconry already in the 6th century was pracliced by the wealthy class.

  • 30.
    Wallerius, Adam
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Arkeologi vs. Kulturgeografi: en studie om äldre järnåldern på Gotland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discusses the differences between how archaeologists and cultural geographerdescribe the early Iron Age on Gotland. What objects, phenomenon and arguments do theyuse to describe this period. Four publications have been analysed in this study, two written byarchaeologists, two by geographers.The differences in how they describe the period in question are significant. Both disciplinesgive a very fragmentary description of the older Iron Age in Gotland.

  • 31.
    Wallin, Paul
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Ceremonial stone structures: the archaeology and ethnohistory of the marae complex in the Society Islands, French Polynesia1993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Settlement Patterns: Social and Ritual Space in Prehistoric Samoa2007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, 83-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Religious Structures in the Hanga Ho'onu Region2008In: Prehistoric Rapa Nui: landscape and settlement archaeology at Hanga Ho'onu / [ed] Christopher M. Stevenson and Sonia Haoa Cardinali, Los Osos, CA, USA: Easter Island Foundation , 2008, 127-166 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Clark, Geoffrey
    Australian National University.
    A Radiocarbon Sequence for Samoan Prehistory and the Pulemelei Mound2007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, 71-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Solsvik, Reidar
    Kon-Tiki Museet.
    Dating Ritual Structures in Maeva, Huahine: Assessing the Development of Marae Structures in the Leeward Society Islands, French Polynesia2006In: Rapa Nui Journal, ISSN 1040-1385, Vol. 20, no 1, 9-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Sten, Sabine
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Säljakten på Gotland2007In: Gotländskt Arkiv, ISSN 0434-2429, Vol. 79, 23-40 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Österholm, Inger
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Österholm, Sven
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Solsvik, Reidar
    Kon-Tiki Museet, Oslo.
    Phosphates and bones: an analysis of the courtyard of marae Manunu, Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia2008In: Islands of inquiry: colonisation, seafaring and the archaeology of maritime landscapes / edited by Geoffrey Clark, Foss Leach and Sue O'Connor / [ed] Geoffrey R. Clark, B. Foss Leach, Sue O'Connor, Canberra: ANU E Press , 2008, Vol. 29, 423-434 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Österholm, Inger
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Jakobs/Ajvide: undersökningar på en gotländsk boplatsudde från stenåldern2008Book (Other academic)
1 - 38 of 38
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