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  • 1.
    Anderberg, A. A.
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Källersjö, M.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l.2000In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, Vol. 49, no 2, 183-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from morphology and molecular sequence data from three chloroplast genes, rbcL, ndhF, and atpB, have shown that the genus Maesa constitutes an evolutionary lineage separate from the other three primuloid families, Theophrastaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Primulaceae. The new family Maesaceae is here formally recognised, its taxonomic status being changed from a subfamily of Myrsinaceae. The new family comprises a single genus, Maesa Forssk., with some 100 species of trees or shrubs; it is diagnosed by characters such as flower pedicels with two bracteoles, a semi-inferior ovary, and indehiscent fruits with many seeds. A key to the major groups of primuloid taxa is presented.

  • 2.
    Enekvist, Elisabeth
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Energy intake of Common Guillemot, Uria aalge, chicks at Stora Karlsö, Sweden: influence of changes in the Baltic Sea2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of feeding behaviour of common guillemots, Uria aalge, in June 2002 at the island Stora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea proper, and measurements of morphology and energy density in the prey fish sprat, Sprattus sprattus, showed that fish delivered to chicks at present are shorter and weigh less than in the 1970s. Long lasting attending periods and a feeding rate of 4.6 feeds per day indicate that parents are feeding their chicks at a maximum rate. Because of a decline in the energy density in sprat (22.4 kJg-1 dry weight) the daily energy intake of common guillemot chicks have declined noticeably. This could probably explain the observed decrease in fledging body weight of chicks through the 1990s. Baltic common guillemots do not seem to be able to select more energy-dense prey sizes or to switch to other prey species.

  • 3.
    Fernández Terrazas, Erika
    et al.
    Herbario Forestal Nacional, Cochabamba.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Diversity and phytogeography of the vascular flora of the Polylepis forests of the Cordillera de Cochabamba, Bolivia2002In: Ecotropica, ISSN 0949-3026, Vol. 8, no 2, 163-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Knudsen, Jette
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eriksson, Roger
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Max Planck Institute, Jena.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Diversity and distribution of floral scent2006In: The Botanical review, ISSN 0006-8101, Vol. 72, no 1, 1-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A list of 1719 chemical compounds identified from headspace samples of floral scent is presented. The list has been compiled from some 270 published papers, including analyses of 991 species of flowering plants and a few gymnosperms, a sample including seed plants from 90 families and 38 orders. The compounds belong to seven major compound classes, of which the aliphatics, the benzenoids and phenylpropanoids, and, among the terpenes, the mono- and sesquiterpenes, occur in most orders of seeds plants. C5-branched compounds, irregular terpenes, nitrogen-containing compounds, and a class of miscellaneous cyclic compounds have been recorded in about two-thirds of the orders. Sulfur-containing compounds occur in a third of the orders, whereas diterpenes have been reported from three orders only. The most common single compounds in floral scent are the monoterpenes limonene, (E)-β-ocimene, myrcene, linalool, α- and β-pinene, and the benzenoids benzaldehyde, methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (methyl salicylate), benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenyl ethanol, which occur in 54–71% of the families investigated so far. The sesquiterpene caryophyllene and the irregular terpene 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one are also common and occur in more than 50% of the families. Orchidaceae are by far the best investigated family, followed by several families known to have many species with strongly scented flowers, such as Araceae, Arecaceae, Magnoliaceae, and Rosaceae. However, the majority of angiosperm families are still poorly investigated. Relationships between floral scent and pollination, chemistry, evolution, and phylogeny are briefly discussed. It is concluded that floral scent chemistry is of little use for phylogenetic estimates above the genus level, whereas the distribution and combinations of floral scent compounds at species and subspecific levels is a promising field of investigation for the understanding of adaptations and evolutionary processes in angiosperms.

  • 5.
    Källersjö, Mari
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Phylogeny of Theophrastaceae (Ericales s. lat.)2003In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, Vol. 164, no 4, 579-591 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological traits and sequences from two chloroplast genes, ndhF and trnL-F (intron, 3' exon, and spacer), have been used to investigate relationships in the Ericalean family Theophrastaceae. A total evidence parsimony analysis shows that the herbaceous genus Samolus is sister to all other Theophrastaceae. The latter are in turn divided into two major groups, one with Theophrasta, Neomezia, and Clavija and the other with Deherainia, Votschia, and Jacquinia. The representatives of Jacquinia are found in two separate well-supported clades, one consisting of the white-flowered species and the other of the mostly orange-red-flowered species, together with J. paludicola and J. longifolia, two aberrant species with whitish yellow flowers. Deherainia and Votschia group with the latter clade, which makes Jacquinia paraphyletic. We propose that J. paludicola and J. longifolia, together with the orange-red-flowered Jacquinia, be recognized as a separate genus, Bonellia. The sister taxa Theophrasta and Neomezia are confined to Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. Within Clavija, which is the sister group of Theophrasta-Neomezia, the only Antillean species, Clavija domingensis, is sister to all other species occurring in South and Central America. With the splitting of Jacquinia, Jacquinia s. str. is composed of species occurring in the Caribbean, which are mostly confined to the Greater Antilles, whereas Bonellia is composed of a mixture of Caribbean, Central American, and South American species.

  • 6.
    Lars, Enström
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Gamla tallars betydelse för biologisk mångfald på Gotland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern methods for managing pine (Pinus sylvestris) create homogenized forests. This decreases nature’s potential for biodiversity and might threaten species in need of different types of milieu. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how important older pine trees are for biodiversity. In the Hall-Hangvar Reserve in the north-west part of Gotland, insects collected from traps showed that more species were found in old or dead trees compared to younger pine trees. A statistically significant difference was found for Coleoptera (beetles). The taxons of greatest interest for this study were Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (wasps). Certain families of Hymenoptera use ducts made by larvae from some families of Coleoptera.These larvae also serve as prey. Relevance concerning enviromental importance to species and diffrenences in inhabiting the three stages of pine trees was of importance.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    Marshall, Rupert C
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Waldeck, Peter
    Andersson, Malte
    Nest parasitism in the barnacle goose: evidence from protein fingerprinting and microsatellites2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, Vol. 78, no 1, 167-174 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geese are often seen as one of nature's best examples of monogamous relationships, and many social pairs stay together for life. However, when parents and young are screened genetically, some chicks do not match their social parents. Although this has often been explained as adoption of foreign young after hatching, conspecific nest parasitism is another possibility. We used nondestructive egg albumen sampling and protein fingerprinting to estimate the frequency and success of nest parasitism in a Baltic Sea population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis. Among the 86 nests for which we had the most complete information, 36% were parasitized, and 12% of the eggs were parasitic. Almost 80% of the parasitic eggs were laid after the host began incubation. Hatching of these eggs was limited to the few cases where the host female incubated longer than normally because her own eggs failed to hatch. Conspecific nest parasitism in this population therefore seems mainly to be an alternative reproductive tactic of lower fitness than normal nesting. Comparison with DNA profiling of chicks (with 10–14 microsatellites) and other evidence confirmed the suitability of protein fingerprinting for analysis of nest parasitism. It can often provide more data than microsatellites, if eggs are albumen-sampled soon after being laid, before most losses occur.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg.
    Waldeck, Peter
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Marshall, Rupert C
    Andersson, Malte
    Colony kin structure and host-parasite relatedness in the barnacle goose2009In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, Vol. 18, no 23, 4955-4963 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspecific brood parasitism (CBP), females laying eggs in the nest of other 'host' females of the same species, is a common alternative reproductive tactic among birds. For hosts there are likely costs of incubating and rearing foreign offspring, but costs may be low in species with precocial chicks such as waterfowl, among which CBP is common. Waterfowl show strong female natal philopatry, and spatial relatedness among females may influence the evolution of CBP. Here we investigate fine-scale kin structure in a Baltic colony of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, estimating female spatial relatedness using protein fingerprints of egg albumen, and testing the performance of this estimator in known mother-daughter pairs. Relatedness was significantly higher between neighbour females (nesting ≤ 40 metres from each other) than between females nesting farther apart, but there was no further distance trend in relatedness. This pattern may be explained by earlier observations of females nesting close to their mother or brood sisters, even when far from the birth nest. Hosts and parasites were on average not more closely related than neighbour females. In 25 of 35 sampled parasitized nests, parasitic eggs were laid after the host female finished laying, too late to develop and hatch. Timely parasites, laying eggs in the host's laying sequence, had similar relatedness to hosts as that between neighbours. Females laying late parasitic eggs tended to be less related to the host, but not significantly so. Our results suggest that CBP in barnacle geese might represent different tactical life-history responses.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Black, Jeffrey M.
    Prop, Jouke
    Wild goose dilemmas: population consequences of individual decisions in Barnacle geese2007Book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Feige, Nicole
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Graaf, Alexandra J
    Leito, Aivar
    Stahl, Julia
    Newly established breeding sites of the barnacle Goose branta leucopsis in North-western Europe - an overview of breeding habitats and colony development2008In: Die Vogelwelt : Zeitschrift für Vogelkunde und Vogelschutz, ISSN 0042-7993, Vol. 129, 244-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional breeding grounds of the Russian Barnacle Goose population are at the Barents Sea in the Russian Arctic. During the last decades, the population increased and expanded the breeding area by establishing new breeding colonies at lower latitudes. Breeding numbers outside arctic Russia amounted to about 12,000 pairs in 2005. By means of a questionnaire, information about breeding habitat characteristics and colony size, colony growth and goose density were collected from breeding areas outside Russia. This paper gives an overview about the new breeding sites and their development in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in habitat characteristics and population parameters between North Sea and Baltic breeding sites. Colonies at the North Sea are growing rapidly, whereas in Sweden the growth has levelled off in recent years. In Estonia numbers are even decreasing. On the basis of their breeding site choice, the flyway population of Barnacle Geese traditionally breeding in the Russian Arctic can be divided into three sub-populations: the Barents Sea population, the Baltic population and the North Sea population. The populations differ not only in habitat use but also in breeding biology.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Bensch, Staffan
    Population differentiation in the redshank (Tringa totanus) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers2005In: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, Vol. 6, no 3, 321-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The redshank (Tringa totanus) is declining throughout Europe and to implement efficient conservation measures, it is important to obtain information about the population genetic structure. The aim of the present study was two-fold. First, we analysed the genetic variation within and between populations in the Baltic region in southern Scandinavia. Evidence of genetic structure would suggest that different populations might require separate management strategies. Second, in an attempt to study large-scale genetic structure we compared the Baltic populations with redshanks from northern Scandinavia and Iceland. This analysis could reveal insights into phylogeography and long-term population history. DNA samples were collected from six breeding sites in Scandinavia presumed to include two subspecies (totanus and britannica) and a further sample from Iceland (subspecies robusta). Two methods were used to study the population genetic structure. Domain II and III of the mitochondrial control region was analysed by DNA sequencing and nuclear DNA was analysed by screening amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Mitochondrial DNA showed no variation between individuals in domain II. When analysing an 481 bp fragment of domain III seven haplotypes were found among birds. On the basis of mtDNA sequences, redshanks showed some evidence of a recent expansion from a bottlenecked refugial population. Bayesian analyses of AFLP data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between suggested subspecies but not between populations within the Baltic region. Our results indicate that populations of redshanks in Europe constitute at least three separate management units corresponding to the recognised subspecies.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Nesting success in redshank Tringa totanus breeding on coastal meadows and the importance of perches used by avian predators2005In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, Vol. 52, no 3, 289-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate if predation on Redshank nests was affected by habitat characteristics at a local scale.

    Methods: We examined survival rates of Redshank nests on coastal meadows on the Baltic island of Gotland, Sweden, over two breeding seasons. We analysed nest survival rates in relation to several habitat characteristics that may benefit predators searching for nests. We examined existing studies concerning predation rates on wader nests in relation to edges and habitat features potentially used by avian predators.

    Results: We found no significant effects of distance to habitat edge or to nearest potential lookout for avian predators or to shoreline. Abundance of Lapwings Vanellus vanellus, an aggressive species with active nest-defence, did not have any significant effect on nest survival rate, nor did vegetation concealment of nests. Nest survival rates were significantly different between years and lower later in the season.

    Conclusions: There is only weak support for general effects on wader nest predation rates of proximity to edges and features used by avian predators. Simple mechanical management actions such as removal of trees and bushes on coastal meadows may not directly, and by itself, result in higher reproductive success of waders. Further understanding is needed of the behaviour of predators and the composition of the predator community in different landscapes in order to increase the efficiency of management actions to remove threats to vulnerable species on coastal meadows.

  • 13.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Tydén, Lars
    Inventeringar av oljeskadad alfågel längs Gotlands sydkust under perioden 1996/97 till 2008/092009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar våra vinterinventeringar av oljeskadad alfågel längs Gotlands sydkust under perioden 1996/97 till 2008/09. Rapporten ska ses som ett tillägg till och uppdatering av våra tidigare rapporter där vi redovisat resultat av vinterinventeringar av oljeskadad alfågel längs Gotlands sydkust mellan 1996/97 och 2007/08 (Larsson 2005, Larsson och Tydén 2005, 2007, 2008). I de tidigare rapporterna har vi även behandlat olika frågor som rör alfåglarnas biologi, utnyttjande av utsjöbankar och det stora hot som oljeutsläpp vid Natura 2000 områdena Hoburgs bank och Norra Midsjöbanken utgör mot övervintrande sjöfåglar. Mer detaljerade beskrivningar av undersökningsmetoder mm. kan sökas i de tidigare artiklarna. Mer information kan också fås av författarna.

    Inventeringarna av oljeskadad alfågel under vintern 2008/09 är genomförd med den standardiserade inventeringsmetodik som använts under tidigare år. Antalet observerade oljeskadade alfåglar vid de olika inventeringstillfällena ska betraktas som index som kan jämföras med tidigare års index. Inventeringarna kan därmed svara på om effekter av oljeutsläppen till havs minskar eller ökar samt även användas för att följa upp delmål i miljömålet "Hav i balans samt levande kust och skärgård". För att beräkna det totala antalet oljeskadade alfåglar per år i centrala Östersjön krävs även andra undersökningsmetoder (se Larsson 2005, Larsson och Tydén 2005).

    Vintern 2008/09 observerades färre oljeskadade alfåglar längs Gotlands sydkust än under tidigare vintrar. Antalet oljeskadade alfåglar har varierat under den studerade 13-årsperioden. Högst antal observerades under vintrarna 2000/01 och 2001/02 och lägst antal under 2005/06, 2007/08 och 2008/2009. Data från vintern 2004/05 saknas. Det finns inget tydligt samband mellan antal observerade oljeskadade alfåglar under olika vintrar och antalet oljeutsläpp som kustbevakningen årligen registrerat i hela den svenska ansvarszonen, dvs. i svenskt territorialvatten och i svensk ekonomisk zon, eller i svensk ansvarszon öster om Öland och Gotland. Detta visar att information om antalet registrerade oljeutsläpp på nationell eller regional nivå i sig inte räcker för att förutsäga effekter på övervintrande fåglar i Östersjön.

    Det finns ett stort behov av nya heltäckande inventeringar av övervintrande sjöfåglar på utsjöbankar i Östersjön. Räkningar i Finland och Estland av flyttande alfåglar indikerar att alfågeln har minskat med ca 80 % under de senaste 15 åren (Kauppinen 2008). Inventeringar i kustnära områden i Sverige och på utsjöbanken Hoburgs bank visar också att alfågeln har minskat kraftigt i antal under senare år (Nilsson och Green 2007, Nilsson opubl, Larsson opubl). Ännu kraftfullare åtgärder mot sjöfart av undermålig standard och mot illegala oljeutsläpp måste införas. Eftersom huvuddelen av alla oljeutsläpp sker i fartygsrutterna måste de mest trafikerade rutterna flyttas bort från Östersjöns mest värdefulla Natura 2000-områden.

    Idag passerar mer än 25 000 fartyg per år genom Natura 2000 området Hoburgs bank. Hoburgs bank är klassat som ett SPA område och som ett SCI område enligt EUs fågel- och habitatdirektiv. En del av Natura 2000-området Hoburgs bank, dvs. den sydöstra delen, är även klassad av International Maritime Organisation IMO som ett område som sjöfarten rekommenderas att undvika (Area to be Avoided). Uppföljningar av AIS information har visat att ett mindre antal fartyg ej följer den av IMO beslutade rekommendationen att inte färdas i det av IMO definierade "area to be avoided" (Sjöfartsverket 2007). Detta är olyckligt men det stora hotet mot fågellivet vid Hoburgs bank kommer dock inte från detta mindre antal fartyg utan från den fartygstrafik, ca 25 000 fartyg, som färdas i rutten väster om det av IMO definierade "area to be avoided" men genom Natura 2000 området Hoburgs bank. Enligt fastställd bevarandeplan för Natura 2000-området Hoburgs bank (Länsstyrelsen Gotlands län, 2005) bör "den fartygsrutt som går över banken flyttas så att fartygsrutten går söder och öster om banken".

    Beräkningar visar tydligt att antalet upptäckta och oupptäckta illegala oljeutsläpp i Östersjön fortfarande är mycket högt, kanske flera tusen per år. HELCOMs statistik visar att antalet oljeutsläpp med största sannolikhet var ca 2 till 3 gånger fler i slutet på 1980-talet och början på 1990-talet än idag. HELCOMs data visar dock även att antalet upptäckta oljeutsläpp per flygtimme inte har minskat i Östersjön de senaste åren. Efter år 2005 då Östersjön klassades som ett särskilt känsligt havsområde har antalet upptäckta oljeutsläpp per flygtimme snarare ökat. Den sammanlagda volymen utsläppt olja vid dessa utsläpp är relativt liten i jämförelse med den mängd olja och oljeprodukter som når Östersjön från landbaserade källor eller med den mängd olja som kan läcka ut vid en olycka med en stor oljetanker. Studier visar dock tydligt att tid och plats för ett oljeutsläpp, och inte volymen utsläppt olja, är de viktigaste faktorerna som bestämmer hur kraftigt fåglar och fågelpopulationer drabbas. Eftersom sjöfåglar ofta är mycket ojämnt fördelade över Östersjöns yta kan även ett mycket litet oljeutsläpp i ett område som hyser hundratusentals sjöfåglar slå ut en mycket stor del av fågelbestånden. Omvänt så kan även ett större oljeutsläpp i fågelfattiga områden ha liten effekt på bestånden. Det är därför viktigt att styra fartygstrafik bort från nationellt och globalt viktiga områden som hyser mycket stora mängder sjöfågel. Med sannolikt upp mot flera tusen illegala oljeutsläpp per år i Östersjön går det även att konstatera att vi är långt från att uppfylla det av riksdagen beslutade miljömålet att utsläppen av olja och kemikalier från fartyg ska minimeras och vara försumbara senast år 2010.

    Det finns ett mycket stort behov av att harmonisera den statistik över antalet oljeutsläpp som presenteras av HELCOM och av Kustbevakningen. Olika metoder att beräkna antalet utsläpp ger helt olika slutsatser. Statistik från HELCOMs CEPCO flygningar och statistik från HELCOMs regelbundna flygningar leder t.ex. till helt olika slutsatser vad beträffar totalantalet oljeutsläpp i Östersjön.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Eichhorn, Götz
    Litvin, Konstantin E
    Stahl, Julia
    van der Graf, Alexandra J
    Drent, Rudi H
    Keeping up with early springs: rapid range expansion in an avian herbivore incurs a mismatch between reproductive timing and food supply2009In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, Vol. 15, no 5, 1057-1071 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within three decades, the barnacle goose population wintering on the European mainland has dramatically increased in numbers and extended its breeding range. The expansion has occurred both within the Arctic as well as by the colonization of temperate areas. Studies of performance of individuals in expanding populations provide information on how well species can adapt to novel environments and global warming. We, therefore, studied the availability of high quality food as well as timing of reproduction, wing moult, fledgling production and postfledging survival of individually marked geese in three recently established populations: one Arctic (Barents Sea) and two temperate (Baltic, North Sea). In the Barents Sea population, timing of hatching was synchronized with the peak in food availability and there was strong stabilizing selection. Although birds in the Baltic and North Sea populations bred 6–7 weeks earlier than Arctic birds, timing of hatching was late in relation to the peak in food availability, and there was moderate to strong directional selection for early breeding. In the Baltic, absolute timing of egg laying advanced considerably over the 20-year study period, but advanced little relative to spring phenology, and directional selection on lay date increased over time. Wing moult of adults started only 2–4 weeks earlier in the temperate populations than in the Arctic. Synchronization between fledging of young and end of wing moult decreased in the temperate populations. Arctic-breeding geese may gradually accumulate body stores from the food they encounter during spring migration, which allows them to breed relatively early and their young to use the peak of the Arctic food resources. By contrast, temperate-breeding birds are not able to acquire adequate body stores from local resources early enough, that is before the quality of food for their young starts to decrease. When global temperatures continue to rise, Arctic-breeding barnacle geese might encounter similar problems.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Veen, Ineke
    Kin clustering in barnacle geese: familiarity or phenotype matching?2002In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, Vol. 13, no 6, 786-790 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the settling pattern of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis that returned to breed in their natal colony. Females nested close to their parents and sisters, but settling of males conformed to a random pattern. The apparent preference for breeding close to kin in females could be a by-product of extreme philopatry to the natal nest site. However, sisters also nested close to each other when settling on a different island than the one where their parents bred, pointing at a genuine preference for breeding close to kin. Females only nested close to sisters born in the same year (i.e., sisters that they had been in close contact with). This suggests that the clustering of female kin in barnacle geese does not result from phenotype matching. We did not detect any direct benefits of settling close to birth site or kin, but the analyses lacked power to detect small benefits of proximity to kin given the many other factors that may influence breeding success. Colonially breeding birds share characteristics that are generally believed to promote the evolution of cooperation, yet kin clustering and kin selection have been little studied in this group. Future research should be directed to studying the possible roles of kin clustering and kin selection in the evolution of coloniality.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Charlotte
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Male broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle do not locate females by smell2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 78, no 6, 1861-1867 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle were used to investigate whether males used scent in their search for mates. When the males in an experiment had access to olfactory cues only, they did not locate females better than they located males. Thus, S. typhle, was less successful in mate search when visual cues were absent.

  • 17.
    Nissling, Anders
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Effects of temperature on egg and larval survival of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the Baltic Sea – implications for stock development2004In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, Vol. 514, no 1-3, 115-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock development of cod and sprat, two major fish species in the Baltic Sea, is linked by trophic interactions. Depending on recruitment success the Baltic may be pushed towards either a cod- or a clupeid dominated system. Both cod and sprat spawn in the Baltic deep basins at strongly varying hydrographical conditions with survival during the egg and early larval stages regarded as a major bottleneck. Due to differences in egg specific gravity, cod and sprat eggs occur at different depths and are thus subject to different hydrographical conditions. For sprat, weak year-classes have been associated with low water temperatures during peak spawning. For cod the shift in peak spawning from spring to summer during the 1990s has been discussed as a reason for the poor recruitment at present as delayed spawning may involve egg development at too high temperatures. In the present study cod and sprat eggs and yolk sac larvae were incubated at different temperatures, 1–11thinsp°C for cod and 1–13thinsp°C for sprat. No difference in viable hatch occurred in the range 3–9thinsp°C for cod and in the range 5–13thinsp°C for sprat. Larval viability decreased at 11thinsp°C for cod and at le5thinsp°C for sprat. Comparing the results with vertical egg distribution and temperature profiles from field studies suggested no major influence of temperature on cod reproduction, but a considerable effect on sprat. The results imply that different environmental conditions; frequency of major saline water inflows into the Baltic Sea for cod, and water temperature in the upper layers, e.g. following severe/mild winters, for sprat, involve different opportunities for egg and larval survival and may thus cause a displacement in the balance between cod and sprat.

  • 18.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald
    Institute of Marine Research, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Muller, Alajos
    Institute of Marine Research, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Andersson, Lars
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Köster, Fritz
    Institute of Marine Research, University of Kiel, German.
    Makarchouk, Andrei
    Latvian Fisheries Research Institute, Riga, Latvia.
    Vertical distribution and egg survival of Baltic sprat in relation to temperature and oxygen conditions - implications for stock development2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprat, Sprattus sprattus, is a key species in the Baltic Sea. Besides being a target species in the Baltic mixed clupeoid fishery it is a major zooplanktivore and dominates, together with herring, one of four trophic levels in the Baltic Sea food web. Occasionally strong year classes of Baltic sprat are followed by a number of year classes below average. During the 1990s however a series of year classes above average were produced and the stock reached historically high levels with implications for the Baltic food web. Spawning stock biomass and recruitment are poorly related suggesting that environmental conditions have a great impact on the year-class strength. In the main spawning areas, i.e. the Baltic deep basins, egg development occurs at highly varying environmental conditions. In the present investigation egg specific gravity and variation in vertical egg distribution as well as egg survival in relation to temperature and oxygen conditions were studied. Incubation of eggs revealed significantly lower viable hatch at <5 degree C. Egg occurrence in relation to oxygen concentration suggested lower survival at <2 ml/l. Egg specific gravity averaged 1.00858 plus or minus 0.00116 g/cm3 during peak spawning but was significantly higher early in the season and significantly lower towards the end of the spawning period. In general, eggs kept buoyant in the deep layers at low oxygen conditions early in the season, developed at more favourable oxygen concentrations but at poor temperature conditions during peak spawning, and were distributed at both more favourable temperature and oxygen conditions towards the end of the spawning season. Using conditions at in average occurrence of eggs during peak spawning for the period 1970-2000 the relative importance of temperature and oxygen conditions was evaluated. Results suggested that variation in temperature is the most important factor affecting egg survival in the Bornholm basin (SD 25), that mainly oxygen conditions determine the survival rate in the Gotland basin (SD 28) whereas variation in both temperature and oxygen conditions influence survival in the Gdansk Deep (SD 26). In conclusion, opportunities for egg survival are influenced by both temperature conditions following mild or severe winters as well as by frequency and magnitude of saline water inflows into the Baltic Sea.

  • 19.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Jacobsson, Marie
    Hallberg, Nina
    Feeding ecology of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus and flounder Pleuronectes flesus at Gotland, Central Baltic Sea2007In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, Vol. 70, no 6, 1877-1897 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food and feeding of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus and flounder Pleuronectes flesus were studied in five nursery areas at Gotland, Central Baltic Sea, ICES SD 27 and SD 28. Ontogeny involved partitioning of available food resources. The food choice of turbot <30 mm standard length (L sub(S)) included both planktonic-hyperbenthic prey (calanoid copepods and mysids) and epibenthic-endobenthic prey (chironomids and amphipods), whereas turbot greater than or equal to 30 mm L sub(S) fed mainly on hyperbenthic species (mysids and fishes). Conversely, for flounder, epibenthic-endobenthic prey were the most abundant prey items throughout development (harpactocoid copepods, oligochaetes and chironomids for fish <40 mm L sub(S) and oligochaetes, chironomids and amphipods for flounder greater than or equal to 40 mm L sub(S)). Thus, the highest degree of dietary overlap occurred between turbot <30 mm and flounder greater than or equal to 40 mm. Food composition for both turbot and flounder varied, however, according to exposure and predominant wind direction in the nursery area. For example, expressed as the ratio between the biomass of mysids and fishes consumed, the relative importance of mysids v. fishes as food source for turbot, varied from <1 in the most sheltered area to 16 and 27 in the more open areas. Considerable differences in feeding incidence were recorded; mean plus or minus s.d. 58 plus or minus 20% for turbot <30 mm L sub(S) and 83 plus or minus 8% for turbot greater than or equal to 30 mm L sub(S), as opposed to greater than or equal to 85-90% for flounder irrespective of size. The lower feeding success of turbot <30 mm L sub(S) was related to mysid abundance, shown to vary spatially and temporally, and to density of flounder, indicating that food availability, and potentially interspecific competition, influence feeding of early juvenile turbot with implications for survival following settlement. Regarding variability in abundance, hyperbenthic prey, as mysids, are considered more variable than epi- and endobenthic organisms. Hence, in addition to the 'nursery size hypothesis', i.e. the positive relationship between abundance of recruits and extension of nursery areas, variability in food availability may explain the average lower recruitment of turbot as compared to other flatfishes, e.g. flounder.

  • 20.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    Jacobsson, Marie
    Effects of salinity and temperature conditions on the reproductive success of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) in the Baltic Sea2006In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, Vol. 80, no 2-3, 230-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, a large brackish water area, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) occurs at the border of its distribution with respect to salinity. Using turbot caught in ICES subdivision (SD) 28 (mid-Baltic), salinity requirements for successful egg development were evaluated by assessment of spermatozoa mobility, fertilisation and egg survival at different salinities. Further, to evaluate potential effects of temperatures, egg survival at different temperatures was assessed. Spermatozoa activity and fertilisation rate decreased with decreasing salinity with a significant drop at <7 psu. The viable hatch was significantly lower at <7 psu compared to at 7–15 psu. Hence, due to decreasing salinity this implies lower egg survival in SD 29 and 30 compared to in SD 24–28, and that salinity conditions in SD 31 are insufficient for egg development. Further, following a long period without major inflows of saline water into the Baltic Sea, salinity has decreased. From 1995 onwards salinities <7 psu prevail in SD 27–28 suggesting decreased reproductive success and potentially weaker year-classes in this area. Egg survival was high at 12–18 °C and considerably lower at 9 and 21 °C. Comparing the results with environmental data suggested that spawning time of turbot is adapted to optimum temperatures for egg development, but that occasions with temperatures involving increased egg mortality may occur, e.g. during upwelling situations.

  • 21.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Muller, Alajos
    Institute of Marine Research, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald
    Institute of Marine Research, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Specific gravity and vertical distribution of sprat eggs in the Baltic Sea2003In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, Vol. 63, no 2, 280-299 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During peak spawning of sprat Sprattus sprattus in the Baltic Sea in May-June egg specific gravity averaged plus or minus s.d. 1 times 00858 plus or minus 0 times 00116 g cm super(-3) but was significantly higher in the beginning and significantly lower towards the end of the spawning season. A close relationship was found between egg diameter and egg specific gravity (r super(2) = 0 times 71). This relationship, however, changed during the spawning season indicating that some other factor was involved causing the decrease in specific gravity during the spawning period. The vertical egg distribution changed during the spawning season: eggs were distributed mainly in the deep layers early in the season, occurred in and above the permanent halocline during peak spawning, and above the halocline towards the end of the spawning season. Consequently, poor oxygen conditions in the deep layers and low temperatures in layers between the halocline and the developing thermocline may affect egg development. Thus, opportunities for egg development vary over the spawning season and among spawning areas, and depending on frequency of saline water inflows into the Baltic Sea and severity of winters, between years.

  • 22.
    Nissling, Anders
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Westin, Lars
    Hjerne, Olle
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Reproductive success in relation to salinity for three flatfish species, dab (Limanda limanda), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), and flounder (Pleuronectes flesus), in the brackish water Baltic Sea2002In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, Vol. 59, no 1, 93-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reproductive success and thus abundance and distribution of dab, plaice, and flounder in the Baltic Sea, a large brackish water area, is restricted by salinity. By measuring spermatozoa mobility and fertilisation rates at different salinities and determining the salinity at which eggs are neutrally buoyant, the salinity requirements for successful egg development were assessed. The results were used for the evaluation of potential spawning areas and for stock discrimination by analyses of differences in the salinity requirements of fish from different areas (ICES Subdivisions (SD) 23–28). The results suggest that there are two stocks of dab and successful reproduction may occur in the Sound (SD 23) and, occasionally, in the Arkona and Bornholm basins (SD 24 and SD 25). Opportunities for successful reproduction of plaice exist regularly in the Arkona and Bornholm basins and occasionally in the Gdansk and Gotland basins (SD 26 and SD 28). No differences in salinity requirements for fish from SD 24–28 suggest one stock of plaice in the Baltic proper. There are two different types of flounder, one with demersal eggs and the other with pelagic eggs. The former, constituting one distinct stock, may reproduce successfully as far north as the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland (SD 30 and SD 32), up to the 6 psu isohaline. For flounder with pelagic eggs, opportunities for the eggs to obtain neutral buoyancy suggest that successful reproduction may occur regularly in the Sound, the Arkona, and Bornholm basins as well as in the Gdansk and Gotland basins, and that there are three stocks of flounder with pelagic eggs.

  • 23.
    Nygren, Daniel
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Födoval hos juvenil piggvar (Psetta Maxima): effekter av bytesstorlek2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of prey size on prey choice in different cohorts of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima)were studied in three nursery areas at Gotland. Prey length measurements showed that gobies(Gobiidae) increased in average length during the season, while mysids (Mysidae) did not.Experiments on predation capacity of different size classes of turbot on different size classesof prey showed that juvenile turbot easily can eat gobies that are up to two thirds of their ownbody length, while the body size of turbot does not have any effect on the predation capacityon mysids. Stomach content of 217 turbots, less or equal 35 mm, was analysed to see if therewas any change in diet during the season, but there was no significant change in diet. Theoverall conclusion was that early settlers most likely have an advantage due to greater accessof alternative prey.

  • 24.
    Nygren, Daniel
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Direkta effekter av insekticiden deltametrin på zooplankton och bottenfauna: en fältstudie av bieffekter av insekticidinducerad eliminering av signalkräfta på Gotland2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Direct effects of the insecticide deltamethrin on zooplankton and benthic invertebrates werestudied during an attempt to eradicate signal crayfish. In accordance with earlier studies theresults of this investigation showed that deltamethrin is highly toxic for arthropods, whileRotifera, Oligochaeta and Mollusca have a higher tolerance. This study concludes thatRotifera in treated ponds coped with the actual concentration of deltamethrin used during theeradication attempt but that they probably got a different abundance and changed compositiondue to a new situation in competition and predation. Crustacean zooplankton totallydisappeared, but approximately a month after the treatment they began to recolonise. All thetaxonomical groups of arthropods drastically decreased in abundance, with total eliminationof the most sensitive groups. The concentration of deltamethrin was not higher than that somespecies of Hydracarina and Chironomidae survived.

  • 25.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Breeding success and adult survival of Redshank Tringa totanus on coastal meadows in SE Sweden2005In: Ardea, ISSN 0373-2266, Vol. 93, no 2, 225-236 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding success and adult survival of Redshank Tringa totanus on coastal meadows on Gotland, SE Sweden, was investigated in 1997-2003. Two periods with different breeding success could be detected. In 1997-1999, nest success varied between 43 and 64%. Chick survival was not studied in these years. In 2000-03, nest success was lower and varied between 6 and 20%. Survival of chicks from hatching to fledging was estimated at 18%. Hence, overall productivity in 2000-03 was low and estimated to be only 0.13 fledglings per breeding pair. Nest survival rates were negatively related to incubation initiation date but fledging success was not related to hatching date. Adult survival rate was analysed from capture-resighting data of 164 adult Redshanks and was estimated at 80%. Adult survival did not differ significantly between sexes or between years. The results from this study suggest that reproductive success was lower than needed for a self-sustainable population, at least in the latter period with particularly low nest survival rates. There was no apparent change in management of meadows during the study period. Therefore, the decrease in nest survival rates was more likely to be an effect of changes in predator densities and/or behaviours. Further studies are needed to disentangle the mechanisms behind demographic processes in wader populations on coastal meadows.

  • 26.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Hur många rödbenor (Tringa totanus) häckar på en strandäng? - en utvärdering av en inventeringsmetod2004In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 14, 182-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ottvall, Richard
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Boöverlevnad hos strandängshäckande vadare: den relativa betydelsen av predation och trampskador av betesdjur2005In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 15, 89-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nest survival among eight wader species Charadrii in relation to densities of grazing livestock (0–2 livestock/day/ha) was investigated on Öland, southeastern Sweden in 2004. When analysing a pooled data set of 173 nests, nest survival was not related to densities of livestock. Only six nests were destroyed from trampling by livestock and the estimated trampling risk of nests was low. Another analysis of 122 nests produced significantlynegative relationships between nest survival and initiation of incubation. Nests were depredated more oftenlater in the season. Nest survival was not related to livestock density or to vegetation height at nests. Mayfieldestimates of hatching success were 2–21% for four of the different wader species. The highest hatching success was found in Lapwing Vanellus vanellus (21%) and Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula (20%), and the lowest in Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus (2%), while Redshank Tringa totanus had intermediate hatchingsuccess (11%). This study indicates that, at current grazing management, predation has a higher relative impact on nest survival of waders breeding on coastal meadows compared to direct and indirect effects of grazing animals.

  • 28.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Morphological and molecular sex identification of Redshanks Tringa totanus2007In: Bird Study, ISSN 0006-3657, Vol. 54, no 1, 127-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Härdling, Roger
    Sensitivity analysis of a migratory population of Redshanks Tringa totanus: a forewarning of a population decline?2005In: Wader Study Group Bulletin, ISSN 0260-3799, Vol. 107, 40-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several wader species breeding in agricultural landscapes are declining in Europe. Here, we present evidencethat reproduction in a subpopulation of an abundant but vulnerable wader species, the Redshank Tringa totanus,is too low for self-sustainability. We used population data collected from Gotland, SE Sweden, during thebreeding seasons of 1997–2003. We used analytic and simulation-based sensitivity analyses of a stage-basedmatrix model of female Redshanks to compare the relative importance of specific vital rates to λ (populationgrowth rate). For each vital rate, we present estimates of mean values and parameter limits. At mean valuesof vital rates, λ is estimated to 0.876, while the computer simulation yields an average λ of 0.860 (95% confidenceintervals: 0.770–0.950), which is significant lower than 1. Further, analytic sensitivity of λ is highestto adult survival followed by chick survival and nest success. Analytic elasticity of λ ranks vital rates in a similarway as analytic sensitivity, and the computer simulation also indicates that the rankings of sensitivities andelasticities are robust to parameter uncertainties. In the simulated data, almost half of the variation in λ wasexplained by variation in adult survival (41%). The explanatory power of chick survival (27%) and nest successof first clutches (22%) was intermediate while other vital rates accounted for negligible amounts of variation.We conclude, however, that the potential to increase an already high adult survival is limited. Therefore,management actions should aim to increase reproductive success mediated via decreased nest predationrates and increased survival of Redshank chicks simultaneously.

  • 30.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Uppföljning av häckfåglars förekomst och utbredning på öländska sjömarker2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanställer resultat från delprojektet ”Uppföljning av arters förekomst och utbredning” som ingår som en del i övervakningen inom LIFE-projektet ”Strandängar och våtmarker i det öländska odlingslandskapet” som Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar driver. Arbetet har utförts i samarbete med Högskolan på Gotland, Lunds universitet, Naturvårdsverket och Jan Pettersson (JP Fågelvind).

    Delprojektet har omfattat häckfågelinventeringar av sjöfåglar år 2003 respektive 2004 inom projektområdet. Dessa inventeringar som omfattade simfåglar, vadare och måsar, trutar och tärnor var en upprepning av motsvarande inventeringar som genomfördes i strandnära betesmarker på Öland år 1988 respektive 1998. Vi studerade också kläckningsframgång hos vadare kopplat till predation (främst kråka, korp och räv) och trampskador från betande djur. Överlevnaden hos vadarbon under-söktes vid olika tätheter av betesdjur. Häckfågelinventeringarna kompletterades med uppföljning av andelen lyckade häckningar av rödbena som fungerade som en modellart för häckningsframgång hos vadare i allmänhet. För detta krävdes att en metod för uppföljning av effekten av predation av ägg och ungar utarbetades och prövades.

  • 31.
    Ottvall, Richard
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Effects of an agri-environmental scheme on wader populations of coastal meadows of southern Sweden2006In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, Vol. 113, no 1-4, 264-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data on breeding wader densities and grazing intensity on coastal meadows on the Baltic island of Öland from 1988, 1998 and 2003 were used to evaluate density and density-changes of four common and widespread wader species, lapwing Vanellus vanellus, redshank Tringa totanus, oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula in relation to grazing intensity. Population trends over time and changes in densities in relation to changes in grazing management were evaluated. Both wader densities and the environmental variable grazing intensity demonstrated significant spatial autocorrelation, but all main results were unaffected when accounting for spatial structure in the statistical tests. Breeding densities of investigated species were positively related to grazing intensity and local changes in grazing management affected the local change in wader densities. However, average grazing intensity increased over time whereas wader numbers generally remained constant or declined. Thus, changes in grazing intensity could not explain changes in overall breeding numbers. One explanation for this is probably that grazing mainly affected distribution of birds. Some evidence of a buffer effect was found in the redshank and ringed plover, in which breeding densities declined proportionally more in non-shore than in shore habitat. This was probably due to a redistribution of birds to shore habitat. It is concluded that grazing management is essential for the occurrence of waders, but might not be sufficient to ensure long-term viability of wader populations on coastal meadows.

  • 32.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Ceratophyllaceae2003In: Flora of Ecuador, ISSN 0347-8742, Vol. 70, no 55 B, 27-29 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Neotropical Symplocaceae2009In: Neotropikey, Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Four new species and new records of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) from Peru and Bolivia, and a key to all species of Symplocos known to occur in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia2010In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, Vol. 28, no 1, 79-87 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four new species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae) are described from montane forests in Peru. Symplocos cuscoënsis Ståhl (from Dept Cusco) is distinguished inter alia by enlarged floral bracts and anthers that are longer than wide, S. excoriata Ståhl (Dept Amazonas and Cajamarca) by the exfoliating bark on young shoots, S. serratifolia Ståhl (Dept Cajamarca and Cusco) by tomentulose young shoots and lower leaf surfaces as well as long petioles, and S. trichocarpa Ståhl (Dept Cajamarca) by its tuberculate young shoots and pilose fruits. Symplocos guianensis (Aubl.) Gürke is reported as new to Bolivia and S. nitens (Pohl) Benth. is reported as new to Bolivia and Peru. A key to all 67 species of Symplocos known from Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia is provided.

  • 35.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Neotropical Theophrastaceae2009In: Neotropikey, Richmond: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Additions to the knowledge of the genus Symplocos (Symplocaceae) in Ecuador and Peru2010In: Novon, ISSN 1055-3177, E-ISSN 1945-6174, Vol. 20, no 1, 84-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight Andean species of Symplocos Jacq. (Symplocaceae) are described as new to science. They include: S. condorensis Ståhl, S. neillii Ståhl, and S. vanderwerfii Ståhl from southern Ecuador (prov. Zamora-Chinchipe and Morona-Santiago), S. golondrinae Ståhl from northern Ecuador (prov. Carchi), S. guacamayensis Ståhl from east-central Ecuador (prov. Napo), S. fragilis Ståhl and S. ovata Ståhl from northern Peru (dept. Amazonas), and S. dolichopoda Ståhl from southern Peru (dept. Cusco). Symplocos spruceana (Miers) Gürke and S. nuda Humb. & Bonpl. are reported as new to Ecuador and Peru, respectively.

  • 37.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Symplocaceae (Sweetleaf Family)2004In: Flowering plants of the Neotropics / [ed] N. Smith et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2004, 365-366 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae (Theophrasta Family)2004In: Flowering plants of the Neotropics / [ed] N. Smith et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2004, 371-372 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Myrsinaceae (Myrsine Family)2004In: Flowering plants of the Neotropics / [ed] N. Smith et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2004, 263-264 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Primulaceae (Primrose Family)2004In: Flowering plants of the neotropics / [ed] N. Smith et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2004, 312-313 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Cyrillaceae (Cyrillla Family)2004In: Flowering plants of the Neotropics / [ed] N. Smith et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press , 2004, 125-126 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Samolaceae2004In: The families and genera of vascular plants: Vol. 6, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales / [ed] K. Kubitzki, New York: Springer , 2004, 387-389 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae2004In: The families and genera of vascular plants: Vol. 6, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales / [ed] K. Kubitzki, New York: Springer , 2004, 472-478 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Att samla är nödvändigt2006In: Linné / [ed] Birgitta Radhe, Visby: Länsmuseet på Gotland , 2006, 95-106 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae2001In: Flora de Nicaragua: Angiospermas (Pandanaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Tomo 111 / [ed] W. D. Stewens et al., St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press , 2001, 2448-2450 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae2002In: Guide to the vascular plants of central French Guiana: Part 2. Dicotyledons / [ed] S. A. Mori et al., New York: The New York Botanical Garden Press , 2002, 709-711 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae2005In: Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana: Vol. 9 Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae / [ed] J. A. Steyermark et al., St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press , 2005, 325-329 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Theophrastaceae2009In: Flora of the Guianas: Serie A: Phanerogams Fascicle 27 / [ed] M. J. Jansen-Jacobs, Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens , 2009, 7-13 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Anderberg, Arne
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
    Maesaceae2004In: The families and genera of vasculra plants: Vol. 6, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales / [ed] K. Kubitzki, New York: Springer , 2004, 255-257 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Ståhl, Bertil
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
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    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet.
    Myrsinaceae2004In: The families and genera of vascular plants: Vol. 6, Flowering plants, Dicotyledons : Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales / [ed] K. Kubitzki, New York: Springer , 2004, 266-281 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
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