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  • 1.
    Bennet, A. M.
    et al.
    Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Van Maarle, M.
    Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    Morgenstern, R.
    Unit of Biochemical Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frostegård, J.
    Wiman, B.
    Division of Coagulation Research, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prince, J. A.
    de Faire, U.
    Association of TNF-α serum levels and TNFA promoter polymorohisms with risk of myocardial infarction2006In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 187, no 2, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and presence of polymorphisms of the TNFA gene have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We explored the relationship between polymorphisms in the TNFA gene (−1031C/T, −863C/A −857T/C, −308G/A, −238G/A), protein levels of TNF-α and their association to myocardial infarction (MI) using a sample of 1213 post-MI patients and 1561 healthy controls. MI risk was higher among men with elevated TNF-α levels, with the highest compared to the lowest TNF-α quartile giving a 70% risk increase (OR [95% CI]: 1.7 [1.1; 2.6]). Obese subjects who also had elevated TNF-α levels were at even higher risk for MI (OR [95% CI]: 3.4 [2.1; 5.6]). Higher TNF-α levels were seen among smokers (but not among non-smokers) carrying the −857T allele. Furthermore, a rare haplotype occurred more frequently among the cases than the controls. Elevated TNF-α levels are associated with increased MI risk. Obese subjects with elevated TNF-a levels, and carriers of polymorphisms in or near TNFA are particularly susceptible to the hazards of smoking, results which may have implications for cardiovascular preventive measures.

  • 2.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Reuterwall, Christina
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Centre of Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on body mass index: a population-based case-control study2006In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, no 296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    High body mass index (BMI) and lack of physical activity have been recognized as important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leisure-time physical activity compensates for the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with overweight and obesity.

    METHODS

    Data from the SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program) study were used. The SHEEP study is a large Swedish population-based case-control study, comprising 1204 male and 550 female cases, and 1538 male and 777 female controls, conducted in Stockholm County, Sweden, during the period 1992-1994. Odds ratios (OR), together with 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, as estimates of the relative risks.

    RESULTS

    Regular leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, but not among obese subjects. Obese (BMI > or = 30) and physically active persons had an almost twofold risk of myocardial infarction, compared with normal-weight and sedentary persons (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07-3.18). The results were similar for men and women.

    CONCLUSION

    While regular leisure-time physical activity seems to provide protection against myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, this does not appear to be the case in obese subjects

  • 3. Haggård-Grann, Helena
    et al.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Dept. of Public Health Sciences Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Långström, Niklas
    Möller, Jette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    Short-term effects of psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal stressors on criminal violence: a case cross-over study2006In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 532-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The aim of the study was to analyse the triggering or acute risk effect of psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal stressors on criminal violence.

    METHOD:

    One hundred and thirty three violent offenders were recruited from a forensic psychiatric evaluation (FPE) unit and a national prison evaluation unit in Sweden during 2002-2003, and were interviewed about trigger exposures. A case-crossover design was used eliminating long-term within individual confounding.

    RESULTS:

    Suicidal ideation or parasuicide within 24 h before the violent event conferred a ninefold risk increase. In contrast, violent ideation did not trigger criminal violence. Hallucinations yielded a fourfold risk increase, whereas paranoid thoughts were associated with a small and statistically non-significant risk increase. Acute conflicts with others and being denied psychiatric care within 24 h before violence also increased the risk of acting violently.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Some tested psychiatric symptoms and stressors triggered criminal violence, whereas others did not. The case-crossover design may be particularly useful for the study of triggers of violence.

  • 4. Haggård-Grann, Ulrika
    et al.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Långström, Niklas
    Möller, Jette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    The role of alcohol and drugs in triggering criminal violence: a case-crossover study2006In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To investigate the triggering effects of alcohol, illegal substances and major classes of prescribed psychotropic drugs on criminal violence.

    DESIGN:

    A case-crossover design, using each subject as its own control.

    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

    A consecutive sample of 133 violent offenders was recruited from a forensic psychiatric evaluation unit and a national prison evaluation unit in Sweden during 2002-03.

    MEASUREMENTS:

    Offenders were assessed with structured interviews. Risk estimates were based on hazard periods of 24 hours. We used standard Mantel-Haenszel methods for statistical analyses.

    FINDINGS:

    A 13.2-fold increase of risk of violence [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-21.2] was found within 24 hours of alcohol consumption. This increase in violence risk was similar among individuals combining alcohol with benzodiazepines [Relative risk (RR) = 13.2, 95% CI: 4.9-35.3]. Use of benzodiazepines alone in regular doses (RR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.5) or antidepressants [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclics] (RR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) was associated with a lowered risk for violence.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This study confirmed that alcohol is a strong trigger of criminal violence. Benzodiazepines in combination with alcohol caused no further increase of violence risk. Benzodiazepines in regular doses and antidepressants may inhibit violence, but further studies are needed to verify causality. The case-crossover method can contribute to research on the proximal causes of criminal violence.

  • 5. Ljung, Rickard
    et al.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine.
    Socioeconomic position, clustering of risk factors, and the risk of myocardial infarction2007In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 97, no 11, p. 1927-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 5 of 5
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