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  • 1. Achatz, Johannes Georg
    et al.
    Hooge, Matthew
    Wallberg, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    Tyler, Seth
    Systematic revision of acoels with 9+0 sperm ultrastructure (Convolutida) and the influence of sexual conflict on morphology2010In: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, ISSN 0947-5745, E-ISSN 1439-0469, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 9-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used newly discerned morphological characters as well as molecular-sequence data from 18S and 28S rDNA to revise the families recently designated as the '9+0' acoels - what we call Convolutida. Characters from the ultrastructure of sperm, with their '9+0' axonemes, are useful in delineating the Convolutida, but are either species-specific or too conserved within the group to be used to infer relationships within it. Male genital organs, prostatoid organs, and sagittocysts, on the other hand, give a good phylogenetic signal for reconstructing relationships of such genera as Conaperta, Anaperus, and Achoerus; some features of the reproductive organs correlate with habitat and show how the Convolutida probably originated as epiphytic predators and radiated into the mesopsammon, pelagic, and coral-associated realms. In this revision of the Convolutida we provide revised synopses of its families - which we restrict to the Anaperidae, Convolutidae, and Sagittiferidae - and describe a new species, Polychoerus gordoni, from New Zealand. We transfer the genus Adenopea from the Antroposthiidae to the Convolutidae; Conaperta, Neochildia, and Oxyposthia from the Convolutidae to the Anaperidae; Paranaperus and Praeanaperus from the Anaperidae to the Haploposthiidae. Convoluta aegyptica is synonymized with Convoluta boehmigi, Convoluta lacazii with Convoluta sordida, and the genus Picola (Convolutidae) with Deuterogonaria (Haploposthiidae). Amphiscolops blumi, A. carvalhoi, and A. langerhansi, all of which possess a cellular seminal bursa, are transferred to the genus Heterochaerus. Convoluta elegans and Pseudanaperus tinctus are classified as nomina nuda. We use our findings on the ultrastructure of female genital organs and spermatozoa to show that sexual conflict plays a major role in the evolution of diversity of these structures and that the phylogeny of the Acoela would comprise early forms without female genital organs and hyper- or hypodermal transfer of sperm through advanced forms with ever longer and narrower bursal nozzles and sperm with axial microtubules. Moreover, our results show that the acquisition of endosymbiotic algae happened at least twice within the Acoela.

  • 2.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Manktelow, Mariette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    Successful DNA amplification of a more than 200-year-old herbarium specimen: recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limit for successful DNA extraction was tested by amplification and sequencing of an over 200-year-old herbarium specimen collected by Adam Afzelius, a student of Carl Linnaeus. We amplified and sequenced a 800-bp region between 16S ribosomal DNA and the 3' part of the trnI gene (16S-trnI) in the chloroplast genome of Phaulopsis talbotii S. Moore (Acanthaceae). To test the replicability and to control for contamination the procedure was performed in sealed vials and with negative PCR controls. The procedure was also repeated in a separate laboratory. In addition, the chloroplast rpl16 intron was successfully amplified and sequenced and the rps16 intron amplified. Sequences of taxa closely related to Acanthaceae were found to be most similar to the produced sequences. The results Suggest that molecular investigations of other 18th century botanical collections are feasible and that molecular methods could be employed for comparative studies to extant plant collections. An important application would be to identify descendants or clones of Linnaean lectotypes by comparing DNA from these with potentially remnant plants from Linnaeus' cultivations.

  • 3.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Vongsombath, Chanda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Björk, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Jaenson, Thomas G. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Botanical Repellents and Pesticides Traditionally Used Against Hematophagous Invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: A Comparative Study of Plants Used in 66 Villages2010In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, E-ISSN 1938-2928, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 400-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematophagous parasites such as leeches, ticks, mites, lice, bedbugs, mosquitoes, and myiasis-producing fly larvae are common health problems in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Several arthropod-borne infections, e.g., malaria, dengue fever, and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic there. Effective vector control methods including the use of pesticides, insecticide-treated bed nets, and synthetic and plant-based repellents are important means of control against such invertebrates and the pathogens they may transmit or directly cause. In this study, we documented traditional knowledge on plants that are used to repel or kill hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes, bedbugs, human lice, mites and ticks, fly larvae, and blood-sucking leeches. Structured interviews were carried out in 66 villages comprising 17 ethnic groups, covering a range of cultures, throughout Lao People's Democratic Republic. A total of 92 plant species was recorded as traditional repellents (including plants for pesticidal usages) in 123 different plant-ectoparasite combinations. The number and species of plants, and animal taxa repelled (or killed) per plant species differed per region, village, and ethnic group. Traditional use was confirmed in the scientific literature for 74 of these plant species, and for an additional 13 species using literature on closely related species. The use of botanical repellents and pesticides from many plant species is common and widespread in the Lao countryside. In the future, the identification of the active components in certain plants to develop more optimal, inexpensive repellents, insecticides, acaricides, or antileech compounds as alternatives to synthetic repellents/pesticides against blood-feeding insects, ticks, mites, and leeches is warranted.

  • 4.
    Ekenäs, Catarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Zebrowska, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Schuler, Barbara
    Vrede, Tobias
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Sweden .
    Andreasen, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Backlund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Merfort, Irmgard
    Albert-Ludwigs- Universität, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bohlin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Screening for Anti-Inflammatory Activity of 12 Arnica (Asteraceae) Species Assessed by Inhibition of NF-κB and Release of Human Neutrophil Elastase2008In: Planta Medica, ISSN 0032-0943, E-ISSN 1439-0221, Vol. 74, no 15, p. 1789-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several species in the genus Arnica have been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory-related disorders. Extracts of twelve Arnica species and two species closely related to Arnica (Layia hieracioides and Madia sativa) were investigated for inhibition of human neutrophil elastase release and inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB. Statistical analyses reveal significant differences in inhibitory capacities between extracts. Sesquiterpene lactones of the helenanolide type, of which some are known inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase release and NF-κB, are present in large amounts in the very active extracts of A. montana and A. chamissonis. Furthermore, A. longifolia, which has previously not been investigated, shows a high activity similar to that of A. montana and A. chamissonis in both bioassays. Sesquiterpene lactones of the xanthalongin type are present in large amounts in A. longifolia and other active extracts and would be interesting to evaluate further.

  • 5.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jaenson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2009In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration of exposure with a distinct effect after 3.5 h. From the results obtained by methods A, C and E, the LC(50) range was 0.035-0.037 mg PMD/cm(2) and the LC(95) range was 0.095-0.097 mg PMD/cm(2) at 4 h of exposure; the LT(50) range was 2.1-2.8 h and the LT(95) range was 3.9-4.2 h at 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2). To determine the duration of toxic activity of PMD, different concentrations (0.002, 0.01, 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2)) were tested and mortality was recorded at each concentration after 1 h; thereafter new ticks were tested. This test revealed that the lethal activity of PMD remained for 24 h but appeared absent after 48 h. The overall results show that PMD is toxic to nymphs of I. ricinus and may be useful for tick control.

  • 6.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Revision of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eucoiline wasps are parasitoids of Diptera larvae in various microhabitats. They are by far the most species-rich subfamily of the Figitidae but they are poorly studied in general and the classification in particular is chaotic. Here, a taxonomic revision is provided of one of the more enigmatic eucoiline groups, the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex. This group is spread over the world, but significantly one of the most abundant groups of Eucoilinae in the Holarctic.

    This complex includes rather large genus Trybliographa Förster, the type genus of the subfamily, Eucoila Westwood, and the two small genera Bothrochacis Cameron and Linoeucoila Lin. In the present work, more than 500 species-level names are considered, which have at some time or another been placed in this group, and it is concluded that 156 of them truly belong to the group. The circumscriptions of these genera are emended according to phylogenetic concerns. Eucoila is restricted to the species-poor "crassinerva group", a Holarctic group comprising large species attacking various calyptrate flies in dung and similar microhabitats. Bothrochacis is extended to accomodate all the Paleotropic species previously considered to be part of Eucoila; their biology is similar to that of Eucoila. Linoeucoila was previously believed to be endemic to Taiwan, but one new species is described from South Africa, extending the distribution range of the group considerably. The species-rich genus Trybliographa was previously considered to be Holarctic and exclusively parasitising Anthomyiidae, but here it is demonstrated that the genus occurs globally, and includes species attacking other calyptrate flies. It is extended to include all the morphologically transitional forms which were previously classified in Eucoila, the "floralis group".

    All the known species are treated, and many are redescribed in full-length. 19 species are described as new to science: Eucoila primorskensis from the Russian Far East, Bothrochacis malaisei from South East Asia, B. iberica from south Europe, Linoeucoila laterostriata from South Africa, Trybliographa eofloralis from the Russian Far East, T. coprophila from northern Europe, T. merdaria from central Asia, T. dislocata from South America, T. longicella from South East Asia, T. bovina from Europe, T. ferruginea from North America, T. chrestosemoida from the Himalayas, T. pymi from Europe, T. japonica from Japan, T. vandynae from Europe, T. pedunculata from Europe, T. scandica from northern Europe, T. emblematica from northern Europe, and T. ptilicola from northern Europe.

    A large number of new combinations and new synonymies are made. Inside the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex, 3 new genus-level synonymies are made (Pentaplastidia Weld, Psilodoropsis Hedicke and Lenobria Belizin are new synonyms of Trybliographa), plus 45 new species-level synonymies, and 26 new combinations, while one species is removed from synonymy. An additional 142 new combinations are made of the names considered that were found not to belong within this group. Furthermore, one new genus-level synonymy (Tetramerocera Ashmead as new synonym of Ganaspis Förster) and seven new species-level synonymies are made, and six new replacement names (nomina nova) proposed; even though such nomenclatural acts have not been part of the primary scope of the paper.

  • 7.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Systematics of Eucoilini: Exploring the diversity of a poorly known group of Cynipoid parasitic wasps2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many animal species are still undiscovered, even in Sweden. This thesis deals with the wasps of the subfamily Eucoilinae (of Figitidae, Cynipoidea), a poorly known group of small parasitoids of Dipteran flies. In this group, old classifications are chaotic, knowledge of old taxa is scant, phylogenetic work has recently started, and many new taxa remain to be described.

    In this thesis, an identification key is given to the European genera of Eucolinae, and a tribal classification of the subfamily is reintroduced, based on recent phylogenetic results. Most of the thesis focuses on the tribe Eucoilini. That tribe is analyzed phylogenetically in two analyses, one based on a large morphological dataset, the other on two molecular markers, ribosomal 28S and mitochondrial Cytochrome B.

    The monophyletic core group of Eucoilini is the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex. It is treated in a big taxonomic revision, based on studies of several hundred possibly relevant type specimens and several thousands of other specimens, and on the phylogenetic analyses.

    More than 500 names of possible members of this group are investigated, and many new combinations are proposed, of species found not to belong within the group, as well as those that did, including some which are transferred to other genera in accordance with the new phylogenetic results. The new genus Quasimodoana is erected, and 20 new species described (8 from Northern Europe, 12 from elsewhere). More than 180 new combinations, more than 50 new species-level synonyms and ca 10 genus-level synonyms, are proposed.

    Within this complex, the basal split is found to have been between a Paleotropic, specis-poor lineage (Bothrochacis), and a species-rich and largely Holarctic lineage, dominated by Trybliographa but also including the small genera Eucoila and Linoeucoila. The three are not satisfactorily resolved in the analysis, but still maintained as separate genera for pragmatic reasons. It is hypothesized that this group originated in Asia during the Eocene or Oligocene, attacking calyptrate flies in herbivore dung. Then it separated in a tropical branch retaining the ancestral life history mode, and a Holarctic branch, where some lineages specialised in Anthomyiidae and colonised the microhabitats of fungi and plants, speciating extensively in the boreal forests.

    List of papers
    1. Revision of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revision of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eucoiline wasps are parasitoids of Diptera larvae in various microhabitats. They are by far the most species-rich subfamily of the Figitidae but they are poorly studied in general and the classification in particular is chaotic. Here, a taxonomic revision is provided of one of the more enigmatic eucoiline groups, the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex. This group is spread over the world, but significantly one of the most abundant groups of Eucoilinae in the Holarctic.

    This complex includes rather large genus Trybliographa Förster, the type genus of the subfamily, Eucoila Westwood, and the two small genera Bothrochacis Cameron and Linoeucoila Lin. In the present work, more than 500 species-level names are considered, which have at some time or another been placed in this group, and it is concluded that 156 of them truly belong to the group. The circumscriptions of these genera are emended according to phylogenetic concerns. Eucoila is restricted to the species-poor "crassinerva group", a Holarctic group comprising large species attacking various calyptrate flies in dung and similar microhabitats. Bothrochacis is extended to accomodate all the Paleotropic species previously considered to be part of Eucoila; their biology is similar to that of Eucoila. Linoeucoila was previously believed to be endemic to Taiwan, but one new species is described from South Africa, extending the distribution range of the group considerably. The species-rich genus Trybliographa was previously considered to be Holarctic and exclusively parasitising Anthomyiidae, but here it is demonstrated that the genus occurs globally, and includes species attacking other calyptrate flies. It is extended to include all the morphologically transitional forms which were previously classified in Eucoila, the "floralis group".

    All the known species are treated, and many are redescribed in full-length. 19 species are described as new to science: Eucoila primorskensis from the Russian Far East, Bothrochacis malaisei from South East Asia, B. iberica from south Europe, Linoeucoila laterostriata from South Africa, Trybliographa eofloralis from the Russian Far East, T. coprophila from northern Europe, T. merdaria from central Asia, T. dislocata from South America, T. longicella from South East Asia, T. bovina from Europe, T. ferruginea from North America, T. chrestosemoida from the Himalayas, T. pymi from Europe, T. japonica from Japan, T. vandynae from Europe, T. pedunculata from Europe, T. scandica from northern Europe, T. emblematica from northern Europe, and T. ptilicola from northern Europe.

    A large number of new combinations and new synonymies are made. Inside the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex, 3 new genus-level synonymies are made (Pentaplastidia Weld, Psilodoropsis Hedicke and Lenobria Belizin are new synonyms of Trybliographa), plus 45 new species-level synonymies, and 26 new combinations, while one species is removed from synonymy. An additional 142 new combinations are made of the names considered that were found not to belong within this group. Furthermore, one new genus-level synonymy (Tetramerocera Ashmead as new synonym of Ganaspis Förster) and seven new species-level synonymies are made, and six new replacement names (nomina nova) proposed; even though such nomenclatural acts have not been part of the primary scope of the paper.

    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Entomology; Systematic Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109393 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-10-15 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2010-01-14
    2. Identification key to European genera of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification key to European genera of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae)
    2008 (English)In: Insect Systematics & Evolution, ISSN 1399-560X, E-ISSN 1876-312X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 341-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A key is presented to the European genera of Eucoilinae, for the first time after these genera have been circumscribed based on type studies and phylogenetic concerns. The key is illustrated with drawings based on SEM pictures. A generic catalogue with full synonymy of the European eucoiline genera is presented. The following new synonymies on the generic level are proposed: Trichoplasta Benoit, 1956 (Armigerina Belizin, 1968 syn.n.), Eucoila Westwood,1833 (Lenobria Belizin, 1968 syn.n.), Kleidotoma Westwood, 1833 (Nesokleidotoma Beardsley, 1990 syn.n., Octameris Belizin, 1973 syn.n., Polbourdouxia Dessart, 1977 syn.n., Pentakleidota Weld, 1951 syn.n.). One species level synonymy is proposed: Eucoila floralis Dahlbom, 1846 (Lenobria bidentata Belizin, 1968 syn.n.) A tribal classification of the subfamily is utilised, recognizing the following tribes: Diglyphosemini Belizin, 1961 stat.n.,Kleidotomini Hellén, 1960 stat.n. (Cothonaspini Belizin, 1961 syn.n.), Ganaspini Belizin,1961 stat.n. (Dieucoilini Belizin, 1961 syn.n., Glauraspidiini Belizin, 1961 syn.n.),Trichoplastini Kovalev, 1989 and Eucoilini Thomson, 1862.

    Keywords
    Eucoilinae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera, identification key, classification, nomenclature
    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Entomology; Systematic Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109390 (URN)000260808600007 ()
    Available from: 2009-10-14 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Quasimodoana, a new Holarctic genus of eucoiline wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae), with a phylogenetic analysis of related genera
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quasimodoana, a new Holarctic genus of eucoiline wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae), with a phylogenetic analysis of related genera
    2008 (English)In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 301-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A new Holarctic genus, Quasimodoana gen.n. is described for the Palearctic eucoiline wasp Eucoila decipiens Förster, 1869, as Quasimodoana decipiens comb.n. A lectotype is designated for this species. A new North American species is described here as Quasimodoana gibba sp.n. As the new genus has similarities with several eucoiline genera, belonging to two related but distinct lineages, a phylogenetic analysis was carried out, based on 83 morphological characters. The two lineages included in the analysis are referred to here under the tribal names of Eucoilini and Trichoplastini stat.nov. We discuss reasons for adopting available tribal names (rather than 'informal genus groups'), and Trichoplastini is removed from synonymy with Eucoilini. The phylogenetic analysis places Quasimodoana unambiguously within Eucoilini, as a sistergroup to the Trybliographa complex. However, there is only weak support for the monophyly of Eucoilini and for the hypothesized sistergroup relationship between Eucoilini and Trichoplastini.

    Keywords
    Eucoilini, Eucoilinae, Figitidae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera, phylogenetics, classification, taxonomy, weighting schemes in phylogenetics, Quasimodoana
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Entomology; Systematic Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109374 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-3113.2007.00415.x (DOI)000253981300005 ()
    Available from: 2009-10-14 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Molecular phylogeny of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular phylogeny of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eucoilinae are small parasitic wasps attacking larvae of Diptera. Some species are important biological control agents; others are popular model organisms. One of the most species-rich groups in the Holarctic is the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex, which has previously been in a state of major classificatory disorder. One of the reasons for this has been the lack of knowledge of phylogenetic relationships. To address this, we have made a molecular phylo-genetic analysis of 51 taxa, comprising a representative sample of taxa of the complex, based on 28S nuclear ribosomal and CytB mitochondrial sequences. The analysis clearly shows the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex to be a monophyletic group. Within this group, there is a basal division between a Paleotropic, species-poor branch, identified as the genus Bothrochacis, and a species-rich, largely Holarctic branch comprising the remainder of the complex. A basal lineage within the latter corresponds to the genus Eucoila, and another to the small genus Linoeucoila from Taiwan. However, their exact relationships to each other and to basal lineages of the big genus Trybliographa, which comprises the remainder of the clade, remains uncertain. Within Trybliographa, several interesting relationships are suggested, but the result is not robust or comprehensive enough at this point for a major reclassification of the genus.

    Keywords
    Eucoila, Trybliographa, Eucoilini, Eucoilinae, Figitidae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera, phylogenetic analysis
    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Entomology; Systematic Zoology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109391 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-10-15 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2010-01-14
  • 8.
    Forshage, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Identification key to European genera of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae)2008In: Insect Systematics & Evolution, ISSN 1399-560X, E-ISSN 1876-312X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 341-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key is presented to the European genera of Eucoilinae, for the first time after these genera have been circumscribed based on type studies and phylogenetic concerns. The key is illustrated with drawings based on SEM pictures. A generic catalogue with full synonymy of the European eucoiline genera is presented. The following new synonymies on the generic level are proposed: Trichoplasta Benoit, 1956 (Armigerina Belizin, 1968 syn.n.), Eucoila Westwood,1833 (Lenobria Belizin, 1968 syn.n.), Kleidotoma Westwood, 1833 (Nesokleidotoma Beardsley, 1990 syn.n., Octameris Belizin, 1973 syn.n., Polbourdouxia Dessart, 1977 syn.n., Pentakleidota Weld, 1951 syn.n.). One species level synonymy is proposed: Eucoila floralis Dahlbom, 1846 (Lenobria bidentata Belizin, 1968 syn.n.) A tribal classification of the subfamily is utilised, recognizing the following tribes: Diglyphosemini Belizin, 1961 stat.n.,Kleidotomini Hellén, 1960 stat.n. (Cothonaspini Belizin, 1961 syn.n.), Ganaspini Belizin,1961 stat.n. (Dieucoilini Belizin, 1961 syn.n., Glauraspidiini Belizin, 1961 syn.n.),Trichoplastini Kovalev, 1989 and Eucoilini Thomson, 1862.

  • 9.
    Forshage, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Nordlander, Göran
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    Department of Entomology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Quasimodoana, a new Holarctic genus of eucoiline wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae), with a phylogenetic analysis of related genera2008In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 301-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Holarctic genus, Quasimodoana gen.n. is described for the Palearctic eucoiline wasp Eucoila decipiens Förster, 1869, as Quasimodoana decipiens comb.n. A lectotype is designated for this species. A new North American species is described here as Quasimodoana gibba sp.n. As the new genus has similarities with several eucoiline genera, belonging to two related but distinct lineages, a phylogenetic analysis was carried out, based on 83 morphological characters. The two lineages included in the analysis are referred to here under the tribal names of Eucoilini and Trichoplastini stat.nov. We discuss reasons for adopting available tribal names (rather than 'informal genus groups'), and Trichoplastini is removed from synonymy with Eucoilini. The phylogenetic analysis places Quasimodoana unambiguously within Eucoilini, as a sistergroup to the Trybliographa complex. However, there is only weak support for the monophyly of Eucoilini and for the hypothesized sistergroup relationship between Eucoilini and Trichoplastini.

  • 10.
    Forshage, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Stigenberg, Julia
    Department of Entomology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Molecular phylogeny of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eucoilinae are small parasitic wasps attacking larvae of Diptera. Some species are important biological control agents; others are popular model organisms. One of the most species-rich groups in the Holarctic is the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex, which has previously been in a state of major classificatory disorder. One of the reasons for this has been the lack of knowledge of phylogenetic relationships. To address this, we have made a molecular phylo-genetic analysis of 51 taxa, comprising a representative sample of taxa of the complex, based on 28S nuclear ribosomal and CytB mitochondrial sequences. The analysis clearly shows the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex to be a monophyletic group. Within this group, there is a basal division between a Paleotropic, species-poor branch, identified as the genus Bothrochacis, and a species-rich, largely Holarctic branch comprising the remainder of the complex. A basal lineage within the latter corresponds to the genus Eucoila, and another to the small genus Linoeucoila from Taiwan. However, their exact relationships to each other and to basal lineages of the big genus Trybliographa, which comprises the remainder of the clade, remains uncertain. Within Trybliographa, several interesting relationships are suggested, but the result is not robust or comprehensive enough at this point for a major reclassification of the genus.

  • 11.
    Frajman, Bozo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Eggens, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Botany.
    Oxelman, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Hybrid origins and homoploid reticulate evolution within Heliosperma (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae) – a multigene phylogenetic approach  with  Relative Dating2009In: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 328-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used four potentially unlinked nuclear DNA regions from the gene   family encoding the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerases, as   well as the psbE-petG spacer and the rps16 intron from the chloroplast   genome, to evaluate the origin of and relationships within Heliosperma   (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae). Relative dates of divergence times are   used to discriminate between hybridization and gene duplication/loss as   alternative explanations for topological conflicts between gene trees.   The observed incongruent relationships among the three major lineages   of Heliosperma are better explained by homoploid hybridization than by   gene duplication/losses because species branching events exceed gene   coalescence times under biologically reasonable population sizes and   generation times, making lineage sorting an unlikely explanation. The  origin of Heliosperma is complex and the gene trees likely reflect both reticulate evolution and sorting events. At least two lineages have   been involved in the origin of Heliosperma, one most closely related to   the ancestor of Viscaria and Atocion and the other to Eudianthe and/or Petrocoptis.

  • 12.
    Frajman, Božo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
    Heidari, Nahid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Oxelman, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Phylogenetic relationships of Atocion and Viscaria (Sileneae, Caryophyllaceae) inferred from chloroplast, nuclear ribosomal, and low-copy gene DNA sequences2009In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 811-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atocion and Viscaria are two of seven small genera recognised in the   tribe Sileneae on the basis of molecular phylogenies. The aim of the   present study is to infer phylogenetic relationships among their  subordinate taxa, using chloroplast (rps16 intron,psbE-petG spacer   region) and nuclear (ITS and the RNA polymerase gene family) DNA   sequences. Relative dating was used to discriminate among intralineage   and interlineage processes that cause incongruence among different   gene-tree topologies. Atocion asterias is demonstrated to belong to   Viscaria, which contains three species: V vulgaris (incl. V   atropurpurea), V alpina, and V asterias. Infraspecific differentiation   of V alpina is not supported by the sequence data. The traditional   sectional delimitation of Atocion taxa within Silene is not supported   phylogenetically, and Silene tatarinowii as well as S. hoefftiana do   not belong to Atocion, as classified previously. Atocion contains six   species: A. armeria, A. compactum, A. lerchenfeldianum, A. reuterianum,   A. rupestre, and A. scythicinum (not included in our study). With this   circumscription, Atocion and Viscaria, respectively, form monophyletic   groups in the cpDNA, ITS, RPD2a and RPD2b trees, but not in the RPA2   tree, where such relationships were possibly distorted by ancient   hybridisation. Hybridisation with subsequent chloroplast capture is   likely to have taken place in the evolutionary history of A. compactum.   Three novel nomenclatural combinations are made: Atocion reuterianum,  A. scythicinum and Viscaria asterias.

  • 13.
    Garboui, Samira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Pålsson, Katinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Tick repellent properties of three Libyan plants2009In: Journal of medical entomology, ISSN 0022-2585, E-ISSN 1938-2928, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1415-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specimens of Salvadora persica Wallich (Salvadoraceae), Pistacia   atlantica Desfontaines (Anacardiaceae), and Juniperus phoenicea L.   (Cupressaceae) were collected at The Green Mountain in northeastern   Libya. The tick-repellent effects of the essential oils from the plants   were evaluated using host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari:   Ixodidae) in the laboratory. Significant tick repellent effects were   observed for the oils of all three species, but the duration of action   was short. The oils were obtained by steam distillation. Volatile   compounds of the essential oils were collected by solid phase   microextraction and the constituents were identified by gas   chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  • 14.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lundström, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Per, Erixon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Collado, Amandine
    A sensitive and reliable restriction enzyme assay to distinguish between the mosquitoes Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens2010In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus and Culex torrentium Martini (Diptera: Culicidae) are closely related vector species that exist sympatrically in Europe. The two species are morphologically almost identical and can only be distinguished with certainty by characters of the male genitalia. Hence, correct species identification and conclusions on distribution and vector status are very difficult and often neglected. Therefore, we developed a reliable and simple mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene restriction enzyme assay to discriminate between Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium, based on the analysis of morphologically identified male specimens. We sequenced approximately 830 bp in the 3′ region of the mitochondrial COI gene of 18 morphologically identified males of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Two restriction enzymes (FspBI and SspI) that could distinguish between the two species according to species-specific differences in these sequences were chosen. The restriction enzymes were tested on 227 samples from Sweden and verified by sequencing 44 of them. The enzyme FspBI correctly identified all investigated samples; the enzyme SspI identified all samples except one Cx. torrentium. We hope the method and the findings presented here will help to shed light on the true distribution and relative proportions of the two species in Europe.

  • 15. Hua, Peng
    et al.
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Burseraceae2008In: Flora of China vol. 11, St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press , 2008, p. 106-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jaenson, Thomas G.T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Eisen, L.
    Comstedt, P.
    Mejlon, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Lindgren, E.
    Bergström, S.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Risk indicators for the tick Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Sweden2009In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden.  It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analyzed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by a mean duration of 150 days with snow cover and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the center of the distribution south Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs from 13 localities in different parts of Sweden were examined for presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and found to be infected with B. afzelii and B. garinii. Tick sampling localities were characterized on the basis of density of Borrelia-infected I. ricinus nymphs, presence of specific mammals, dominant vegetation and climate. Densities of I. ricinus nymphs and Borrelia-infected nymphs were significantly correlated, and nymphal density can thus serve as a general indicator of risk for exposure to Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes. Analysis of data from this and other studies suggest that high densities of Borrelia-infected nymphs typically occur in coastal, broad-leaf vegetation and in mixed deciduous/spruce vegetation in southern Sweden. Ixodes ricinus populations consistently infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. can occur in biotopes with (i) shrews, rodents, hares and birds, (ii) shrews, rodents, hares, deer and birds, (iii) and on islands where the varying hare (Lepus timidus) is the only mammalian tick host.

  • 17.
    Jondelius, Ulf
    et al.
    Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Wallberg, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Hooge, Matthew
    School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA.
    Raikova, Olga
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Tyler, Seth
    School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA.
    How the Worm Lost its Pharynx: Phylogeny, Classification and Bayesian assessment of Character Evolution in AcoelaManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18. Kononenko, Artem V.
    et al.
    Mitkevich, Vladimir A.
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Tenson, Tanel
    Dubovaya, Vera I.
    Frolova, Ludmila Yu
    Makarov, Alexander A.
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    GTP-dependent structural rearrangement of the eRF1:eRF3 complex and eRF3 sequence motifs essential for PABP binding2010In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translation termination in eukaryotes is governed by the concerted action of eRF1 and eRF3 factors. eRF1 recognizes the stop codon in the A site of the ribosome and promotes nascent peptide chain release, and the GTPase eRF3 facilitates this peptide release via its interaction with eRF1. In addition to its role in termination, eRF3 is involved in normal and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay through its association with cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) via PAM2-1 and PAM2-2 motifs in the N-terminal domain of eRF3. We have studied complex formation between full-length eRF3 and its ligands (GDP, GTP, eRF1 and PABP) using isothermal titration calorimetry, demonstrating formation of the eRF1:eRF3:PABP:GTP complex. Analysis of the temperature dependence of eRF3 interactions with G nucleotides reveals major structural rearrangements accompanying formation of the eRF1:eRF3:GTP complex. This is in contrast to eRF1:eRF3:GDP complex formation, where no such rearrangements were detected. Thus, our results agree with the established active role of GTP in promoting translation termination. Through point mutagenesis of PAM2-1 and PAM2-2 motifs in eRF3, we demonstrate that PAM2-2, but not PAM2-1 is indispensible for eRF3:PABP complex formation.

  • 19.
    Kruys, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Wedin, Mats
    Phylogenetic relationships and an assessment of traditionally used taxonomic characters in the Sporormiaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota), utilising multi-gene phylogenies2009In: Systematics and Biodiversity, ISSN 1477-2000, E-ISSN 1478-0933, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 465-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family Sporormiaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) occur worldwide and a majority of the species are coprophilous. The taxonomy and classification of the family are based on a small number of morphological and ecological characters. Several taxa are easily confused by their shared morphological features, and the relationships between genera are poorly known and in need of critical study. The aims of this study were to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within the Sporormiaceae, test the current generic classification, and study the utility of traditional characters for the taxonomy in the group. To resolve these questions, we analysed combined data sets of ITS-nLSU rDNA, mtSSU rDNA and beta-tubulin sequences with parsimony and Bayesian methods. The results showed that many characters, which previously have been used in the taxonomy and classification of the Sporormiaceae, such as the substrate choice, presence or absence of an ostiole, and presence or absence of germ slits, were all homoplastic and not useful for circumscribing monophyletic groups. A number of characters may be useful for circumscribing smaller clades if used in combination with other features, such as the shape of the ascus with the shape of the ascospores. Our phylogenetic analyses show that Preussia and Sporormiella are non-monophyletic, and a constrained analysis forcing these genera into monophyly resulted in significantly worse trees. Spororminula is nested in Preussia s. lat., and Eremodothis and Pycnidiophora are nested within Westerdykella. Finally, we suggest a new generic classification for the family Sporormiaceae, including Sporormia, Preussia (including Sporomiella and Spororminula) and Westerdykella (including Eremodothis and Pycnidiophora). We also propose 14 new combinations: Preussia alloiomera (S.I. Ahmed & Cain) Kruys, Preussia antarctica (Speg.) Kruys, Preussia bipartis (Cain) Kruys, Preussia borealis (I.Egeland) Kruys, Preussia dubia (S.I. Ahmed & Cain) Kruys, Preussia lignicola (W. Phillips & Plowr.) Kruys, Preussia longisporopsis (S.I. Ahmed & Cain) Kruys, Preussia minipascua (S.I. Ahmed & Cain) Kruys, Preussia octomera (Auersw.) Kruys, Preussia splendens (Cain) Kruys, Preussia tenerifae (Arx & Aa) Kruys, Preussia tetramera (S.I. Ahmed & Cain) Kruys, Westerdykella angulata (A.C. Das) Kruys and Westerdykella aurantiaca (J.N. Rai & J.P. Tewari) Kruys.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Karolina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Willems, Wim
    Report on freshwater Catenulida (Platyhelminthes) from Sweden with the description of four new species2010In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, no 2396, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution is one of the very first reports on Swedish species of freshwater Catenulida, a group of free-living, small flatworms. A total of 13 species were collected from 33 localities all over the country. Four species, all belonging to the taxon Stenostomum, are new to science. S. gotlandense n. sp., found on Gotland, has small ciliated pits located more posteriorly than other species of Stenostomum, large anterior brain lobes and a large mouth opening with peculiar wrinkles of the proximal rim of the pharynx. S. handoelense n. sp., from Jämtland, has long ciliated pits and a mobile prostomium with a lined appearance due to "metamerical" anterior brain lobes. S. heebuktense n. sp., from Bohuslän, has small ciliated pits and an extremely large and muscular pharynx which, in living animals, is bluish. S. steveoi n. sp., found in the provinces Bohuslän and Småland, has small ciliated pits and a large rectangular mouth opening. The remaining 9 species are illustrated and commented upon where necessary. For the sake of completeness three undescribed species are mentioned. Some general remarks on identification of catenulid species are given.

  • 21. Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos
    et al.
    Wikström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Kjer, M
    Weiblen, D
    Rasplus, Yves
    Machado, A
    Cook, James M.
    Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps2009In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 715-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for over 60 million years. But when and where did pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) originate? Some studies suggest that agaonids arose in the Late Cretaceous and the current distribution of fig-wasp faunas can be explained by the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass. However, recent molecular-dating studies suggest divergence time estimates that are inconsistent with the Gondwanan vicariance hypothesis and imply that long distance oceanic dispersal could have been an important process for explaining the current distribution of both figs and fig wasps. Here, we use a combination of phylogenetic and biogeographical data to infer the age, the major period of diversification, and the geographic origin of pollinating fig wasps. Age estimates ranged widely depending on the molecular-dating method used and even when using the same method but with slightly different constraints, making it difficult to assess with certainty a Gondwanan origin of agaonids. The reconstruction of ancestral areas suggests that the most recent common ancestor of all extant fig-pollinating wasps was most likely Asian, although a southern Gondwana origin cannot be rejected. Our analysis also suggests that dispersal has played a more important role in the development of the fig-wasp biota than previously assumed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Manning, John
    et al.
    Forest, F.
    Vinnersten, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    The genus Colchicum L. redefined to include Androcymbium Willd. based on molecular evidence2007In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 872-882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent molecular analysis of the Colchicaceae has revealed that the genus Androcymbium is paraphyletic in relation to Colchicum and that the genus Merendera is polyphyletic. The implications of these results on the monophyly of the genera in this alliance are discussed. Two independent lineages within the paraphyletic Androcymbium are characterised by enlarged and brightly or contrastingly coloured bracts, which conceal the flowers. The tepals in these species are always cucullate. In the remaining lineages the flowers are more prominent and the tepals are mostly flat. No morphological characters can be identified that serve to diagnose the lineages in Androcymbium that are retrieved by the molecular analysis, and the only practical option is to include all species of Androcymbium within an expanded circumscription of Colchicum. The genus Colchicum in this expanded sense is defined by its short-stemmed or acaulescent habit, androecial nectaries, and 2-4-porate pollen. The necessary synonomy and new combinations are made.

  • 23.
    Oh, Il-Chan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Comparative Seed Morphology and Phylogenetics: Case Studies in Basal Angiosperms (ANITA) and Asterids (Lysimachia, Ericales)2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first half of the thesis deals with the seed morphology of members of the ANITA grade at the base of the angiosperm phylogeny (Amborella, Nymphaeales, Illiciales, Trimeniaceae, and Austrobaileyaceae), especially Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae. Seed characters support a major division between the New World and Old World species of Illicium. Fossil seeds previously assigned to Illiciaceae were re-evaluated. In Schisandraceae, seed and leaf epidermal characters were added to a previously published morphological data matrix. Phylogenetic analysis using the extended data matrix shows that Kadsura and Schisandra appear to be supported as monophyletic sister taxa by a number of synapomorphies in reproductive and vegetative characters. Fossil seeds from the Eocene of North America show some similarities to the modern Schisandra glabra from North America, whereas fossils from Europe are more similar to modern Asian species.

    In the second half of the thesis, seed morphology of Lysimachia and closely related taxa (Anagallis, Ardisiandra, Asterolinon, Glaux, Pelletiera, Trientalis) was investigated. The phylogenetic relationships among the endemic Hawaiian species of Lysimachia was also studied, using nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and chloroplast DNA (rpl16, rpl20-rps12, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-G) sequence data. The seeds in Lysimachia and related taxa vary in, e.g., shape, seed coat structure and surface patterns. Seed surface patterns are mostly congruent with molecular phylogenetic relationships. A reticulate surface pattern is diagnostic for, e.g., the subgenus Palladia and the Hawaiian endemic subgenus Lysimachiopsis. Mapping seed characters onto a recent molecular-based phylogenetic tree, reveals that they provide potentially synapomorphic character states for various subclades of Lysimachia. The phylogenetic analysis based on the combined data set using nuclear ribosomal DNA and chloroplast DNA data provides new insights into the relationships within the Hawaiian subgenus Lysimachiopsis. Here our results indicate that earlier taxonomic treatments of the group need to be partially revised.

    List of papers
    1. Evolution of Illicium (Illiciaceae): Mapping morphological characters on the molecular tree
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of Illicium (Illiciaceae): Mapping morphological characters on the molecular tree
    2003 (English)In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 240, p. 175-209Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wien: Springer-Verlag, 2003
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-47912 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-13
    2. Phylogeny of Schisandraceae based on morphological data: evidence from modern plants and the fossil record
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogeny of Schisandraceae based on morphological data: evidence from modern plants and the fossil record
    2005 (English)In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 256, p. 113-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-77376 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-03-14 Created: 2006-03-14 Last updated: 2011-01-11
    3. Comparative seed morphology and character evolution in the genus Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae) and related taxa
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative seed morphology and character evolution in the genus Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae) and related taxa
    2008 (English)In: Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 271, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:su:diva-16123 (URN)000254777200004 ()
    Available from: 2008-12-15 Created: 2008-12-15 Last updated: 2011-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Phylogenetic relationships among endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae): insights from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic relationships among endemic Hawaiian Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae): insights from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Pacific Science, ISSN 0030-8870, E-ISSN 1534-6188, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 237-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The 16 endemic Hawaiian species of Lysimachia form a monophyletic group referred to as subgenus Lysimachiopsis (Marr and Bohm 1997). The group has radiated into various habitats and most species are endemic to a single island. Previous taxonomic treatments have revealed problems, particularly within the L. hillebrandii/L. remyi complex. We conducted phylogenetic analyses including 12 species of the subgenus Lysimachiopsis using nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and chloroplast DNA (rpl16, rpl20-rps12, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-G) sequences in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. A combined analysis using all sequence data supports three major clades and provides new insights into the evolutionary history of the group, especially within the problematic L. hillebrandii/L. remyi complex. The resulting molecular phylogeny provides support for the following clades: (1) L. hillebrandii and L. waianaeensis, (2) L. remyi ssp. remyi, L. maxima, and L. remyi ssp. subherbacea, (3) L. remyi ssp. caliginis and L. remyi ssp. kipahuluensis, and (4) L. glutinosa, L. scopulensis, and L. kalalauensis. The phylogenetic pattern is largely congruent with the biogeographical distribution of the species in the Hawaiian Islands. Our results also indicate that earlier taxonomic treatments of the group need to be partially revised in order to reflect phylogenetic relationships.

    Keywords
    cpDNA; nrDNA; Hawaii; Lysimachia; molecular phylogeny; Myrsinaceae; taxonomy
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100371 (URN)10.2984/67.2.7 (DOI)000329330000007 ()
    Available from: 2009-03-31 Created: 2009-03-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 24. Orlova, Tatiana Yu.
    et al.
    Stonik, Inna V.
    Aizdaicher, Nina A.
    Bates, Stephen S.
    Leger, Claude
    Fehling, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Toxicity, morphology and distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. multistriata and P. multiseries (Bacillariophyta) from the northwestern Sea of Japan2008In: Botanica Marina, ISSN 0006-8055, E-ISSN 1437-4323, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxicity, morphology and distribution patterns of three bloom-forming species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia (potential producers of the neurotoxin domoic acid and causative organisms of amnesic shellfish poisoning) from Peter the Great Bay in the northwestern Sea of Japan are presented. Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. multistriata and P. multiseries bloomed in Peter the Great Bay in the fall, with abundances exceeding 10(6) cells l(-1). This is the first report of toxicity in P. multiseries from Russian waters. Domoic acid was found in stationary-phase (days 20-35) cultures of P. multiseries isolated from Peter the Great Bay at concentrations varying between 180 and 5390 ng ml(-1) or 2 to 21 pg cell(-1), which is in the range reported for other isolates of P. multiseries. The Russian isolate had an increasing ability to produce domoic acid over time in culture rather than the usual trend of decreasing toxicity. No domoic acid was detected (< ;2 ng ml(-1)) in cultures of P. calliantha and P. multistriata from the same locality. The Russian isolate of P. multiseries produced gametes when mated with the Canadian strains of the opposite mating type, but they never developed into zygotes, auxospores or large initial cells. This suggests that there might be "cryptic'' species within P. multiseries. However, a comparison of molecular and morphometric data between the Russian and Canadian strains showed that they indeed belong to the same species.

  • 25.
    Rautenberg, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Phylogenetic Relationships of Silene sect. Melandrium and Allied Taxa (Caryophyllaceae), as Deduced from Multiple Gene Trees2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on phylogenetic relationships among some of the major lineages in Silene subgenus Behenantha (Caryophyllaceae) using DNA sequences from multiple, potentially unlinked gene regions from a large taxonomic and geographic sample. Both traditional phylogenetic analyses and a strategy to infer species trees and gene trees in a joint approach are used. A new strategy to optimize species classifications, based on the likelihoods of the observed gene trees, is presented.

    Silene latifolia, S. dioica and the other dioecious species previously classified in section Elisanthe are not closely related to the type of the section (S. noctiflora). The correct name for the group of dioecious species is section Melandrium. The chloroplast DNA data presented indicate a geographic, rather than a taxonomic, structure in section Melandrium. The nuclear genes investigated correlate more to the current taxonomy, although hybridization has likely been influencing the relationships within section Melandrium.

    Incongruence between different parts of the gene SlXY1 in two Silene lineages is investigated, using phylogenetic methods and a novel probabilistic, multiple primer-pair PCR approach. The incongruence is best explained by ancient hybridization and recombination events.

    A survey of mitochondrial substitution rate variation in Sileneae is presented. Silene section Conoimorpha, S. noctiflora and the closely related S. turkestanica have elevated synonymous substitution rates in the mitochondrial genes investigated.

    Morphological and phylogenetic data reject that the Californian S. multinervia should be treated as a synonym to the Asian S. coniflora, as has previously been suggested. Furthermore, none of the genes investigated, or a chromosome count, support the inclusion of S. multinervia in section Conoimorpha. Data from multiple genes suggest that S. noctiflora and S. turkestanica form a sister group to section Conoimorpha. The calyx nervature, which is a potential synapomorphy for S. multinervia and section Conoimorpha, may be explained either by parallelism or by sorting effects.

    List of papers
    1. Conflicting phylogenetic signals in the SlX1/Y1 gene in Silene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conflicting phylogenetic signals in the SlX1/Y1 gene in Silene
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 299-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing evidence from DNA sequence data has revealed that phylogenies based on different genes may drastically differ from each other. This may be due to either inter- or intralineage processes, or to methodological or stochastic errors. Here we investigate a spectacular case where two parts of the same gene (SlX1/Y1) show conflicting phylogenies within Silene (Caryophyllaceae). SlX1 and SlY1 are sex-linked genes on the sex chromosomes of dioecious members of Silene sect. Elisanthe.

    Results: We sequenced the homologues of the SlX1/Y1 genes in several Sileneae species. We demonstrate that different parts of the SlX1/Y1 region give different phylogenetic signals. The major discrepancy is that Silene vulgaris and S. sect. Conoimorpha (S. conica and relatives) exchange positions. To determine whether gene duplication followed by recombination (an intralineage process) may explain the phylogenetic conflict in the Silene SlX1/Y1 gene, we use a novel probabilistic, multiple primer-pair PCR approach. We did not find any evidence supporting gene duplication/loss as explanation to the phylogenetic conflict.

    Conclusion: The phylogenetic conflict in the Silene SlX1/Y1 gene cannot be explained by paralogy or artefacts, such as in vitro recombination during PCR. The support for the conflict is strong enough to exclude methodological or stochastic errors as likely sources. Instead, the phylogenetic incongruence may have been caused by recombination of two divergent alleles following ancient interspecific hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting. These events probably took place several million years ago. This example clearly demonstrates that different parts of the genome may have different evolutionary histories and stresses the importance of using multiple genes in reconstruction of taxonomic relationships.

    National Category
    Biological Systematics
    Research subject
    Systematic Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100783 (URN)10.1186/1471-2148-8-299 (DOI)000264070900001 ()
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Phylogenetic relationships of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae) as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic relationships of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae) as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100788 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2010-01-14
    3. Phylogenetic relationships and optimal genealogical species delimitations of Silene section Melandrium (Caryophyllaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic relationships and optimal genealogical species delimitations of Silene section Melandrium (Caryophyllaceae)
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100790 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2010-01-14
    4. Phylogenetic relationships of Silene multinervia and Silene section Conoimorpha (Caryophyllaceae)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic relationships of Silene multinervia and Silene section Conoimorpha (Caryophyllaceae)
    2012 (English)In: Systematic Botany, ISSN 0363-6445, E-ISSN 1548-2324, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 226-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Californian Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae) and Eurasian members of section Conoimorpha in subgenus Behenantha are the only Silene species that have calyces with 15 or more prominent parallel, unbranched veins. We show that S. multinervia, which has been considered a recent introduction of the Asian S. coniflora (section Conoimorpha) to North America, is clearly not synonymous with the latter species based on morphological or molecular data. We present a chromosome count of S. multinervia (2n = 24), which is different from the base number x = 10, a putative synapomorphy for section Conoimorpha. Gene trees based on sequences from three different genomes fail to group S. multinervia with the European section Conoimorpha species. The S. multinervia sequences form a monophyletic group placed in an unresolved position within subgenus Behenantha.

    Keywords
    BEAST, cpDNA, chromosome count, coalescent, mitochondrial DNA, RNA polymerase genes
    National Category
    Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100794 (URN)10.1600/036364412X616792 (DOI)000299799300025 ()
    Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial mutation rate variation in the angiosperm tribe Sileneae
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial mutation rate variation in the angiosperm tribe Sileneae
    2009 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 9, p. 260-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that the   mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora   (Caryophyllaceae) has experienced a massive mutation-driven   acceleration in substitution rate, placing it among the fastest   evolving eukaryotic genomes ever identified. To date, it appears that   other species within Silene have maintained more typical substitution   rates, suggesting that the acceleration in S. noctiflora is a recent   and isolated evolutionary event. This assessment, however, is based on   a very limited sampling of taxa within this diverse genus.   Results: We analyzed the substitution rates in 4 mitochondrial genes   (atp1, atp9, cox3 and nad9) across a broad sample of 74 species within   Silene and related genera in the tribe Sileneae. We found that S.   noctiflora shares its history of elevated mitochondrial substitution   rate with the closely related species S. turkestanica. Another section   of the genus (Conoimorpha) has experienced an acceleration of   comparable magnitude. The phylogenetic data remain ambiguous as to   whether the accelerations in these two clades represent independent   evolutionary events or a single ancestral change. Rate variation among   genes was equally dramatic. Most of the genus exhibited elevated rates   for atp9 such that the average tree-wide substitution rate for this   gene approached the values for the fastest evolving branches in the   other three genes. In addition, some species exhibited major   accelerations in atp1 and/or cox3 with no correlated change in other   genes. Rates of nonsynonymous substitution did not increase   proportionally with synonymous rates but instead remained low and   relatively invariant.   Conclusion: The patterns of phylogenetic divergence within Sileneae   suggest enormous variability in plant mitochondrial mutation rates and   reveal a complex interaction of gene and species effects. The variation   in rates across genomic and phylogenetic scales raises questions about   the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of mutation rates in plant   mitochondrial genomes.

    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-100792 (URN)10.1186/1471-2148-9-260 (DOI)000271889800001 ()
    Note
    Correction in: BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 10, article nr. 12, doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-12Available from: 2009-04-07 Created: 2009-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 26. Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G.
    et al.
    Lantz, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Mouly, Arnaud
    Bremer, Birgitta
    Evolutionary trends, major lineages, and new generic limits in the dioecious group of the tribe vanguerieae (rubiaceae): Insights into the evolution of functional dioecy2009In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, ISSN 0026-6493, E-ISSN 2162-4372, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New generic circumscriptions of the Paleotropical tribe Vanguerieae in the subfamily Ixoroideae s.l. (Rubiaceae) have recently been established its a result of it series of phylogenetic studies conducted by Lantz and Bremer. The genus Canthium Lam. was shown in their study to be highly polyphyletic, and a largely dioecious group was for the first little identified within Vanguerieae. dioecious group sensu Lantz and Bremer comprises about 140 species classified in eight genera: Canthium (Canthium subg. Bullockia Bridson), Dinocanthium Bremek., Leroya Cavaco, Neoleroya Cavaco, Peponidium (Baill.) Arenes, Pseudopeponidium Homolles ex Arenes, Pyrostria Comm. ex Juss., and Scyphochlamys Balf. f. We sequenced 79 Vanguerieae taxa and performed phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from two nuclear (EN and ITS) markers to: (1) pinpoint the phylogenetic positions of the Comorean and Indian Ocean Canthium and the Southeast Asian Canthium confertum Korth. group in Vanguerieae; (2) evaluate the phylogenetic utility of three taxonomic characters (bract type, locule number, and fruit shape) previously and currently used for delimiting genera in the dioecious group; and (3) assess the evolution of functional dioecy in Vanguerieae. The results support it further disintegration of Canthium s.l., as the Comorean and Malagasy Canthium species are shown for the first time to be closely related to Peponidium. Similarly, C. confertum appears to have a close affinity with Cyclophyllum Hook. f. The combined analyses show that [lie dioecious group call he subdivide(] into four morphologically distinct clades formally recognized as genera: Bullockia (Bridson) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, here elevated from Canthium subgen. Bullockia Bridson, Lis well its Cyclophyllum, Peponidium (including all Comorean, Malagasy, and Seychellean Canthium species), and Pyrostria (including Dinocanthium, Leroya, Neoleroya., Pseudopeponidium, and Scyphochlamys). All described species of Canthium subgen. Bullockia are transferred to Bullockia: B. dryscriton (Bullock) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, B.fadenii (Bridson) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, B. impressinervia (Bridson) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, B. mombazensis (Baill.) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, B. pseudosetiflora (Bridson) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer, and B. setiflora (Hiern) Razafim., Lantz & B. Bremer. Furthermore, the results seem to point to a single origin of functional dioecy followed by subsequent reversals [lack to tire hermaphroditic conditions at least within the Cyclophyllum-Canthium confertum clade and Pyrostria s.l. The Malagasy Bullockia species seem to have an African ancestor, whereas the Comorean Peponidium and the African Pyrostria appear to have originated from Malagasy progenitors.

  • 27.
    Romeralo, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Cavender, James C.
    A new species of cellular slime mold from southern Portugal based on morphology, ITS and SSU sequences2009In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 269-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sampling soils to look for dictyostelids in southern Portugal we found an isolate that has a morphology that. differed from any previously described species of the group. We sequenced the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and small subunit (SSU) genes of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and found that both sequences are distinct front all previously described sequences. Phylogenetic analyses place the new species in dictyostelid Group 3 (Rhizostelids) together with D. potamoides, with which it shares 65.8% identity for ITS and 96.6% for SSU. In this paper we describe a new species of cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium, ibericum, based on morphological and molecular characters. It is it small species with polar granules in its spores.

  • 28.
    Romeralo, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Landolt, John C.
    Cavender, James C.
    Laursen, Gary A.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Two new species of dictyostelid cellular slime molds from Alaska2010In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 588-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sampling soils to survey dictyostelid cellular slime molds in Alaska we encountered two groups of isolates that have morphologies that differ from any previously described species within their group. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of selected isolates from the two groups and found sequences from both groups to be distinct from all previously described dictyostelid sequences. Phylogenetic analyses place one novel species in dictyostelid Group 2 and the other in Group 4 (Schaap et al. 2006). In this paper we formally describe as new these two species of cellular slime molds, Dictyostelium ammophilum sp. nov. and Dictyostelium borealesp. nov., based on the combination of morphological and molecular characters.

  • 29.
    Romeralo, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Spiegel, Fred W.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    A Fully Resolved Phylogeny of the Social Amoebas (Dictyostelia) Based on Combined SSU and ITS rDNA Sequences2010In: Protist, ISSN 1434-4610, E-ISSN 1618-0941, Vol. 161, no 4, p. 539-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dictyostelids possess a complex life cycle including aggregative and multicellular stages. They also include one of the most widely studied protistan model organisms, Dictyostelium discoideum. The current molecular phylogeny of dictyostelids is based largely on SSU (18S) rDNA sequences and shows a deep taxon consisting of four major groups, none of which correspond to the three traditional morphologically-defined genera. However, due to the generally slowly evolving nature of SSU rDNA, these data fail to resolve the majority of branches within the four groups. Given the highly morphologically mixed nature of the dictyostelid groups, it is important to resolve relationships within them. We have determined sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA for nearly all species in the original dictyostelid global phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses of these data, in combination with the previously determined SSUr DNA sequences, confidently resolve nearly all branches in the tree. This now fully resolved phylogeny confirms the utility of ITS for dictyostelid systematics and lays the ground work for further evolutionary study of the group. (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Rydin, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Zürich, Institute of Systematic Botany.
    Korall, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny2009In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 170, no 8, p. 1031-1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra are difficult to resolve, mainly  because there are few informative characters in investigated loci and   long distances to outgroups. We address these problems by using a large   data set that includes information from seven plastid and nuclear loci   and 204 vascular plants. The deepest divergences in Ephedra are weakly   supported and differ by analytical method, but they indicate a basal   grade of species distributed in the Mediterranean area. New World   species are monophyletic, with a South American clade possibly nested   within a North American clade. A mainly Asian clade comprises several   well-supported subgroups, of which some are endemic to restricted   geographic regions in East or Central Asia; others have a broad   distribution that may extend into Europe (E. distachya, E. major)   and/or Africa (E. pachyclada-E. somalensis). Ephedra laristanica and E.   somalensis are nested within other species, whereas the recognition of   E. milleri as a separate species is supported. Our results provide   another example of how exceptionally difficult it is to disentangle the   early divergences of seed plants. Bayesian analysis strongly supports   the "gnetifer'' hypothesis, a result rarely found in the literature,   but it conflicts with our results from only chloroplast data   ("gne-cup'') and with results of most maximum parsimony analyses   ("Gnetales sister'').

  • 31. Sauquet, Herve
    et al.
    Weston, H
    Anderson, Cajsa Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Barker, P
    Cantrill, J
    Mast, R
    Savolainen, Vincent
    Contrasted patterns of hyperdiversification in Mediterranean hotspots2009In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 221-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dating the Tree of Life has now become central to relating patterns of biodiversity to key processes in Earth history such as plate tectonics and climate change. Regions with a Mediterranean climate have long been noted for their exceptional species richness and high endemism. How and when these biota assembled can only be answered with a good understanding of the sequence of divergence times for each of their components. A critical aspect of dating by using molecular sequence divergence is the incorporation of multiple suitable age constraints. Here, we show that only rigorous phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa can lead to solid calibration and, in turn, stable age estimates, regardless of which of 3 relaxed clock-dating methods is used. We find that Proteaceae, a model plant group for the Mediterranean hotspots of the Southern Hemisphere with a very rich pollen fossil record, diversified under higher rates in the Cape Floristic Region and Southwest Australia than in any other area of their total distribution. Our results highlight key differences between Mediterranean hotspots and indicate that Southwest Australian biota are the most phylogenetically diver